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Cholm was first mentioned in a Novgorod Chronicle in 1144 as Cholmski pogost ( Cholmer Kirchhof ). Cholm means hill in Russian , sa city coat of arms.
In the 13th to 15th centuries, the place was repeatedly attacked by troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , in the 16th and 17th centuries by those of Poland and Sweden . In the 16th century, Cholm was first mentioned as a place name, later also Cholmski Posad . On August 3, 1777 the town charter was awarded as the administrative center of a district (Ujesds) of the Pskov governorate .
In the 19th century the city was known for building river barges.
During the Second World War , Cholm was captured by the German Wehrmacht on August 3, 1941 . The city became of military-historical importance because the Red Army , which had been advancing westward since December 1941 , was able to encircle large German troops there for the first time from January to May 1942. The long battle for Cholm , which was costly for both sides, ended after more than three months with the liberation of those trapped. It was not until February 21, 1944 that troops from the 2nd Baltic Front were able to recapture the city, which had been largely destroyed by the fighting, as part of the Staraya-Russa-Novorschewer operation .
Fallen Red Army soldiers , January 1942
Note: census data
Culture and sights
In the midst of dense forests and impenetrable swamps, about 20 kilometers (as the crow flies) northwest of the city on a peninsula in Rdeiskoje Lake, the remains of the Rdeiski Monastery ( Рдейский монастырь ), founded in the second half of the 17th century, are located . His Assumption Cathedral ( Успенский собор / Uspenski sobor), which was completed in 1902 and closed in 1932, has been preserved as a ruin overgrown by vegetation.
The west of it located Rdeiski swamps are since 1994 part of the 36,922-hectare nature reserve Rdeiski- Sapowednik , that is directly west on the territory of Pskov Oblast of the 37,983 hectare Polistowski-Sapowednik followed. The raised bog system between the Polist and Lowat rivers is one of the largest in Europe. The management of the nature reserve is located in Cholm.
In the vicinity are the former country estates of Princes Schachowskoi from the 18th century and Bobrov from the 19th century.
Cholm itself has a city history museum.
In Cholm there are some wood and food industries.
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)