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Common horehound (Marrubium vulgare)

Common horehound ( Marrubium vulgare )

Euasterids I
Order : Mint family (Lamiales)
Family : Mint family (Lamiaceae)
Subfamily : Lamioideae
Genre : Horehound
Scientific name

The horehound ( Marrubium ) Orant or feverfew is a plant genus in the family of the mint (Lamiaceae) 47 species. It has a mainly Eurasian and North African distribution.


Vegetative characteristics

Horehound species are perennial herbaceous plants .

Generative characteristics

Bracts (bracts) are usually formed; they are bent down at the bottom and curve upwards from there.

The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The calyx is narrow, inverted-conical, usually traversed by ten nerves and ends in five to ten calyx teeth. The calyx tube is densely covered with trichomes on the inside of its opening . The crown is two-lipped, the upper lip is straight and two-lobed, the lower lip is three-lobed. The corolla tube is enclosed in the calyx and can have an irregular ring of trichomes on the inside. The stamens that do not protrude beyond the crown are parallel, but the outer pair is slightly longer.

The Klausen fruit disintegrates into Klausen trimmed at the top.

Systematics and distribution

Hungarian horehound ( Marrubium peregrinum )
Common horehound ( Marrubium vulgare )

The natural distribution area of ​​the genus extends from the Atlantic Islands across Central and Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East to West China and the Himalayas. Marrubium vulgare , the most common species, is naturalized in North America, southern South America, Hawaii, New Zealand, and New Caledonia.

There are a total of 47 types:

The following eleven to twelve species occur in Europe:

The following other species are only found in northwest Africa:

The following other species only occur in the Middle East:

  • Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. : There are two subspecies:
    • Marrubium astracanicum subsp. astracanicum : It occurs in Anatolia , Iraq and Iran .
    • Marrubium astracanicum subsp. macrodon (Bornm.) PHDavis : It occurs in south-western and central Turkey.
  • Marrubium bourgaei Boiss. : There are two subspecies, both of which are found in southwestern Anatolia .
    • Marrubium bourgaei subsp. bourgaei
    • Marrubium bourgaei subsp. caricum P.H.Davis
  • Marrubium catariifolium Desr. : It occurs in eastern Anatolia, in Transcaucasia and in the Caucasus region.
  • Marrubium cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë : It occurs in two subspecies in Turkey.
    • Marrubium cephalanthum subsp. cephalanthum : It occurs in central Turkey.
    • Marrubium cephalanthum subsp. montanum Akgül & Ketenoglu : This subspecies, first described in 2015, occurs in Turkey.
  • Marrubium cordatum Nábelek : It occurs in southeastern Anatolia, Iraq and western Iran .
  • Marrubium crassidens Boiss. : It occurs in two varieties in northern Iraq and Iran.
  • Marrubium cuneatum Banks & Sol. : It occurs in Eastern Anatolia, Northern Iraq, Iran, Palestine and Syria .
  • Marrubium depauperatum Boiss. & Balansa : This endemic occurs only in the province of Kayseri in Central Anatolia.
  • Marrubium duabense Murata : It occurs in northeastern Iran and Afghanistan .
  • Marrubium eriocephalum Seybold : It occurs only in northern Iraq and in southeastern Turkey.
  • Marrubium glechomifolium Freyn & Conrath : It occurs only in Transcaucasia.
  • Marrubium globosum Montbret & Aucher ex Benth. : There are three subspecies:
    • Marrubium globosum subsp. globosum : It occurs in central and southern Turkey.
    • Marrubium globosum subsp. libanoticum (Boiss.) PHDavis : It occurs in Lebanon.
    • Marrubium globosum subsp. micranthum (Boiss. & Heldr.) PHDavis : It occurs in Turkey.
  • Marrubium heterodon (Benth.) Boiss. & Balansa : It occurs only sporadically in southern and rarely in northern Anatolia.
  • Marrubium hierapolitanum Mouterde : It occurs only in Syria.
  • Marrubium lutescens Boiss. & Hero. : It occurs only from western to central and southern Anatolia.
  • Marrubium parviflorum fish. & CAMey. (possibly including Marrubium pestalozzae Boiss. ) ,: It occurs in inner Anatolia, in Transcaucasia and in Iran, finds from the Balkan Peninsula are uncertain. There are two subspecies:
    • Marrubium parviflorum subsp. oligodon (Boiss.) Seybold : It occurs in Turkey.
    • Marrubium parviflorum subsp. parviflorum : It occurs from central Turkey to Iran.
  • Marrubium persicum C.A.Mey. : It occurs in northeastern Anatolia, in Transcaucasia and in northwestern Iran.
  • Marrubium plumosum C.A.Mey. : It occurs in the Caucasus region.
  • Marrubium procerum Bunge : It only occurs in Iran.
  • Marrubium propinquum fish. & CAMey. : It occurs only in Transcaucasia and Iran.
  • Marrubium rotundifolium Boiss. : This endemic occurs only in Western Anatolia.
  • Marrubium sivasense Aytaç, Akgül & Ekici : This endemic occurs only in the province of Sivas in central Anatolia.
  • Marrubium trachyticum Boiss. : This endemic, first described in 2012, only occurs in Central Anatolia.
  • Marrubium vanense Hub.-Mor. : This endemic occurs only in the Van Provincein Eastern Anatolia.
  • Marrubium vulcanicum Hub.-Mor. : This endemic occurs only in the Ağrı Provincein Eastern Anatolia.
  • Marrubium woronowii Popov : It occurs only in Transcaucasia.
  • Marrubium yildirimlii Akgül & B.Selvi : It was first described in 2015 and occurs in Turkey.

The following natural hybrids were recognized:

  • Marrubium × bastetanum Coincy (= Marrubium supinum × Marrubium vulgare )
  • Marrubium × humbertii Emb. & Maire (= Marrubium ayardii × Marrubium multibracteatum )
  • Marrubium × paniculatum Desr. (= Marrubium peregrinum × Marrubium vulgare )

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d J. Cullen: Marrubium L. In: TG Tutin, VH Heywood, NA Burges, DM Moore, DH Valentine, SM Walters, DA Webb (eds.): Flora Europaea . Volume 3: Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1972, ISBN 0-521-08489-X , pp. 137–138 (English, limited preview in Google Book Search).
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Marrubium. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved September 10, 2019.
  3. a b Zeki Aytaç, Gencay Akgül, Murat Ekici: A new species of Marrubium (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia, Turkey. In: Turkish Journal of Botany. Volume 36, No. 5, 2012, pp. 443-449 ( PDF file ).
  4. Werner Greuter, Hervé-Maurice Burdet, Guy Long (eds.): Med-Checklist. A critical inventory of vascular plants of the circum-Mediterranean countries . Vol. 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) . Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique, Genève 1986, ISBN 2-8277-0153-7 ( online ).
  5. a b c d e f g h i J. Cullen: Marrubium. In: Peter Hadland Davis (Ed.): Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 7 (Orobanchaceae to Rubiaceae) . Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1982, ISBN 0-85224-396-0 , pp. 165-178 .
  6. ^ OE Knorring: Marrubium L. In: BK Shishkin, SV Yuzepchuk (Ed.): Flora of the USSR. Founded by Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov. Volume XX: Labiatae (Ajuga - Neustruevia), Keter / Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Jerusalem / Washington, DC 1976, ISBN 0-7065-1573-0 , pp. 155-165 (English, translated by N. Landau ; Russian original: Botanicheskii institut, Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow / Leningrad 1954, pp. 233–248), digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.biodiversitylibrary.org%2Fitem%2F95895%23page%2F181%2Fmode%2F1up~GB%3D~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D .

Web links

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