|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Královéhradecký kraj|
|District :||After that|
|Area :||92.28 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||127 (2001)|
|Postal code :||549 31|
Malá Čermná (1525–1674 also Malá Německá Čermná , also Malá Čermá ; German Klein Tscherma also Kleintschermna ; German Tscherma ) is a district of the municipality Hronov in Okres Náchod in the Hradec Králové region in the Czech Republic . It is located around 4.5 kilometers southeast of Hronov. Until 1674 it formed a unit with the since 1945 to Poland belonging Czermna ( Tscherbeney ).
Malá Čermná has been located on the border with Poland since 1945, which surrounds it in the north, east and south-west. Czech neighboring towns are Žďárky in the north-west, Malé Poříčí ( Klein Poritsch ) in the south-west and Velké Poříčí and Hronov in the north-west. Across the border are Pstrążna and Czermna in the northeast, Kudowa-Zdrój in the east, Zakrze in the southeast and Słone in the southwest .
Malá Čermná was originally the undivided southern part of the village Tscherbeey , with which it formed a unit until 1674 and therefore has a common history until then. Tscherbeey / Čermná was first mentioned in 1354 in the confirmation books of the Archdiocese of Prague and belonged to the Königgrätzer Kreis until 1477 . In 1477 it came to the rule of Hummel and together with this to the County of Glatz . In the area of the later Malá Čermná there was a fiefdom , which was a small knight's seat , which was called "Hartwig" ( Hartvík ) or "Černík" and from 1477 to 1674 also as "Malá Německá Čermná".
This fiefdom consisted of a fortress ( Tvrziště , also Tvrdiště ), which was owned by Ernst / Arnošt von Krawa in the second half of the 15th century. He was followed by Georg / Jiřík von Všestary , from whom it passed to his sons Rafuš and Alexius / Aleš. As can be seen from a document dated June 2, 1477, they sold the festivals to Duke Heinrich d. Ä. , who was a son of the Bohemian King George of Podebrady and owned, among other things, the Lords Náchod and Hummel as well as the County of Glatz. Instead of the fortress, he set up a free courtyard , which included fields, meadows, forests and ponds, as well as everything that was originally owned by the fortress. Subsequently, he gave the Freihof as an inheritance to his servant Simon Sudlitz von Žernov , who held the post of Náchod burgrave from 1474 to 1480 and of the castle captain in 1491/1500. His Tscherbeeyer fiefdom Černík or Hartwig is included in an entry in the country table from 1500. In 1513 Jan inherited it, a son of Simon Sudlitz, who gave his brother Jakob / Jakub a fortress with a farm and the desolate village of Passendorf , which had been connected to this fiefdom since 1494. On January 25, 1525 Jakob von Sudlitz sold this fiefdom and pass village to the owner of the Nachod estate, Johann Špetle von Pruditz ( Jan Špetle z Prudic a ze Žlebů ), who gave the acquired estate to his servant Tobias Slansky von Doubravice ( Tobiáš Slanský z Doubravic ) and at the same time implemented it emphatically . In the same year, the place name "Deutsch-Tscherbeey" ( Německá Čermná ) is documented, which means that the name "Malá Německá Čermná" arose for the Černík farm, although both districts were still a unit at that time. 1544 inherited the estate Bohuslav of Doubravice, a son of Tobias. In 1592 it was in the hands of Vladiken Wenzel / Václav Amcha from Borovnice on "Deutsch-Tscherbeey", who was a relative of Bohuslav from Doubravice. At the end of the 16th century it was owned by the Sendražský of Sendražice . In 1616 Katharina von Sendražice sold the property to Franz von Hobrik and Dibsdorf ( František z Hobriku a na Dibsdorfu ). From Hedwig von Hobrik ( Hedviká Hobriková, rozena z Opšacu ) Anna Maria von Sendražice bought their property, also a born von Opšac, who in turn sold it to Katharina von Sendražice in 1637. In 1640 Jan Siegmund von Sendražice owned Malá Čermná and six years later Anna Maria von Sendražice again. During the Thirty Years' War, an imperial army invaded Malá Čermná on May 21, 1646 . In 1650 Malá Čermná was owned by Adam of Sendražice and in 1653 by the knight Bohuslav Adam of Sendražice. He sold the property to Heinrich von Bubna in 1653 . For the year 1669 the knight Karl Christoph von Ullersdorf ( Karel Kryštof z Ullersdorfu ) is registered as the owner. He sold on November 27th. J. Malá Čermná with all accessories and all rights and obligations of Juliane Rosalie von Bubna ( Juliáná Rozálie z Bubna, rozená ze Šmídu ), the wife of the knight Albrecht von Bubna. For 3500 Rhenish guilders , ownership with all rights and obligations as well as the 27 associated residents changed to the city of Náchod in 1674 .
Only with this transition to the city of Náchod was the independent village of Kleintscherma or Malá Čermná, which no longer belonged to the County of Glatz , in the area of the previous Freihof or knight seat Černík / Hartwig ("svobodný dvůr nebo rytířské sidlo zvané Hartvik") .
Although the town of Nachod had paid the purchase price in full by 1678, the corresponding entry in the country table was not made until 1730 for unknown reasons. From 1763 Malá Čermná bordered on Prussia , to which the County of Glatz fell after the Peace of Hubertusburg . In 1780, the church borders were also adapted to the political ones. Since then Malá Čermná has belonged to the parish of Hronov. In 1836 Malá Čermná consisted of 197 inhabitants who lived in 34 houses. There was also a mill, a distillery and an inn. After the abolition of the patrimonial rule in 1848, the manorial rule was dissolved, whereby the subordination to the city of Náchod expired. In 1850 Malá Čermná became an independent municipality. Around 1890 it was given a school and in 1909/10 the Breslau company Schein & Co. searched for coal in Malá Čermná and discovered an alkaline and salty spring during the preparatory work, which is still not used today.
Besides agriculture, house weaving and later the textile factories in Velké and Malé Poříčí were of economic importance. Due to the close proximity to Bad Kudowa , the accommodation of spa guests and the gastronomy also played an economic role. In 1932 there were two general stores, a tobacco shop and an inn, as well as the well-known hotels "U dobré Nálady" and "Bohemia".
Since the establishment of Czechoslovakia in 1918 there was a customs office in Malá Čermná. After almost all of Silesia fell to Poland in 1945 as a result of the Second World War , it was discussed whether Malá Čermná, which now bordered directly on Poland on three sides, should also fall to Poland. Presumably because the residents spoke out against it, the boundaries remained unchanged. In 1948 the customs office was closed because the border between Czechoslovakia and Poland was hermetically sealed here. In 1960 Malá Čermná lost its independence and became part of the Hronov municipality. One year later the school in Malá Čermná was closed.
- The wayside shrine with the crucifixion group dates from 1887.
- The war memorial for the fallen of the First World War was erected in 1925.
- The small bell tower was built in 1934. Josef Dörfler, the owner of the Hotel Bohemia, donated the necessary land.
- Ladislav Hladký: Dějiny Malé Čermné - Obce na Česko-Kladských hranicích - do roku 1850 . Hronov 2010, ISBN 978-80-254-7552-2 .
- Lydia Baštecká, Ivana Ebelová: Náchod . Nachod 2004, ISBN 80-7106-674-5 , pp. 59, 63, 110, 124, 127, 129 and 159.
- Jan Karel Hraše: Dějiny Náchoda . Vol. I, Náchod 1895, pp. 657–658.
- Jan Karel Hraše: Dějiny Náchoda . Vol. II, Náchod 1994, ISBN 80-900041-8-0 , pp. 335–338.
- Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia presented statistically and topographically . Volume 4: Königgrätzer Kreis , p. 225 ( online ).
- History (czech)
- Historical and current recordings
- http://www.isu.cz/uir/scripts/KuDet.asp?kodku=64845 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- s. Hraše, Vol. II, p. 335.
- Johann Gottfried Sommer: The Kingdom of Bohemia. Calve, 1836, p. 225 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Antonin Profous : Místní jména v Čechách: Vznik jejich, Původ, význam a změny . Vol. I.-III., Česká akademie věd a umění, Praha