Knoppix 7.0.3 with LXDE
|License (s)||GPL ( Free Software )|
|First publ.||September 30, 2000|
|Current version||9.0 (March 5, 2020)|
GNU / Linux
↳ Debian GNU / Linux
|Architecture (s)||x86 , x86-64|
|Languages)||German , English|
Knoppix , its own spelling in capital letters KNOPPIX , is a free GNU / Linux distribution whose main area of application is live . It is developed by Klaus Knopper , from whose name the name is derived. Knoppix is based on the Debian distribution , the selection of software is made up of Debian's development cycles stable , testing and unstable .
Knoppix was the first live CD distribution to gain huge popularity.
Version 6.0 has been completely rewritten, it got a new boot system and is a lot more resource efficient. The software selection has also changed, so instead of KDE, LXDE is now used as the default desktop environment . In August 2011 Knoppix 6.7 was released, which is based on Debian 6.0.0 aka Squeeze and represents the largest update of the package inventory in two years.
The jump to version 7.x in 2012 is justified by Klaus Knopper u. a. with a complete conversion of the boot system and the conversion of the system from pure 8-bit ISO encoding to UTF-8. From version 7.01 onwards, the "zram RAM compression" was added.
Basic principle of Knoppix
The basic principle of a live system is first of all the complete renunciation of an installation; the required components of the system are instead loaded into the main memory. In addition to the usual usage, it can be tested in advance whether the existing hardware is compatible with the respective Linux kernel version . Other special areas of application are emergency and diagnostic work on the computer, for example in the event of a virus infection or a hardware defect. General security aspects can also play a role, since an operating system that is started from a non-writable medium can only be compromised for the duration of a session (i.e. it is reset to its original state the next time it is started).
Knoppix carries out a detailed hardware detection, which also includes Braille devices. Any operating system installed on the hard disk remains untouched by default, but Knoppix can also be installed conventionally. It is also possible to define a swap partition on a writable data carrier during live operation . If there is enough main memory, the system can also be stored temporarily in it, which enables particularly fast response times. Knoppix can also be completely copied onto a USB stick so that it can be used instead of the CD. The UnionFS overlay file system supported from version 3.8 onwards was replaced by the derivative “ auf ” (Another UnionFS) in version 5.1.0 due to problems . This means that the write-protected contents of the CD can be mixed with the running system and thus changed or supplemented. For example, additional software can be installed on the live system.
- Debian distribution
- Linux kernel (current, stable version at the time of publication)
- LXDE (desktop environment)
- Compiz (window manager)
- Mozilla Firefox
- Gnome MPlayer (audio player)
- GIMP (photo editor)
- LibreOffice (Office package) (since Knoppix 6.4)
- Gate (network)
Over 200 additional programs are also available in the installation package.
Thanks to its good hardware detection and the modular structure in newer versions, Knoppix is ideal for creating further derivatives and distributions. Knoppix derivatives are usually live CDs:
- Berry Linux - a Japanese distribution that combines Knoppix with Fedora
- Damn Small Linux - only 50 MB in size, bootable from CD, USB, HDD, ...; also available embedded
- Dreamlinux - combined skills of Knoppix, Morphix, Kanotix for LiveCD and multimedia production - meanwhile discontinued
- Grml - originally based on Knoppix; contains a selected collection of GNU / Linux software for system administrators and friends of the command line
- Kanotix - contains Knoppix technology, but was initially based purely on Debian Sid, since 2007 on Debian stable and thereby improves above all the hard disk installation and the automatic program update ("dist-upgrade"). In addition to the 32-bit variant, there is a 64-bit variant; so you can use more than 4 GB of memory
- Desinfec't (formerly Knoppicillin ) - is regularly found on the magazine CD or DVD of the c't , has been supplemented by virus scan functions and reduced to text mode. However, since the beginning of 2010 it is no longer based on Knoppix.
- LAMPPIX - to view web pages stored on the CD
- Morphix - first modular Knoppix-based distribution for creating live CDs
- Oralux - for the visually impaired
- TYPO3-Live - fully functional CMS TYPO3
- kademar - Live CD with KDE as a desktop environment with its own configuration tool called CADI
- LINBO - PXE bootloader for paedML Linux
Knoppix versions that appear annually at CeBIT or (after 2018) on the occasion of comparable events are usually only published on DVD and, unlike the other versions, are not available for download. They are then included as "exclusive editions" in the corresponding (DELUG) DVD edition of the Linux magazine and the DVD edition of the sister magazine LinuxUser .
Knoppix 7.2 was so far the last version that was available compressed to approx. 700 MB (CD size). The current 4.7 GB DVD versions also contain an approx. 15 MB boot-only ISO image for computers that can only start from CD. With version 9.0, Knoppix brings an integrated minimal CD version with it, which can be burned from Knoppix onto a blank CD or transferred bootable to a USB stick. This CD image only comes with a few tools for data recovery and a web browser.
* Not available for download ** also available as LPD edition
- Rainer Hattenhauer : The big book Knoppix. Data Becker , Cologne 2003. ISBN 3-8158-2519-9
- Christian Immler , Walter Immler: The Franzis Handbook Knoppix. Franzis , Poing 2005. ISBN 3-7723-6149-8
- Christian Immler, Walter Immler: Knoppix 4.0. Franzis, Poing 2005. ISBN 3-7723-7017-9 (with DVD)
- Christian Immler: Networks with Knoppix. Franzis, Poing 2004. ISBN 3-7723-6226-5
- Kyle Rankin: Knoppix Hacks. O'Reilly , Beijing 2005, 2008. ISBN 0-596-51493-X
- Christian Immler, Martin Öhler: Knoppix Reloaded. The official Knoppix book. Franzis, Poing 2007. ISBN 3-7723-7309-7
- Official website
- German Knoppix forum
- Link catalog on Knoppix at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Interview with Klaus Knopper at Berlinux 2005, Radio Orange 94.0
- knopper.net - March 2020
- polishlinux.org - Live CD (English)
- Heise.de Newsticker from March 13, 2007
- knopper.net - March 2008
- knopper.net - January 2009
- Knoppix 6.7: Chromium, LibreOffice and current kernel
- knopper.net - March 2012
- knopper.net - May 2012
- Linux-Magazin.de - News
- Linux-Magazin.de - 04/2016
- Linux-Magazin.de - magazine archive
- Linux-User.de - Issue archive
- knopper.net - August 2019
- Back to the roots: Exclusively on DVD: Knoppix 9.0 LinuxUser-Edition by Klaus Knopper in the trade magazine Linux User (www.linux-user.de), LinuxUser , 04.2020, p. 42 ff., Computec Media GmbH , Fürth