Carl Ernst Jarcke
Live and act
Apprenticeship and first years of employment
Carl Ernst Jarcke was born in Danzig as the only son of a businessman and grew up in the orderly but rationalistic world of the middle classes in Danzig. He attended the community school and also the Latin parish school before he began a commercial apprenticeship at 14. From 1817 to 1819 he attended grammar school, as the commercial profession did not satisfy him. In 1819 he began studying law at the University of Bonn , but also attended lectures on history and philosophy . In 1819 he became a member of the old Bonn fraternity / general public . In 1821 Jarcke moved to the University of Göttingen , where he was introduced to the historical school of law primarily by Gustav von Hugo . In 1822, in the tradition of this law school, he wrote his dissertation on Roman criminal law , with which he completed his habilitation at the University of Bonn. He then also worked as a lecturer at Bonn University. In 1824 he was appointed associate professor. Since there was no regular income associated with the extraordinary professorship, Jarcke became city judge in Cologne in addition to his work at the University of Bonn .
Convert to Catholicism
During his time in Cologne and Bonn, Carl Ernst Jarcke came into contact with the Catholic scholars around Karl J. Windischman. Windischman countered the modernist and rationalist tendencies that were emerging within the Roman Catholic Church . In 1825 he converted to the Catholic faith . The turn to Catholicism was later clearly noticeable in his work. In his three-volume manual of common German criminal law , published from 1827 to 1830, he assumed that Christian-Catholic doctrine was the basis of social coexistence. He therefore put the section on "Crimes against God and Religion" first.
Activity in Berlin
Also in 1825 he was appointed to the University of Berlin as an associate professor for criminal law. There he met the founder of the historical school of law, Friedrich Carl von Savigny , and the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel . In Berlin, Jarcke was also appointed to the commission for the revision of Prussian land law, where he worked on the sections on church, religion, marriage and custom.
The July Revolution of 1830 in France inspired Jarcke to turn to politics. In 1831 he anonymously published The French Revolution of 1830 . In this writing he took the view that the revolution was the reversal of the divinely legitimized and historically grown order that threatened Europe as a whole. With the study KL Sand and his murder of Kotzebue . He judged a psychological-criminalistic discussion from the history of our time about the German national movement directed against the restoration policy after the liberation wars . He assumed that this revolutionary movement also included political murder as a means and an end and was therefore to be equated with the danger of revolution. With the ideas put forward in these publications, he aroused the interest of the Prussian conservatives around Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach . With representatives of this direction, Carl Ernst Jarcke founded the Berliner Politische Wochenblatt , which appeared on October 8, 1831. Jarcke was the first editor to draw the publication. The purpose of the magazine was to fight ideas with the revolutionary and national movement. The magazine became the leading organ of the ultra-conservatives aiming to restore the Christian state. In 1837 Jarcke was supposed to give up his work in connection with the dispute over the Cologne mixed marriages , because the other editors were on the Protestant side, but he represented the Catholic line.
Activity in Austria
In 1832, at Prince Metternich's instigation, Jarcke was appointed imperial-royal councilor and publicist in the state chancellery. He then moved to Vienna . There he worked for the Metternich press and also for the censorship office. In the censorship office, he fought against liberal-religious writings and the publications of Junge Deutschland . Since coming to the end of his participation in the Berlin political weekly paper was of the opinion that true conservatism is possible only on the basis of Catholic teaching, he founded together with Guido Gorres 1838 in Munich , the Historical-political sheets for Catholic Germany , which for leading organ of Catholicism in Germany during the 19th century. In addition to his journalistic activities, Jarcke was also active as a diplomat on church issues. So he negotiated on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian State Chancellery in Rome in 1840 on issues of Hungarian mixed marriages. In church politics he campaigned for the freedom of the Catholic Church from the restrictions imposed by Josephinism . In this context, he encouraged the poet Joseph von Eichendorff to write his literary history published in 1847 from a Catholic perspective.
When the Metternich government was overthrown in the wake of the revolution of 1848/1849 , Jarcke was given leave of absence. He then retired to Munich . After the end of the revolution, he returned to Vienna in 1850, where - which was partly due to his efforts - the state restrictions on the church by Josephinism had been lifted on April 19, 1850. After a long illness he died in Vienna in 1852. He is buried in the Maria Enzersdorf cemetery in the mountains near Vienna.
Handbook of common German criminal law . Reprint of the Berlin, Dümmler, 1827–1830 Keip, Goldbach 1996, ISBN 3-8051-0285-2
- Constantin von Wurzbach : Jarcke, Karl Ernst . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 10th part. Kaiserlich-Königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1863, pp. 95–100 ( digitized version ).
- Johann August Ritter von Eisenhart : Jarcke, Karl Ernst . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 13, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, pp. 711-721.
- Eduard Winter: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5 , p. 353 f. ( ). In:
- Rainer Witt: Jarcke, Carl Ernst. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 1560-1565.
- Hans-Christof Kraus, Carl Ernst Jarcke and Catholic Conservatism in Vormärz , in: Historisches Jahrbuch (HJb) 110, 1990, pp. 409–445.
- Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume I: Politicians. Volume 3: I-L. Winter, Heidelberg 1999, ISBN 3-8253-0865-0 , pp. 16-17.
- O. Depenheuer, In Search of the Lost Unity. Carl Ernst Jarcke and the religious foundation of law and the state in: Stefan Muckel (ed.), Church and religion in the social constitutional state. Festschrift for Wolfgang Rüfner on his 70th birthday , Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 978-3-428-10931-9 , pp. 111-130.
- Literature by and about Carl Ernst Jarcke in the catalog of the German National Library
- Jarcke . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 9, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 170.
|SURNAME||Jarcke, Carl Ernst|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German lawyer and political publicist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 10, 1801|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Danzig|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 27, 1852|
|Place of death||Vienna|