Severinstrasse (Cologne)

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Severinstrasse, looking north
Southern end of Severinstrasse (Severinstorburg)

Severinstraße (in Kölsch : Vringsstroß ) is the name of a 995 meter long street in north-south direction that runs between Chlodwigplatz and Waidmarkt in Cologne's old town south .


The origin of Severinstrasse goes back to Roman times .

Roman times

Severinstrasse was a Roman army and arterial road , so it was also a grave road. The cemeteries from the 1st to 4th centuries lay deeply at the sides and led to numerous finds. Severinstrasse began at the Roman south gate "Porta Jovis", which was located at today's Hohe Pforte and led to Bonn ( Latin: Bonna ). In the inner city it continued in the " Cardo maximus" with a width of 20 Roman feet (5.92 meters), at the end of which the Pfaffenpforte (after Neuss = Novaesium ) was located in the north . It was the largest street of graves in Cologne. During excavations under the nearby church of St. George in the years 1928–1931, remains of Roman buildings were found. Excavations at Severinstrasse 64 led to the recording of 16 Roman graves. There are ten cremations and six body burials from the 2nd to 3rd centuries. One of the body graves was characterized by richer additions (coin, bronze bracelet and gold ring). The crowning of a tomb with two lions flanking a sphinx came to light in No. 78. The limestone lararium (22 cm high and 64 cm long), of which a gable relief came to light in Severinstraße, dates to the second half of the 1st century AD and shows Mercurius Arvernus . The most important find on Severinstrasse (Chlodwigplatz No. 24) is the tomb of Poblicius , which was uncovered by amateurs in April 1965 . There was also a pottery district between Waidmarkt, Severinstrasse and Georgstrasse. In the 4th century, a small rectangular hall building ( cella memoriae ) with an apse facing west was built under today's central nave of St. Severin . After extensions in the 6th and 8th centuries, the construction of a Romanesque basilica began here (completed around 900).

middle Ages

Severinstrasse - with the former sections "Voir dem Duitschen hause" (In front of the German house) and "Before St. Jan" in the Cologne cityscape from 1570 by Arnold Mercator

Severinstrasse was given the Latin name “Platea Severini” only after the Romans left. In a document in 1261 it was called "Lata platea" (broad street), but the name of the broad street prevailed. In the Middle Ages Severinstraße functioned as Torstraße and as such was already the lifeline of the district. It belonged to the parish of St. Severin within the suburb of Oversburg and is named after St. Severin of Cologne († October 23, 399), the third known by name Bishop of the city who ruled between 365 and 399. He founded the church of the same name around 378 and was buried there. Archbishop Wichfried added an oratorio to it in 934 and Archbishop Brun consecrated it in 948. After his death, construction of the church named after Severin began in nos. 35–37, today's St. Severin church dates back to 1300–1312. The immediately south adjoining Severinshof (Fronhof of the provost) also belonged to the St. Severin monastery. St. Johann Baptist (No. 1) was first mentioned in 948 and has been attested as a parish church since 1080 . The misery cemetery, the final resting place of the poor and strangers, belonged to it.

Severinstraße 255–257 - Carmelite monastery and church (around 1643), copper engraving
Severinstraße 35–37 - St. Maria Magdalena (from Arnold Mercator's Cologne city view from 1570)
Severinstraße - St. Katharinen and St. Johann Baptist (from Arnold Mercator's Cologne city view from 1570)
Severinstraße - house fronts and buildings between "Voir dem Duitschen haus" and "Der Weismarckt" (from Arnold Mercator's Cologne city view from 1570)

After the two churches, the first secular building was probably a hospital. The Teutonic Order Hospital on Severinstrasse has been occupied since 1218 ; it was in the middle part of the street. Henricus Videlere with the job title "joculator" (joker) had his residence between 1246 and 1276 in Severinstraße, after 1290 nobleman Gerhard bought several houses in Severinstraße. Rutger Overstolz lived on Severinstraße in 1297, also called Burgstraße at that time , because it led from the Hohe Pforte to the old castle ("Burgum vetus") in Marienburg . Today's Waidmarkt, located on the north side, served the woad traders as a trading center and formed a widened part of Severinstrasse; like them, from 1261 onwards he had the name "lata platea". Later (1316) the market was called “super weitmarte”, then (1320) “forum xandicis” and 1408 “weydtmarkt”. When Arnold Mercator he is called "The Weis Market". It is named after the dye plant woad, which the blue dyers in particular used.

The first Cologne Carmelites acquired 1/2 share of a house on Severinstrasse with a garden in 1256, the other half was inherited by Bruno and Jutta de Bunregassen (from the Bonnerhof) around 1272, and they made five further purchases there between 1259 and 1297. The year the monastery was founded is controversial , which Hermann Keussen assumes with 1256, Helga Johag between 1260 and 1270 and Hans Vogts before 1238. In any case, the three-aisled church building, 53 meters long and 23 meters wide, was consecrated in 1280. From June 28, 1673, representatives of the kings of Spain, England and Sweden and the Archbishop of Cologne Maximilian Heinrich von Bayern negotiated the settlement of the Franco-Dutch War in the monastery . The talks were broken off on April 16, 1674, with no result, when the French delegates left; the war lasted until 1678.

These Carmelites are not to be confused with the stricter order of the “barefooted, barefoot” Carmelites, who founded the first settlement on German soil in Cologne in 1614 at no. In January 1615 they first acquired the farm "im Dau (w)" of the von Hasselt family in nos. 143–147 for the price of 8,000 florins, and on January 28, 1615, the city council issued the building permit. In the further course of 1615 the Carmelites acquired additional land in Im Dau between Severinstrasse and Ulrichgasse, where the monastery and church were subsequently built. The monastery building was preceded by three properties in numbers 137–141. The monastery wanted to exchange the part to be acquired from Reiner Broelmann for a piece of land on Ulrichgasse belonging to the Martin Volpon family. In 1629 the city ​​council of Cologne commissioned the portrait painter Franciscus Kessler to draw up a plan of the property in order to clarify the intentions of the monastery. The “Frauenbrüderkloster” was a simple building with two square courtyards, next to it the single-nave church “Maria vom Frieden” (1643–1692, new facade from 1716) with a short transept and straight choir closure. A lead plate from the foundation stone of the church dates from March 16, 1620 and documents an early start to construction. On August 17, 1635, the city council approved the establishment of the Carmelite convent.

Johann Gerhard von Sandt lived in the "Sandische Haus" named after him, together with the vineyard (No. 31–35), which the Archbishop confiscated and had torn down. In memory of the victory in the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the Franciscan Tertiary Monastery and the St. Bonifacius Chapel were built there. The monastery and chapel were built at the end of 1309 on behalf of the City Council of Cologne with the involvement of the court of Gonder von Mommersloch. The chapel was dedicated to St. Boniface , on whose feast day (June 5th) the battle took place. Every year the councilors met in the chapel to commemorate them. The churches on the middle Severinstrasse like St. Johann Baptist, the monastery church of Our Lady and Saints Joseph and Theresa (Im Dau) consecrated in March 1628, the church of St. Gregorius im Elend ("Elendskirche", built 1765–1771 by Balthasar Spaeth) ), St. Katharinen (1218) and, last but not least, St. Severin contributed to the fact that Severinstraße developed into the street of churches, monasteries and chapels in the Middle Ages , which is why Cologne called it "Pfaffengasse".

The Bierbaum house ("domus Birbome") is mentioned for the first time in 1320, it was "Ailbrechts vom Birhouven (Huys) on the village of Bonnergasse". The farm "Dov" or "zomme Dauwe" had been in no. 141–151 since 1344 and belonged to the vom Dauwe family . On March 16, 1564, Johann vom Dauwe made a will about the farm, which Mayor Melchior von Mülheim acquired on January 4, 1572 for 2,100 Reichstaler. In 1344 the couple Theoderich and Kunigunde von Brempt sold the "Brempter Hof" (Hof Breympt), which was close to Severinstor. The sixth canons' house was also on the southern corner of Severinstrasse. This corner house, given to Severins Stift by canon Johannes Schwartze vom Hirsch in 1380, gave the Hirschgäßchen its name. The "Spießerhof" in No. 85 was the archbishop's court from 1311 to 1481, after which it belonged to bailiff Dhaem Spieß von Büllesheim from 1549, from 1590 it served as accommodation for archbishop guests, around 1770 the von Recklinghausen family lived here (broken off in 1912). On November 13, 1371, the Cologne weavers' revolt took place on the neighboring Waidmarkt .

The Severinstrasse peasantry was founded in 1384 and was based on the Fronhof of their monastery. The hospital “St. Katharinen zur weite Tür ”was created in 1419 in Severinstrasse with the aim of“ taking in all poor and sick people, and also poor, wretched women who have recently given birth, and looking after the sick until they can make do with walking and standing ”and belonged to that City council. The nuns of the former Mechtern Monastery received new accommodation in the courtyard of Gonder von Mommersloch next to the Bonifazius Chapel, following a council resolution of October 24, 1477. In 1478, Engelbert von Sassenhuysen bought part of the Mommersloch farm (no. 53), namely a house with two apartments and a garden behind the chapel (demolished in 1884). In 1476 there was the first brewery on Severinstraße under the name "Zum Lämpgen" (No. 205).

On the occasion of an inheritance division within the Kleingedank family , the street 1497 is mentioned as "Breiderstrassen". In the Middle Ages Severinstrasse did not have a uniform name, but the sections (from Severinstor) were called "Sint Severeins straiß" (St. Severins Strasse), "Voir dem Duitschen hause" (in front of the German house), "Vor St. Jan" and “Voir den vrouwenbruderen” (Before the women brothers). Arnold Mercator also recorded these sections in his Cologne cityscape from 1570 . The street section "Before the German House" was named after the Teutonic Order Hospital there, St. Jan was St. Johann Baptist, and the Carmelite Sisters were called "Women Brothers".

Severinstraße - Teutonic Order-
coming boys-tucks (copper engraving by Romeyn de Hooghe , around 1700) with a view from the western garden side

The German house “zu den Biesen” for the Coming Boys-Biesen and Teutonic Knights was built in 1573 in no. 112. The Mercator plan from 1570 shows the battlements-reinforced house with the other buildings before the conversion to the Coming in the street section “Before the vrouwenbüderen ". The Landkomtur and Teutonic Knight Heinrich von Reuschenberg acquired the "Haus zum Bierbaum" next to the Carmelite monastery on Severinstrasse on December 31, 1572 from the brewer Adolf von Neurath, and in 1581 the Bonn court and other properties. In the summer of 1582, renovation work began on the farm. The Ballei Biesen founded their Kommende there in 1593 . After its demolition, a new building followed in 1648 with a stepped gable and closely lined up flat arched windows, which later became a corner house because of the opening for the Im Dau street. 1648–1650 the Matthias Chapel was added. A copper engraving from around 1700 handed down a magnificent complex with a portal and fountain.

Heinrich St. George rebuilt the house "zum Dauwe" in 1648 at No. 149 (today's corner of Im Dau). At number 15 there was initially the late Gothic house “the golden bear”. House Balchem has been located here since 1676 - until today . Beer brewer Heinrich Deutz had the baroque building with a curved pointed gable built. It is considered to be the most beautiful preserved baroque house in the city, its name recalls the former brewery "Kartäuser Bräu Gebr. Balchem" in the house, which has existed here since 1798 at the latest. The "House Deutzmann" in No. 151 belonged to the church master Johann Jakob Deutzmann and had been mail since 1658, in 1790 it belonged to the shopkeeper Johann Schmitz. The "Haus Mommersloch" of the von Iven family had an unusual size of 150 acres, belonged to the knight family of the same name and was located at Severinstrasse 53 / An St. Magdalenen (demolished in 1884). The "Wax Bleaching and Candle Factory Joh. Schlösser" was established in 1764 in No. 178.

Founding period

Maria Francisca von Monschaw had a rococo palace built by Nikolaus Krakamp in No. 162 opposite the Carmelite monastery in 1769 . Little is known about the Cologne faience manufacture in No. 45-47 (in the French period : No. 7358/7359). It was built in 1783, received a privilege from the city council to manufacture so-called English earthenware and required a special soil. A letter from the “Interested parties in Severinstrasse” to the Minister of the Interior on March 29, 1809 contains information about the production at that time. It says: "To manufacture the English stoneware, a white earth from Münstermayfeld is needed ..." The factory was liquidated in July 1818. The Lyskircher Hof in No. 55-61 was designed in 1789 by Josef Otto.

During the French period in 1794 the military administration used the Kommende as the seat of the Colonel of the Genie Corps. At No. 5, at least since 1797, the "Backes" (bakery) Schmitz, which is said to have played an important role in a punishment practice that has not been historically documented and cannot be determined in terms of time. Those who did not face the death penalty had to wear a wooden coat ("Huick") from the Hacht to the "Backhaus Schmitz". Once there, the sentence was over, after which the delinquents were either led out of the city or brought to the Bonn spinning house . Criminals who were condemned to be beaten by distemper were driven down Severinstrasse from the prison in Frankenturm . Only after Schmitz-Backes did the painful punishment end, if the delinquent survived it alive and reached freedom through the Severinstor. To this day, the Cologne proverb "You are still not past Schmitz-Backes" (you have not yet passed Schmitz-Backes) testifies that someone is not yet out of danger. A bakery called "Schmitz-Backes" is still located on the site today.

The Carmelite monastery now had 13 houses in Severinstrasse and Waidmarkt, the church partially collapsed in 1810 and was sold for 9,900 francs. During the French era, the church and monastery were the third most expensive building at 25,000 francs after St. Cäcilien (35,000 francs) and the Church of the Cross Brothers (30,000 francs). During the secularization the monastery was dissolved in 1802, on April 29, 1810 the Cologne politician and revolutionary Franz Raveaux was born in the former Carmelite monastery (now no. 6938½) , the family lived in no. 138. The art collector Freiherr Everhard Oswald von Mering , Father of Friedrich Everhard von Mering , acquired the Monschawsche Haus (No. 162) in 1802 and turned it into an art museum, which he ran until his death on August 12, 1820. The monastery of the "barefoot Carmelites" was used as a Prussian provisions office in 1816 (demolished in 1911). The "Commende ad St. Catharinam" at no. 112-114 changed hands several times since it was sold in 1802 for secularization, until Moses Isaac Rothschild acquired the large property in 1830. In 1834 he parceled out the site and initially set up a "Baier" brewery, which only existed for 6 years.

The Carmelite Monastery was given the status of a grammar school on September 28, 1825 , and on October 19, 1830 it was named "Königliches Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium" . During the construction of the St. Severin boys' school between the church and Annostraße, a total of 18 Roman coffins were found in 1834. In August 1866, the city council decided to turn the school into a cholera hospital. In September 1840, the sugar manufacturer Emil Pfeifer rented an apartment in No. 112 for 900 thalers a year and initially started a dye and grocery store. A remnant of the facade of the old guard (No. 241) from 1841 is part of one of three Prussian-classicist guard buildings in Cologne. The former Carmelite monastery became a military bakery in 1794, the church served as a fruit store (demolished in 1811). The industrialist Julius Vorster junior was born on June 17, 1845 in No. 53. The “Paradies-Apotheke” has existed here since 1845 (originally no. 160, since November 1990 in no. 162a). It is the oldest Cologne pharmacy (founded in July 1618 on Hohe Straße No. 85/87) and offers medicines with Cologne names ( Kölsch : "för de Ping", meaning painkillers ). Several breweries also set up shop on Severinstrasse. Joseph Stauff founded a brewery in 1859 in No. 197–199 (until 1888), brother Quirin Stauff followed in 1865 in No. 65. The establishment of the Reissdorf Brewery goes back to Heinrich Reissdorf, who on September 4, 1894 on the previously acquired property No. 51 and An St. Magdalenen No. 28 built a brewery for Kölsch .

The Cellitinnen according to the Rule of St. Augustine acquired the "Mommerslocher Hof" in No. 53 in October 1869. The Augustinian Sisters, who emerged from the Celittines, founded the “Augustinian Hospital” there in 1874 near the mother house in No. 71-73, which is known in the district as the “Severinsklösterchen”. After the laying of the foundation stone on April 25, 1874, the first operating room in Cologne and a surgical station were built under the direction of the later world-famous surgeon Professor Bernhard Bardenheuer . After the complete demolition of the "Mommerslocher Hof" in 1886, another complex followed on Severinstrasse, including a chapel, which expanded the capacity to 120 beds. In 1926 several Roman graves were found during the construction of a farm building in the hospital garden. The "Royal Provincial Trade School" founded on November 4, 1833 in the former Carmelite monastery (No. 225) did not exist for long. Because on November 5, 1886, the first public market hall in Cologne, built by city architect Johann Peter Weyer on behalf of the city, opened on the property of the Provincial Trade School, which was originally located at No. 123-127. The hall, built on an area of ​​1,492 m², spanned an iron roof structure.

The Kronen Pharmacy opened in No. 27 in 1872. The name is said to be due to the monarchical spirit of the founder of the business, Staude. His first name has not been passed down. The golden crown still hangs on the house facade. In 1903 Friedrich Geuer took over the pharmacy. His grandson Heribert Geuer ran it in the third generation until December 31, 2012. Since then, under the new management, it is no longer allowed to be used as a pharmacy, as a minimum size of 110 square meters is required for pharmacies. However, the Kronen Pharmacy was only 98 square meters. The classic three-window house from the Wilhelminian era is a listed building. The facade on the ground floor, which was heavily redesigned after the Second World War, was restored in 2013 and returned to its original state. The pharmacy's original furnishings from the 19th century have been preserved. The sales room is now used as living space. The lead glass pictures in the window to the courtyard with the two saints Cosmas and Damian, the patron saints of the pharmacists, were created by Toni May in 1947. The glass painter had returned to Vringsveedel from captivity in 1946 and worked against natural produce. With its historical furniture, the Kronen-Apotheke looks so authentic that it has often served as a film set. For example, scenes from the ZDF crime series “Wilsberg” with Leonard Lansink were filmed here.

In 1897 the 2.04 meter tall Josef Schmitz opened the pub "Schmitze Lang", named after his nickname. Schmitz had previously served in the Leib Company of the First Guard Regiment in Potsdam between 1895 and 1897 and died in 1937. The 350 m² pub developed into a well-known authority in the city and closed its doors in June 2005.

Modern times

The second oldest Cologne cinema "Thalia" began in 1908 with 250 seats in No. 152, the next cinema on the street was the "Severin-Lichtspiele" with 500 seats (No. 95) in 1911. After the Stauffschen brewery was demolished in March 1905 opened on August 15, 1906 in its place the "German People's House" in No. 197-199 as the political center of the socialists and communists . In addition to the General German Trade Union Confederation , the SPD and the workers' bank had their headquarters here. On the evening of January 12, 1912, 4,000 spectators gathered in front of the Volkshaus on the occasion of the Reichstag elections . On May 2, 1933, 80 SA men came from their headquarters in Mozartstrasse, occupied the Volkshaus and confiscated the inventory. During the Nazi era it functioned as a “racial biological” investigation and selection center, from where the central deportation of Gypsies took place.

In 1910, the city had the Im Dau street built to develop the new monastery grounds, which connects the two busy streets Ulrichgasse (part of today's north-south route ) and Severinstraße. To do this, she acquired the site of the monastery church of Our Lady and Saints Joseph and Theresa in order to be able to build the road here. In 1914, the sculptor Simon Kirschbaum created the Hänneschen-Besteva fountain , which is still “ im Dau” today. The former Victoria Theater in No. 222-228 offered stage performances from December 1875, and since 1925 there have been more film screenings. Therefore, in 1928 it changed its name to “Monopoly Theater” with a capacity of 853 seats and reopened on October 19, 1928. In February 1929, the Jewish operator Paul Jockel installed the largest cinema-concert organ in Europe here. In 1934, Jockel was forced to sell the property to Julius Tiedje because of the Aryanization , who introduced the name “Crystal Palace” when it opened on August 10, 1935 (destroyed by bombs in 1943). A day welfare center for children of needy parents was set up in 1913 under the name “Charlottenhaus” in No. 158, named after the sister of Kaiser Wilhelm II , Princess Charlotte of Sachsen-Meiningen , who was present at the inauguration on April 25, 1913. The charity belonged to the foundation of Emil Oelbermann's widow .

Severinstraße already formed the main axis of the Severinsviertel ("Vringsveedel"), but its original Cologne character has since been lost. In 1949, the historian Joseph Klersch described Severinstrasse after the Second World War as the “High Street of the Workers South”. He was referring to the “Vringsveedel”, which was mainly inhabited by factory workers - including the Stollwerck chocolate factory that opened on October 1, 1872 in the neighboring Annostraße - and Severinstraße was its main shopping street. In addition to the Alter Markt , the Severinsviertel is now one of the most popular and liveliest places for local Cologne carnivalists, because this is where the Cologne Rose Monday procession begins .

Severinstrasse 222–228 - Construction site preparation for the north-south light rail: Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium on the left and the Alte Wache behind it, on the right the preserved city ​​archive . In the center back the administration tower of the old police headquarters, which was demolished in 2011 (February 2005)

Between 1955 and 1957 Ernst Nolte built the new Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium (No. 241) on the site of the Carmelite monastery, which had been abandoned in 1945. The neighboring former police headquarters of the Cologne police , located on the Waidmarkt, opened with a delay in November 1956, as pottery finds had to be unearthed during excavations between September 1953 and April 1955. It had 14 storeys at a height of 141 meters and was laid down in June 2011. Due to asbestos contamination and lack of space in the old headquarters, the police had already moved to the new police headquarters in the Kalk district, which was completed in August 2001, a decade earlier .

The Severinstrasse underground station opened on November 9, 1959 and runs the trams 3 and 4 under the street over the Severinsbrücke ; at this point Severinstrasse bridges the feeder road. Between September 24, 1920 and 1976, No. 81 was the home of the "Rhenania Cinema". Trude Herr opened her folk theater "Theater im Vringsveedel" on September 9, 1977, which closed on February 27, 1986. Since October 1987 the “Odeon” has been showing films here again.

Until 1979, Wolfgang Niedecken's parents ran the “Butter-Egg-Cheese” business “Jos. Niedecken, Groceries and Delicatessen ". A saint figure of St. Severin is placed above the shop entrance of the house built in 1895. The neighboring no. 3 belonged to Jean Löring . The construction of the historical archive began in 1969 in no. 222–228 by the architect Fritz Haferkamp , and the company moved into it on June 26, 1971. Since September 1980 the street festival Dä longest Desch vun Kölle (the longest table in Cologne) has been taking place annually on Severinstraße , which is one of the most popular street festivals in Germany with around 800,000 visitors . In 1987 the Karl Berbuer fountain, modeled by Bonifatius Stirnberg , was inaugurated .

Below Severinstrasse, construction work began in January 2004 for the north-south light rail , which has served the Severinstrasse and Kartäuserhof underground stations since December 2015. The church tower of St. Johann Baptist got into an imbalance due to the construction of the subway, when on September 29, 2004 it leaned 77 cm to the west. The historical archive even collapsed on March 3, 2009 due to construction work on the underground tunnel. The collapse also damaged the portico of the Alte Wache, which was demolished on March 9, 2009 for security reasons. On June 2, 2009, a Reissdorf inn was built under the name “Zum alten Brauhaus” at the old brewery at No. 51. The Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium, which was also damaged, was able to move in again in August 2012.


Cologne Waidmarkt from above - March 23, 2019

Severinstrasse, which runs in north-south direction, begins at Severinstorburg and ends at the northern extension of Waidmarkt; its southern extension is Bonner Strasse . The side streets of An St. Magedalenen / Severinskloster, Kartäuserhof / Hirschgäßchen, Jakobstraße / Achtergäßchen, Josephstraße / Rosenstraße, Im Dau / Landsbergstraße, Karl-Berbuer-Platz / An St. Katharinen, Spielmannsgasse and Kleine Spitzengasse / Löwengasse flow into Serinstraße. Severinstrasse crosses Bundesstrasse 55 , which runs in an east-west direction and crosses Severinsbrücke .

Individual evidence

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  3. Gebr. Mann, Cologne Yearbook for Prehistory and Early History , Volume 25, 1992, p. 537.
  4. CIL XIII, 8235 Mercur [io] / [A] rvern [o] / [s] acru [m] / Iulius Iu [1] / [e] x imp (erio) i [ps (ius)]
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  6. Friedrich Everhard von Mering / Ludwig Reischert, The bishops and archbishops of Cologne according to their order , 1844, p. 27.
  7. "misery" originated from ali-lenti , "from another country"
  8. ^ Eduard Hegel, The medieval parish system and its church infrastructure in Cologne around 1500 , 1992, p. 24.
  9. Hans Vogts, structural changes in the Cologne districts of St. Severin and St. Alban over the course of 800 centuries , in: From Cologne and Rhenish History, 1969, p. 351.
  10. Johann Jakob Peter Fuchs , Topography of the City of Cologne , Volume IV (MZ), 1840, p. 203.
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  31. Kölnischer Geschichtsverein, yearbook , volumes 22-23, 1940, p. 312.
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  34. a b Herbert Milz, Das Kölner Großgewerbe from 1750 to 1835 , 1962, p. 66 f.
  35. ^ Rheinische Provincial-Blätter for all estates , Volume 4, 1834, 278 ff.
  36. ^ Adam Wrede, Neuer Kölnischer Sprachschatz, first volume A - J , 1984, pp. 46–47
  37. Werner Behnke, From Cologne's Franzosenzeit , 1901, p. 29.
  38. Hermann Kellenbenz, The Sugar Industry in the Cologne Area from the Napoleonic Period to the Founding of the Empire , 1966, p. 30
  39. Jump up ↑ Historical Commission for Westphalia, Rheinisch-Westfälische Wirtschaftsbiographien , Volume 12, 1986, p. 142.
  40. Peter Fuchs (ed.), Chroniken zur Geschichte der Stadt Köln , Volume 2, 1991, p. 159.
  41. Karine Waldschmidt: Kronen-Apotheke: Definitive end after 140 years. January 2, 2013, accessed on December 12, 2018 (German).
  42. Picture book Cologne - Uncovered Crown Pharmacy Inh. Heribert Geuer. Retrieved December 12, 2018 .
  43. Karine Waldschmidt: Kronen-Apotheke: Definitive end after 140 years. January 2, 2013, accessed on December 12, 2018 (German).
  44. Dietrich Scheibe / Margit Wiegold-Bovermann, “Tomorrow we will occupy the union houses”: the smashing of the unions in Rhineland-Westphalia-Lippe on May 2, 1933 , 2003, p. 207.
  45. Karola Fings / Frank Sparing, Rassismus-Lager-Genölkermord: The National Socialist Gypsy Persecution in Cologne , 2005, p. 207.
  46. ^ Joseph Klersch, The history of the brewery trade in Cologne , in: Kölner Brauereiverband e. V. (Ed.): Cologne and his beer, 1946, p. 149
  47. Helene Klauser, Cologne Carnival between Uniform and Lifestyle , 2007, p. 37.

Coordinates: 50 ° 55 ′ 40.4 "  N , 6 ° 57 ′ 27.5"  E