Dürn (noble family)

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Wildenberg Castle , Odenwald

The von Dürn family was a noble and noble noble family close to the Hohenstaufen dynasty, named after its ancestral home in Walldürn and in the 13th century had large estates in southwest Germany.

The counts and noblemen of Dürn

Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa presumably transferred the bailiwick of the Amorbach monastery with extensive lands to his follower Ruprecht , first mentioned in 1171, and thus set a counterweight to the Bishop of Würzburg in the eastern Odenwald. Ruprecht had his administrative seat in Walldürn or moved it there and called himself de Durne ( von Dürn ). Ruprecht was one of the closest advisers to the Emperors Friedrich I and Heinrich VI. , he continuously appears as a witness in their documents. Its origin is unclear, but it is believed that the Dürner family, together with the Lords of Boxberg and the Lords of Krautheim, were among the important gentlemen in what was later to be called the building land . You could have been in Walldürn for a long time. The construction of Wildenberg Castle near Amorbach Monastery can be traced back to Ruprecht or his father or brother Burchert around 1200 . Ruprecht had in 1197, when he Heinrich VI. followed to Italy and died there, already held central control over large parts of the building land.

Ruprecht's son Ulrich I. von Dürn († around 1204) was married to Luitgard von Hohenlohe-Weikersheim and appears in the vicinity of King Philip of Swabia .

Ulrich's sons were Konrad I von Dürn (* 1193; † September 17, 1253) and Ulrich II. Von Dürn. Konrad I married Mechthild von Lauffen around 1216/17 . With the death of the last Lauffen count Boppo (V.) 1216-19, Konrad I inherited extensive allodial property in the middle and lower Neckar valley . So he fell in possession of Möckmühl and in the Neckar Valley with goods around Mosbach (with Hornberg Castle and in Auerbach , Diedesheim , Neckarburken , Neckarelz , Neckarzimmern , Neudenau and Schefflenz ), in Waibstadt , Michelfeld and Waldangelloch and up to Dilsberg Castle with property in Gaiberg , Neckargemünd , Waldwimmersbach , Wieblingen , Schönbrunn and Eberbach too. Mechthild died long after her husband in the 1270s, in any case before 1277.

Ulrich's wife Luitgard and her son Ulrich II , who joined the Teutonic Order around 1225 , probably donated the building site for the Heilbronn comedians of the Teutonic Order. In 1251 Konrad I owned the tithe of Heilbronn as an imperial fief, as well as the later Maulbronn court . How the Dürner came into possession of goods in Heilbronn is not clearly understandable, most likely a handover by Heinrich (VII.) , After he was able to win back rights in Heilbronn under the Nordhausen Treaty.

Konrad I completed the Wildenburg and built the Rippberg Castle near Walldürn. He also founded the Seligental monastery in 1236 as a burial place. In the year of his death in 1253, Amorbach was the first town in Dürner to be founded. It probably housed the poet Wolfram von Eschenbach , because Wildenberg is mentioned several times in his novel Parzival .

Further city foundations followed in 1263 with Neudenau , 1280 with Buchen , 1291 with Walldürn and 1298 with Forchtenberg (each year the city was first mentioned). Although these cities existed before they were first tangibly mentioned, historians still count them among the later founding of cities. In addition, the establishment of a large number of smaller towns in the course of the clearing colonization they sponsored around their headquarters goes back to the Dürner.

At its peak, the area of ​​influence of the Lords of Dürn essentially comprised the entire region between the Neckar, Jagst and Main , which is now known as building land , as well as - with the former Lauffener estates - a strip south of the Jagst from Heilbronn to Forchtenberg and properties around Hornberg Castle and the mountain fortress Dilsberg, a total of about 2100 km². The Dürner strove to condense their rule, built on numerous fiefdoms, into a closed territory.

The decline of the Lords of Dürn took place as early as the middle of the 13th century. Conrad I probably came into conflict with the Hohenstaufen royal house when the Counts von Lauffen inherited, when Friedrich II withdrew the Lauffen imperial fief instead of enfeoffing Konrad I von Dürn. Thereupon Konrad I took the side of Frederick's deposed son Heinrich (VII.) And thereby lost the favor of the Hohenstaufen. Their own decline and the interregnum that followed around 1245/50 strengthened the position of the regional princes competing with the Dürners.

Coat of arms of Boppo and Ruprecht von Dürn

In 1251 Konrad I von Dürn shared his property among his three sons: Boppo I received the county of Dilsberg, Ruprecht II the property around Forchtenberg and Ulrich III. ownership of the Wildenburg. After the division, Boppo and Ruprecht adopted a new coat of arms with a leopard or lion walking on a beam. It is first documented for 1248. The adoption of names (Boppo), titles (Graf) and claims of the Counts of Lauffen is seen as an indication that the coat of arms with the leopard or lion walking on a beam was also adopted by the Counts of Lauffen. Mechthild, probably a daughter of Konrad I, was married to Friedrich Schenk von Limpurg. After the death of his father, they both sold Bilriet Castle to the lords of Nortenberg, who were related to their tribe .

Due to financial difficulties, Ulrich III. as well as his nephews Boppo II. and Ruprecht III. already parts of the property. As early as 1262, Boppo I was dependent on the Count Palatine near the Rhine . Parts of their property also fell to the Archbishopric of Mainz (Wildenburg 1271, Amorbach Monastery 1272, Walldürn 1294, Buchen 1309), Rudolf von Habsburg (Dilsberg Fortress 1288), the Hohenlohe House ( Möckmühl Castle 1287, Forchtenberg 1299) and the Lords of Weinsberg (Neudenau around 1300).

The family died out in 1333 with Albrecht, son of Boppos II, in the male line.

Knight of Dürn

In the 14th century, Knights von Dürn were feudal people of the Archbishopric Mainz and the bishops of Würzburg . The origin of this Dürner dynasty is disputed. The first Dürner to appear as a knight was Wiprecht von Dürn († 1364), who was first called a knight in 1340. He was the son or grandson of an Aschaffenburg estate , and he was closely related to the Lords of Adelsheim . Wiprecht was first Vogt in Buchen and later Burgmann of the Archbishop of Mainz Gerlach von Nassau on the Wildenburg.

A descendant of Hans von Dürn had acquired a quarter of the (later Mainz) rule of Klingenberg am Main from the Bickenbachers for a short time in 1441 . This also explains the fiefdoms in Aschaffenburg , Leider , Niedernberg and Mömlingen from a validity register of the 15th and 16th centuries. Century of the Bamberg monastery .

After Schweikart von Dürn's death († December 2, 1575), their property fell back to the Würzburg bishopric, which had "appropriated" it from the Bambergers and enfeoffed the Echter von Mespelbrunn around 1584 with it. Since these were closely related to the Adelsheimers, the circle came full.

As part of the imperial-free Franconian knighthood , they were organized in the knightly canton of Odenwald and Rhön-Werra . A family tree of the Dürn can be found in the volume Rhön-Werra by Johann Gottfried Biedermann , whose work, however, is viewed as very problematic in terms of historical correctness and sources.


  • Tilman Mittelstrass: The knights and servants of Hettingen, Hainstadt, Buchen and Dürn. Lower aristocratic groups in building land and Kraichgau . Association Bezirksmuseum Buchen, Buchen 1991 ( Between Neckar and Main . Volume 26)
  • Uwe Uffelmann : Territorial policy and town planning - The Lords of Dürn and their heirs . In: Badische Heimat , 68th year, 1988
  • Helmut Neumaier: Between the noblemen of Dürn and Kurmainz . In: 700 years of the city of Buchen. Contributions to the history of the city . Buchen mayor's office, Buchen 1980
  • Alfred F. Wolfert: Groups of coats of arms of the nobility in the Odenwald-Spessart area. In: Winfried Wackerfuß (Ed.): Contributions to the exploration of the Odenwald and its peripheral landscapes II. Festschrift for Hans H. Weber. Breuberg-Bund , Breuberg-Neustadt 1977, pp. 325-406, here pp. 358f.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Helmut Neumaier: Dürn, noble family . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria . December 5, 2011 ( online [accessed April 1, 2015]).
  2. ^ Hansmartin Schwarzmaier : History of the city of Eberbach am Neckar . tape  1 . Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1986, p. 51 .
  3. Harald Drös: The eagle of the Heilbronn district - coat of arms of the Counts of Lauffen? In: Christhard Schrenk, Peter Wanner (eds.): Heilbronnica 5 . Sources and research on the history of the city of Heilbronn 20. Heilbronn City Archives, Heilbronn 2013, p. 127 ( heilbronn.de [PDF; 960 kB ; accessed on February 21, 2014]).
  4. a b Hans-Gert Oomen: The Carolingian royal court Heilbronn. A contribution to the history of the city from the beginning to the end of the 13th century (=  publications of the archive of the city of Heilbronn . Volume 18 ). Heilbronn City Archives, Heilbronn 1972, p. 80-83 .
  5. Oomen 1972, p. 89
  6. City of Walldürn - Municipality of Rippberg - local history ( Memento of the original from February 29, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on May 26, 2011) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wallduern.de
  7. ^ Wolfram von Eschenbach , Parzival, selection , Reclam edition, 5th book; Mentioned sometimes as Wildenberg , sometimes as Montsalvaesch
  8. Who was Konrad von Dürn? ( Memento of the original from March 18, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on May 10, 2009 / May 26, 2011) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.xn--realschule-walldrn-16b.de
  9. Hansmartin Schwarzmaier: From the world of the Counts of Lauffen. Historical images from documents . In: Christhard Schrenk, Peter Wanner (eds.): Heilbronnica 5 . Sources and research on the history of the city of Heilbronn 20. Heilbronn City Archives, Heilbronn 2013, p. 54 ( heilbronn.de [PDF; 1.9 MB ; accessed on February 21, 2014]).
  10. Drös 2013, p. 128
  11. Drös 2013, p. 132
  12. ^ State Archives Ludwigsburg B 186 U 17
  13. ^ Tilman Mittelstraß: Eschelbronn. Origin, development and end of a Niederadel seat in Kraichgau , Theiss Verlag, 1996, page 168 ff.
  14. a b Bamberg remote possession, section Knight of Dürn
  15. Cord Ulrichs: From the feudal court to the imperial knighthood. Structures of the Franconian nobility at the transition from the late Middle Ages to the early modern period . Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-515-07109-1 , pp. 214-215 .