Eugen Moritz von Savoyen-Carignan
Eugen Moritz von Savoyen-Carignan , Count of Soissons and Dreux (fr: Eugène-Maurice de Savoie-Carignan , it: Eugenio Maurizio di Savoia-Carignano ; * May 3, 1635 in Chambéry ; † June 7, 1673 in Unna in Westphalia ) was an officer in the French army and the father of the general Prince Eugene of Savoy . He had made great contributions as a high official and military leader under Louis XIV .
Origin and family
Not much is known about the life of Eugène-Maurice, who gained historical importance primarily as the father of the famous general Eugene of Savoy-Carignan. He was born on May 3, 1635 in Chambéry, the third son of Tommaso Francesco (1595–1656), prince de Carignan, and Marie de Bourbon-Condé (1606–1692), Princess of Carignan and Countess of Soissons. He belonged to the House of Savoy-Carignan, which had been based in France since around 1620 , and was a branch of the House of Savoy . On his father's side, he came from the Savoy ducal dynasty and was the grandson of Carlo Emanuele I (1562-1630) and great-grandson of King Philip II of Spain , while he was connected through his mother to the House of Condé , which belonged to the Bourbon family.
Eugène-Maurice had a sister and two older brothers. The sister Luise Christine (1627–1669) had married the Hereditary Prince Ferdinand Maximilian of Baden (1625–1669) in 1653 , with whom she fathered the future margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden (1655–1707) , who became known as “Türkenlouis” . However, since she refused to follow her husband to Baden, the latter took his son away with him and left his wife in Paris with her mother.
The first-born, Emanuel Philibert (1628–1709), received the title of Prince of Carignan after the death of his father and continued the Savoy-Carignan branch as his head. His descendants were to become dukes of Savoy and kings of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831, after the main line of the House of Savoy had died out, and finally even kings of Italy in 1861 .
In his youth Eugène-Maurice seemed to have stayed at least temporarily with his father in Italy, where he was being prepared for a career in the clergy. However, this undertaking seemed to have been given up in 1656, after the death of the second oldest brother Josef Emanuel (1631–1656). Instead, he took over the dignities and possessions of a Count of Soissons from his mother and spent most of his youth in Paris and at the court of Versailles , where he was accepted as the French Prince of the Blood because of his legacy .
Due to his high birth and his respected position as Prince of the Blood, Eugène-Maurice at the French royal court now also had the opportunity for a rapid rise in the French army. In fact, the military career also seemed to suit him, because:
"He seems to have been of a comparatively simple, uncomplicated nature, not
exactly spiritually important, an avid hunter, but above all a soldier keen on battle and glory."
Especially at the beginning his career was also favored by the support of the first minister Cardinal Mazarin , whose niece he married in 1657, which is why he quickly got to high command posts.
Even during the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), which lasted even after the Peace of Westphalia , Eugène-Maurice had the opportunity to prove himself in the northern theater of war. There he excelled in July 1657 in the defense against a sortie from the besieged Montmédy and in the battle in the dunes on June 14, 1658, in which he was wounded. At first he held the post of Colonel général of the Swiss and Graubünden soldiers of France, but was then appointed Anne Lieutenant General and Governor of the Bourbonnais after the end of the war through the Peace of Pyrenees in 1659 .
The high position that the young Count of Soissons occupied at this time is clearly evident during the wedding of Louis XIV to the Spanish Infanta Maria Teresa on June 9, 1660 in Saint-Jean-de-Luz , when he was more prominent there Place next to the dukes and marshals of France. In the autumn of the same year he was courting for Ludwig's younger brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans , at the court of the English king and, on his return, was promoted to governor of Champagne . In 1665 he was also the extraordinary ambassador at the coronation of the Spanish King Charles II.
During the short war of devolution against Spain in 1667/68, in which only brief sieges and no battles took place, Eugène-Maurice was given no opportunity to continue to excel. The opportunity to do so only arose during the Dutch War (1672–1678), where it was first used in May 1672 in the camp of the Maréchal de Turenne near Charleroi . Turenne, under whom he had previously served during the Franco-Spanish War, considered him one of the most capable officers in the French army. A month later, in June, he was one of the highest commanders in the main army, which operated from the land of the allied Kurköln , and excelled at the successful crossing of the Rhine at Schenkenschanz . On June 19 there is also a commendatory report by the then Savoyard ambassador to France, the Marquis de Saint-Maurice, about Eugène-Maurice, according to which:
- « Le Roi ne confère quasi avec aucun des lieutenants-généraux qu'avec M. le Comte de Soissons […] Il a si grande estime pour ledit Comte, comme aussi toute l'armée, que si la guerre continuait, il le mettrait bientôt à la tete d'une armée. "( Saint-Maurice , German:" The king does not consult with almost any of the lieutenant general as he does with the Count of Soissons [...] He has such great respect for the said count, as well as the whole army, that if the war continues, he will soon be called to the head of an army. ")
Marriage and offspring
On February 22, 1657 Eugène-Maurice married in the Louvre , after long and difficult negotiations between his mother and Cardinal Mazarin, finally his niece Olympia Mancini ( Mazarin-Mancini House ). As Count and Countess of Soissons, they resided together with their mother Marie de Bourbon-Condé and their sister Luise Christine von Savoyen-Carignan in the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris, where their five sons and three daughters were born:
- Louis-Thomas (1657–1702), Count of Soissons
- Philippe (1659–1693), Dept.
- Louis-Jules (1660-1683), Chevalier de Savoie
- Emanuel-Philibert (1662–1676), Count of Dreux
- Eugen Franz (1663–1736), ("Prinz Eugen"), Austrian military leader
- Marie-Jeanne (1665–1705), Mademoiselle de Soissons
- Louise-Philiberte (1667–1726), Mademoiselle de Carignan
- Francoise (1668–1671), died young.
The new Countess of Soissons was one of his favorites as the king's companion in her youth and she retained his esteem after her wedding, which was also carried over to Eugène-Maurice. The couple accompanied the king both to a meeting with the ducal family of Savoy in the autumn of 1658 in Lyons and on his bridal trip to Saint-Jean-de-Luz in the summer of 1660. Both benefited from the support of Cardinal Mazarin, who was Eugène- Maurice had a brilliant career in the military and in 1660 gave his wife the post of chief stewardess to the new Queen Marie-Thérèse .
Even after the death of their patron Mazarin in March 1661, the count couple neither lost the favor of the king nor the outstanding rank at court that came with it. In order to maintain this position, however, Olympia entangled herself and her husband in intrigues at court, which led to an increasing deterioration in the relationship with Louis XIV. When Eugène-Maurice felt compelled to challenge the Duke of Navailles to a duel due to a conflict of competencies between Olympia and Madame de Navailles in 1661, the king was forced to banish the Count of Soissons from court for a short time.
A significantly longer exile (April 1665 to autumn 1666) came after Olympia got involved in an affair involving Louise de La Vallière , the king's mistress at the time. Eugène-Maurice then followed “... if not an official order, then at least a clear hint by retiring with his wife to Champagne to exercise his post as governor of the province. The great Condé said at the time that there were only a few people who regretted their fall because they had not made friends during their happiness. "
There are no reliable sources about the couple's marriage. However, the historian Max Braubach makes the following statement regarding the qualities of Eugène-Maurice as a husband:
"The count seems to have been a good husband to his wife, who at least in all intrigues and disputes that arose about her, always expressed his solidarity with her and stood up for her."
As recently as 1667, Saint-Maurice reported on what he thought was the "strange kind of love and devotion" which the Count displayed towards his wife. According to a statement by Saint-Maurice and rumors of the time, Eugène-Maurice is said to have later complained about the rulership and extravagance of Olympia and their frivolous behavior. Because of this, the last years of marriage were probably not very harmonious.
Sudden death 1673
While Eugène-Maurice was on his way back to the Turenne army camp in Westphalia in the spring of 1673 , he suffered a severe fever in May, one month after his arrival in Soest . On June 5th he gave the order to be brought to Wesel for the Sparwasserkur , but on the way there he died on the morning of June 7th in Unna. The royal headquarters regretted the death of the Count of Soissons, who was considered to be a remarkable and distinguished soldier. During the solemn funeral procession he was given all the honors intended for a prince of the blood, after which he was finally buried on July 23, 1673 in the mausoleum of the Soissons in the Chartreuse of Gaillon, while his heart was placed in the Carmelite Convent of Paris at the request of his mother .
Since his death came very suddenly, which at that time always raised the suspicion of poisoning, and shortly before his death the count himself had suggested such things, the king ordered the body to be opened. In the subsequent examination, however, no suspicious traces were found (according to Braubach, the cause of death was the destruction of the internal organs and an abscess at the entrance to the bladder, according to Piltz, however, the failure of both kidneys) and it was generally not believed in a crime, because:
- « Chacun sait à la Cour qu'il a cru d'avoir eu du poison, mais on ne peut pas juger de la personne qui le lui avait donné, car personne ne peut gagner en sa perte. »( Saint-Maurice , German:" Everyone at court says that he believed he was poisoned, but you can't find anyone who did this to him, since nobody deserves his demise. ")
Years later became Olympic despite that during the poisoning affair of 1679 to La Voisin , when her name was to have killed in suspected her husband Eugène-Maurice, after which they had to flee into exile in 1680.
After his sudden death and their mother's exile, the Count of Soissons' children remained in the care of their grandmother, Marie de Bourbon-Condé, in Paris. However, since the family had fallen out of favor with the king, they had a difficult time in France: The eldest son Louis-Thomas inherited the title of Count of Soissons, but not, as usual, the offices of the father; the sisters remained unmarried and were passed over for promotions at court. The sons Louis-Jules and Emanuel-Philibert pursued their military careers outside France, as did the most famous offspring of the family, Prince Eugene of Savoy, who became one of the most famous generals in the service of the House of Habsburg .
- Alfred Ritter von Arneth : Prince Eugene of Savoy. According to the handwritten sources in the imperial archives. Volume 1: 1663-1707. New edition. Braumüller, Vienna 1864.
- Max Braubach : Prince Eugene of Savoy. A biography. Volume 1: Ascent. Oldenbourg, Munich 1963.
- Karl Gutkas (Ed.): Prince Eugene and Baroque Austria. Exhibition of the Republic of Austria and the Province of Lower Austria. (Marchfeldschlösser Schlosshof and Niederweiden, April 22 to October 26, 1986). Niederösterreichisches Landesmuseum, Vienna 1986, ISBN 3-900464-37-6 .
- Karl Gutkas (Ed.): Prince Eugene and Baroque Austria. Verlag Residenz, Salzburg u. a. 1985, ISBN 3-7017-0428-7 .
- Georg Piltz : Prince Eugene of Savoy. Biography. New Life Publishing House, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-355-01192-4 .
- ↑ On the descent of Eugène-Maurice von Savoyen-Carignan see: Karl Gutkas: Prinz Eugen und das Barocke Österreich , Vienna 1986, p. 6, 118 and Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 28.
- ↑ On the siblings of Eugène-Maurice see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Bd. 1, Munich 1963, pp. 25f.
- ↑ Apparently preparations for his elevation to cardinal had already been made in Rome, see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 26.
- ↑ a b Arneth: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Vienna 1864., p. 2.
- ↑ a b Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 27.
- ↑ On the military career of the count during the Franco-Spanish War see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 27; Gutkas: Prinz Eugen und das Barocke Österreich , Vienna 1986, p. 119 and Arneth: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , vol. 1, Vienna 1864, p. 2.
- ↑ Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 43.
- ^ Georg Piltz: Prince Eugene of Savoy: Biography , Berlin 1991, p. 9.
- ↑ For the count during the Rhine crossing see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Bd. 1, Munich 1963, p. 43f; Gutkas: Prinz Eugen and the baroque Austria , Vienna 1986, p. 119; Arneth: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Vienna 1864, p. 2.
- ↑ Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 44, footnote on p. 373.
- ↑ On the marriage and living together in the Hôtel de Soissons see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Volume 1, Munich 1963, pp. 28, 38.
- ^ Arneth: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Vienna 1864, pp. 3, 10, 125/6.
- ↑ For the position of the count couple, see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, pp. 32–35.
- ↑ On the circumstances of the exile of the count see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Bd. 1, Munich 1963, p. 39.
- ↑ On intrigue and the following banishment see: Arneth: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Vienna 1864, pp. 2-5 and Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, pp. 39–41.
- ↑ Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 41.
- ↑ Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 35.
- ↑ For the marriage of the count couple see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Bd. 1, Munich 1963, pp. 35, 45; Piltz: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen: Biografie , Berlin 1991, p. 10 and Gutkas: Prinz Eugen und das Barocke Österreich , Vienna 1986, p. 120.
- ↑ Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 44f.
- ↑ Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, footnote p. 374
- ^ Piltz: Prince Eugene of Savoy: Biography , Berlin 1991, p. 12.
- ↑ On the suspicion of poisoning after the count's death, see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Bd. 1, Munich 1963, p. 44 and Piltz: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen: Biografie , Berlin 1991, p. 12.
- ↑ Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , Vol. 1, Munich 1963, p. 44, footnote on p. 374.
- ↑ On the suspicion of Olympias as the murderer of her husband see: Braubach: Prinz Eugen von Savoyen , vol. 1, Munich 1963, pp. 45–53; Piltz: Prince Eugene of Savoy: Biography , Berlin 1991, p. 15; Karl Gutkas: Prince Eugene and Baroque Austria , Vienna 1986, pp. 119/20.
(de iure uxoris)
Count of Soissons
(de iure uxoris)
Count of Dreux
|SURNAME||Savoyen-Carignan, Eugen Moritz von|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Eugène-Maurice de Savoie-Carignan, Eugenio Maurizio di Savoia-Carignano|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Count of Soissons and Dreux, general under Louis XIV.|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 3, 1635|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Chambery|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 7, 1673|
|Place of death||Unna|