Use (building)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the case of a building , use is understood to mean the purpose that it serves through its use. The type of structural use and the construction of the building are subject to approval . A multifunctional building can be used for several different purposes. How a building is used can affect its profitability and return .

Classification of use

Buildings can be assigned to different usage categories. Overlapping uses are also possible.

A distinction is made between private and public use as well as the following groups of use (they cannot be clearly distinguished from one another):

  • Living
  • Commercial, commercial and office use
  • Service and administration
  • education and Science
  • Health, social and medical institutions
  • Culture
  • Sports
  • Rooms for storing and processing food
  • Storage and archiving
  • Supply and disposal
  • traffic
  • Special uses (e.g. federal and state)

Usage claim and usage conflict

A building - or city district - can be used by its users or the owner based on different interests. These can compete with each other; one use can hinder or exclude another simultaneous use. Some conflicts of use can be reduced or completely eliminated by changing the structure.

Usage phase

In the life cycle of a building , the construction process is followed by the usage phase . Often the total of the management costs in the usage phase exceeds the construction costs of the building. In many countries, heating costs are a key cost factor . This was forgotten in many countries in the 1950s and 1960s and only became aware again after the oil crises in 1972/73 and 1979/80.

The economic efficiency of a structural system to be built and its cost planning have been the subject of building management since then . A method for calculating them is included in the German Sustainable Building Certificate or in the Sustainable Building Assessment System for Federal Buildings (BNB) for different uses of buildings. In particular, cleaning and energy costs as well as costs for replacement (especially building technology) play an increasingly important role when a building is used.

The use phase ends after the useful life with a change of use or with the demolition of the building.

Mixed use

Mixed use is usually used to describe urban districts in which various uses have been established in several parts of the building on a shared property , for example residential use in the front building , commercial use in the courtyard buildings or the coach house . After the demixing of the car-friendly city in the 1960s, the mix of uses is assessed more positively again today because it can contribute to the revitalization of a city quarter and the distances between living and working are shorter (“ city ​​of short distances ”).

If a building has different uses, it is called mixed use . For example, many houses in the core areas of inner cities are residential and commercial buildings, with shops or restaurants mostly on the ground floor , offices and / or apartments above.

Even in the case of non-habitable structures (such as towers, chimneys and masts), mixed use is not uncommon in order to make better use of the expensive structure. So water towers are often used as a transmission tower and occasionally as an observation tower. Transmission towers and transmission masts are often designed so that they can be used by a large number of radio services. There are restrictions due to the statics of the structure, regulations and physical conditions (mixed use of transmitter masts isolated from earth is only possible with restrictions). Multiple use also occurs with bridges. Some bridges can be used by both road and rail traffic; Cables for electricity or data are routed along some bridges.

In connection with sports buildings such as football or ice hockey stadiums , swimming pools or tennis halls, in which shops, restaurants, cinemas and hotels are also integrated, one speaks of core use (part of the complex used for sports) and shell use (commercial). The commercial facilities are usually located in the same building as the sports facility, but they can also only be located on the same area, such as the Stockhorn Arena in Thun. The concept of shell usage is mainly established in Switzerland.

Change of use

Change of use is a term in building law . It is defined in the state building regulations of the federal states as a "change in the approved type of use". A change of use just like the construction of a building requires a building permit . A change of use is only permitted within the type of structural use permitted for this area. The competent approval authority can approve them upon request.

The current use of a building can be identical to its originally planned purpose and function or - due to changes in use in the meantime - be different.

The conversion of use is the process of carrying out the approved change in use of a building , building ensemble or even entire (urban) area or the result thereof. Sometimes there are obstacles in the way of a change of use (e.g. old buildings, ruins, contaminated sites in the ground) that have to be removed during or before (depending on the understanding of the term) a change of use. A part of this work is collectively referred to as “ land recycling ”; Spatial planning and organizational work “ urban development ”.

The conversion of a building is often associated with repair and conversion measures to adapt the use. Interventions in the building fabric ( conversions ) are the rule in order to adapt the building to the new use. Building owners who act economically try to realize the desired new use with as little effort as possible ( minimax principle ).

Sometimes there are barriers to use due to monument protection requirements. These can be lifted through administrative procedures. Some builders revoke building conditions that justify monument protection by making illegal changes to the building fabric; they create 'accomplished facts' (see also Metropol (Bonn) , St. Ursula (Kalscheuren) , Redoute (Bad Godesberg) , Großmarkthalle (Frankfurt) and others).

Jakobikirche (Mühlhausen) converted into the city library

Many churches find it difficult to close churches ( church closure = function of a church building by profanation , reallocation or demolition ).

Occasionally the opinion was expressed that the official church could fight the vacancy of individual churches through attractive (more) offers. When a church closes, the regional church (Protestant) or the diocese (Catholic) as well as monument protection offices and organizations are often involved in addition to the church .

By means of the abandonment of industrial areas under planning law , many former industrial and commercial buildings are now being converted into event, cultural or residential buildings (“ lofts ”). The establishment of disruptive businesses in commercial buildings in inner-city residential and mixed areas is no longer permissible under planning law today. These buildings, which are often located on the background pieces of the former tenements , can often only be preserved through conversion.

Some examples:

A special form of conversion is conversion , the reintegration of temporarily unused fallow land into the economic and natural cycle.

A special form of (non) use is vacancy . The vacancy is sometimes practiced by owners for speculative purposes. Vacant apartments can be punished ex officio with a fine in the sense of a vacancy ban . If an entire building is vacant for a long time, the owner must submit a change of use request in order to put the building back into operation, even if it is about the original use.

In the 1980s in Berlin in particular, "repair occupiers" tried to counteract the vacancy of old apartments .

One form of unauthorized use is the misappropriation of living space in particular. This is the case if the rooms are used for other purposes (for example, commercial or office) instead of the approved use (for example residential).

The type of use of a building in the context of its surroundings may indicate a deficiency in the management and profitability of the property (such as gambling halls, sex clubs within residential areas).


The concept of re- use has become common in the specialist literature in recent years. In principle, it describes the same process as the change of use and means nothing other than a change in use after the use originally intended for a building. The term is mainly applied to larger building complexes that have been designed and conceived for a special use, which is why their conversion is often only possible with serious changes to the building structure. Examples are the reuse of large industrial areas or barracks and military areas such as the grounds and buildings of Berlin 's Tempelhof Airport . The settlement near Berlin , in which the GDR leadership lived, was also used again. As a rule, one tries to find sustainable reuse.


User is the legal entity that uses a building. The user can be identical to the builder or owner , but in many cases the users are the tenants of a building. The interests and habits of the users form the basis of the architectural design for a building. These do not necessarily have to be identical to those of the client.

For the duration of the use of a building or part of a building, the owner demands a usage fee from the user that either equals or corresponds to the contractually agreed rent . The usage fee is charged

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Profile of building-related costs in the life cycle of the BNB
  2. Calculation aid for determining the life cycle costs for federal buildings according to BNB
  3. IttenBrechbühl: The Alpenstadion - an urban landmark. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 14, 2014 ; accessed on June 14, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. Examples: Federal Supreme Court decision on the football stadium project in Zurich , judgment of December 3, 2004. Schaub + Partner: Yield by using the jacket ( memento of the original of June 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Soccer: Arena of the Clueless , article in the Handelszeitung , November 6, 2012. Retrieved on June 14, 2014. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  5. Gottfried Kiesow : Foreword to Rainer Fisch: Conversion of church buildings in Germany. A critical inventory . Monuments publications, Bonn, 2008. ISBN 978-3-936942-95-8 .