Port (movement of goods)
In the Free State of the Three Leagues, a transport cooperative was referred to as a port (from Latin portare , 'to carry' ) . The ports took care of the movement of goods across the Graubünden Alpine passes .
The following ports existed on the main traffic routes through Graubünden:
- On the Oberen Strasse over the Septimerpass
- On the Unteren Strasse over the Splügen and San Bernardino passes
- In the Engadin and Poschiavo
- Plaiv da Zuoz , consisting of Zuoz , La Punt-Chamues-ch and Madulain , handled the traffic over the Albula Pass together with Bergün
- Plaiv d'immez with Samedan , Celerina and Pontresina , responsible for the north side of the Bernina Pass
- Plaiv sura , consisting of Sils and Silvaplana , responsible for the Julier and Malojapass
- Poschiavo , responsible for the south side of the Bernina Pass
Duties and history of the ports
In their respective territories, the cooperatives had a monopoly on all goods transport, with the exception of urgent goods and food. In the main places and on the boundaries of the areas of responsibility, there existed Susten , where the goods were unloaded and handed over to the carters of the subsequent port. The freight tariffs were fixed. Express goods were brought directly from Chur to Chiavenna or Bellinzona without reloading .
In keeping with the importance of the Upper and Lower Streets as long-distance routes , the ports there had considerable political influence and also took care of road construction and maintenance. In order to settle disputes, there was a separate port court on Unteren Strasse and the office of port director on Oberen Strasse . The ports were financed from the tolls levied on all transports , the road money and contributions from members.
After the founding of the Canton of Graubünden in 1808, the attempt to introduce a new transit order failed due to the resistance of the Porten, who feared for their privileges and income. From 1818 the canton had the new roads built over Splügen, San Bernardino and Julier and claimed the road money for their maintenance. With the transit regulations of 1834 , the ports were effectively abolished and a free market was created for the shipping industry.