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coat of arms
coat of arms
Federal district Northwest Russia
Oblast Novgorod
Rajon Cholm
mayor Albert Ratnikow
First mention 1144
City since 1777
surface km²
population 3830 inhabitants
(as of Oct. 14, 2010)
Population density 426 inhabitants / km²
Height of the center 65  m
Time zone UTC + 3
Telephone code (+7) 81654
Post Code 175270, 175271
License Plate 53
OKATO 49 247 501
Geographical location
Coordinates 57 ° 9 '  N , 31 ° 11'  E Coordinates: 57 ° 9 '0 "  N , 31 ° 11' 0"  E
Cholm (European Russia)
Red pog.svg
Location in the western part of Russia
Cholm (Novgorod Oblast)
Red pog.svg
Location in Novgorod Oblast
List of cities in Russia

Cholm ( Russian Холм ) is a small town in Novgorod Oblast ( Russia ) with 3830 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010).


The city is located about 200 km south of the oblast capital Veliky Novgorod at the confluence of the Kunja in the Lowat , a tributary of the Ilmen lake .

Cholm is the administrative center of the Rajons of the same name .


Cholm was first mentioned in a Novgorod Chronicle in 1144 as Cholmski pogost ( Cholmer Kirchhof ). Cholm means hill in Russian , sa city coat of arms.

In the 13th to 15th centuries, the place was repeatedly attacked by troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , in the 16th and 17th centuries by those of Poland and Sweden . In the 16th century, Cholm was first mentioned as a place name, later also Cholmski Posad . On August 3, 1777 the town charter was awarded as the administrative center of a district (Ujesds) of the Pskov governorate .

In the 19th century the city was known for building river barges.

During the Second World War , Cholm was captured by the German Wehrmacht on August 3, 1941 . The city became of military-historical importance because the Red Army , which had been advancing westward since December 1941 , was able to encircle large German troops there for the first time from January to May 1942. The long battle for Cholm , which was costly for both sides, ended after more than three months with the liberation of those trapped. It was not until February 21, 1944 that troops from the 2nd Baltic Front were able to recapture the city, which had been largely destroyed by the fighting, as part of the Staraya-Russa-Novorschewer operation .

Population development

year Residents
1897 5,894
1926 5,533
1939 6,071
1959 2,977
1970 3,827
1979 4,435
1989 4,849
2002 4,325
2010 3,830

Note: census data

Culture and sights

The Lovat in Cholm

In the midst of dense forests and impenetrable swamps, about 20 kilometers (as the crow flies) northwest of the city on a peninsula in Rdeiskoje Lake, the remains of the Rdeiski Monastery ( Рдейский монастырь ), founded in the second half of the 17th century, are located . His Assumption Cathedral ( Успенский собор / Uspenski sobor), which was completed in 1902 and closed in 1932, has been preserved as a ruin overgrown by vegetation.

The west of it located Rdeiski swamps are since 1994 part of the 36,922-hectare nature reserve Rdeiski- Sapowednik , that is directly west on the territory of Pskov Oblast of the 37,983 hectare Polistowski-Sapowednik followed. The raised bog system between the Polist and Lowat rivers is one of the largest in Europe. The management of the nature reserve is located in Cholm.

In the vicinity are the former country estates of Princes Schachowskoi from the 18th century and Bobrov from the 19th century.

Cholm itself has a city history museum.


In Cholm there are some wood and food industries.

Individual evidence

  1. a b Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)

Web links

Commons : Cholm  - collection of images, videos and audio files