François de Lorraine, duc de Guise

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François de Lorraine, portrait by François Clouet

François de Lorraine (born February 17, 1519 in Bar-le-Duc , † February 24, 1563 in Saint-Hilaire-Saint-Mesmin ) was a French general and statesman. He followed his father in 1550 as Duke of Guise . He was also Duke of Aumale and Prince of Joinville .


François was the son of Claude de Lorraines and his wife Antoinette de Bourbon . His sister Marie was the wife of Jacob V of Scotland and the mother of Mary Stuart .

In 1552 he successfully defended Metz against Emperor Charles V and defeated him in the battle of Renty in 1554 . In 1558 he conquered Calais from the English .

Together with his brother Charles , François was de facto so powerful under King Francis II that they were the actual rulers in France. In 1560 he founded the so-called triumvirate with Anne de Montmorency and Jacques d'Albon, seigneur de Saint-André .

François was one of the leaders of the Catholic faction in the First Huguenot War , which he provoked in 1562 with the bloodbath of Wassy . During the siege of Orléans on February 18, 1563 he was seriously wounded by a Huguenot and died a few days later.

He was the father of Louis , called Cardinal de Guise , Charles and Henri I , who became his eldest son.


François married Anna d'Este , daughter of Ercole II. D'Este , in 1548 . The marriage had seven children:

François de Lorraine duc de Guise armes.jpg

coat of arms

The main shield shows in field 1, seven times divided red and silver ( Hungary , old); in field 2, for a blue background, seeded with golden lilies, on top a red, three-lipped tournament collar ( Kingdom of Naples , Anjou-Sicily); in field 3, on a silver background, a gold Jerusalem cross ( Kingdom of Jerusalem ); in field 4, on a golden background, four red posts ( Aragon , new); A red, three-legged tournament collar over these four fields. In field 5, within a red border, a blue ground with golden lilies ( Anjou , younger line); in field 6, on a blue background a golden lion, armed in red and tongued ( Htum Geldern ) in field 7, on a gold background a black lion, armed in red and tongued ( Htum Jülich ); in field 8, on a blue background, with small crosses, two golden barbel facing away from each other ( Htum Bar ). The heart shield shows the family arms of the Dukes of Lorraine ; on a golden background a red diagonal right-hand bar, covered with three silver Alérions .

On the shield a crown and around the shield the collar of the Order of St. Michael set with pilgrim shells , on the medallion St. Michael .

Web links

Commons : François de Lorraine, duc de Guise  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Dr. Bernhard Peter - Heraldry
predecessor Office successor
Claude de Lorraine Duke of Guise
Henri I.
Claude de Lorraine Prince of Joinville
Henri I.
Claude de Lorraine Duke of Aumale
Claude de Lorraine