Hal Clement (actually Harry Clement Stubbs ; born May 30, 1922 in Somerville , Massachusetts ; died October 29, 2003 in Milton , Massachusetts) was an American science fiction writer. He is considered a typical representative of hard science fiction . His best-known novel is Gravity , the first part of a trilogy set on the exotic planet Mesklin .
Harry Clement Stubbs grew up in Boston . He studied astronomy at Harvard University and graduated with a Bachelor of Science. He completed his subsequent studies at Boston University with a Master of Education and finally studied chemistry at Simmons College. He completed his chemistry studies with a Master of Science.
During World War II , Clement became a pilot in the 8th Air Force and flew 35 bombing missions as a commander and co-pilot in B-24 Liberator bombers . He left the US Air Force as a lieutenant. In 1951 he was reassigned to active service. During his second term he was a squadron leader and instructor. Clement retired as a colonel in the U.S. Air Force in 1976 . Hal Clement married in 1952. This marriage resulted in two sons and a daughter.
Clement taught science at Milton Academy in Massachusetts for 38 years until he retired in 1987. Hal Clement came into contact with science fiction through the Buck Rogers comics.
In the June 1942 issue, Clement's first short story, Proof , appeared in Astounding . His first novel The Needle appeared in 1949 in sequels, also in Astounding.
His best-known work Mission of Gravity (German enterprise gravity ) first appeared in sequels in Astounding. In this novel, Clement describes the exotic planet Mesklin, with fast rotation and extremely high gravity. To be able to recover a crashed probe, humans depend on the cooperation of the intelligent inhabitants of the planet.
Clement's novels and short stories belong to the subgenre of hard science fiction, a scientifically and technically oriented view of science fiction. Other authors in this subgenre include James P. Hogan and Arthur C. Clarke .
In total, Clement wrote 15 novels and numerous short stories. There is little to no xenophobia in his works and almost no wars. His stories are often so fascinating because he believably deduces the mindset and emotions of these beings from the well-conceived, unusual living conditions of an alien. In this way he allows the reader to put himself in the shoes of an alien in a unique way.
The youth book category of the American science fiction award "The Golden Duck Awards" was named after Hal Clement.
- 1969 Skylark Award
- 1989 Gallun Award
- 1991 Guest of Honor at the World Science Fiction Convention
- 1992 Forry Award
- 1994 Premio Ignotus for Mission of Gravity as best foreign language novel
- 1996 Retro Hugo Award for Uncommon Sense as best short story
- 1997 First Fandom Hall of Fame Award
- 1997 Skylark Award
- 1998 Science Fiction Hall of Fame in the category "Living Inductee"
- 1999 Locus Award for Options as best short story
- 1999 SFWA Grand Master Award
- 2001 Sam Moskowitz Award
Needle (2 parts in: Astounding Science Fiction, May 1949 ff .; also: From Outer Space , 1957)
- German: symbiosis. Translated by Heinz Bingenheimer . Balowa / Gebrüder Zimmermann (Balowa Bestseller des Kosmos # 228), 1960, . Also in 2 parts: symbiosis. Translated by Heinz Bingenheimer. Moewig Terra # 209/210 , 1962. Also called: The needle search. Translated by Hans Maeter . Heyne SF&F # 3993, 1983, ISBN 3-453-30929-4 .
Through the Eye of a Needle (1978)
- German: Das Nadelöhr. Translated by Hans Maeter. Heyne SF&F # 3994, 1983, ISBN 3-453-30930-8 .
- 1 Mission of Gravity (4 parts in: Astounding Science Fiction, April 1953 ff.)
- German: company gravity. Translated by Günter Hehemann. Moewig (Terra special volume # 12), 1959. Also called: Gravity Company. Translated by Wulf H. Bergner . Heyne books # 3121, Munich 1968, .
- 2 Close to Critical (3 parts in: Astounding Science Fiction, May 1958 ff.)
- German: Ambassador from the Stars. Translated by Wulf H. Bergner. Heyne SF&F # 3074, 1966, .
- 3 Star Light (1954)
- Lecture Demonstration (1973, in: Harry Harrison (Ed.): Astounding: John W. Campbell Memorial Anthology )
- Under (in: Analog Science Fiction and Fact, January 2000 )
- Mission of Gravity / Star Light (collective edition of 1 and 3; 1971)
- Heavy Planet: The Classic Mesklin Stories (Collective Edition of 1 and 3 and short stories, 2002)
German collective editions:
- Heavy worlds. Translated by Peter Pape and Horst Pukallus. Heyne (Library of Science Fiction Literature # 3), 1982, ISBN 3-453-30793-3 (collective edition of 1 and 3).
- Gravity. Horst Pukallus. Translated by Wulf H. Bergner and Horst Pukallus. Heyne (Science Fiction Masterpieces), 2014, ISBN 978-3-453-31582-2 (collective edition of 1–3).
Iceworld (3 parts in: Astounding Science Fiction, October 1951 ff.)
- German: Eiswelt. Translated by Walter K. Baumann. Pabel (Utopia Kriminal # 20), 1957.
- The Ranger Boys in Space (1956)
Cycle of Fire (1957)
- German: Under the double sun. Translated by Heinz Zwack. Pabel (Utopia-Großband # 138), 1960. Also as: The fire cycle. Translated by Heinz Zwack. Heyne SF&F # 3446, 1975, ISBN 3-453-30347-4 .
Ocean on Top (3 parts in: If, October 1967 ff .; also: Ocean On Top , 1973)
- German: Company deep sea. Translated by Ingrid Rothmann. Bastei Lübbe Science Fiction Action # 21110, 1978, ISBN 3-404-01092-2 .
- Left of Africa (1976)
The Nitrogen Fix (1980)
- German: In the nitrogen clamp. Translated by Stefan Sturm. Bastei Lübbe Science Fiction Bestseller # 22050, 1982, ISBN 3-404-22050-1 .
Still River (1987)
- German: The rivers of the deep. Translated by Winfried Petri. Heyne SF&F # 5048, 1993, ISBN 3-453-06619-7 .
Fossil ( Isaac's Universe novel, 1993)
- German: Das Fossil. Translated by Ruggero Leò. Bastei Lübbe Science Fiction # 23252, 2002, ISBN 3-404-23252-6 .
- Half Life (1999)
- Noise (2003)
- Natives of Space (1965)
Small Changes (1969; also: Space Lash )
- German: expedition to the sun. Translated by Eva Sander. Pabel (Terra Paperback # 252), 1974.
- Mission of Gravity (1978)
- The Best of Hal Clement (1979)
- Intuit (1987)
- Planet for Plunder (2012; with Sam Merwin Jr. )
- Iceworld / Cycle of Fire / Close to Critical (2014, collective edition)
The Essential Hal Clement:
- 1 Trio for Slide Rule and Typewriter (1999)
- 2 Music of Many Spheres (2000)
- 3 Variations on a Theme by Sir Isaac Newton (2000)
- Short stories
If only the title and year are given as the source for translations of short stories, the complete information can be found in the corresponding collective edition.
- Proof (in: Astounding Science-Fiction, June 1942 )
- Impediment (in: Astounding Science-Fiction, August 1942 )
- Avenue of Escape (in: Astounding Science-Fiction, November 1942 )
- Attitude (in: Astounding Science-Fiction, September 1943 )
- Technical Error (in: Astounding Science Fiction, January 1944 )
Trojan Fall (in: Astounding Science Fiction, June 1944 ; also: "Trojan Fall" , 1969)
- German: The Trojan Point. Translated by Eva Sander. In: Expedition to the Sun. 1974.
Uncommon Sense (in: Astounding Science Fiction, September 1945 )
- German: The Millipede. Translated by Eva Sander. In: Expedition to the Sun. 1974.
- Cold Front (in: Astounding Science Fiction, July 1946 )
- Assumption Unjustified (in: Astounding Science Fiction, October 1946 )
Answer (in: Astounding Science Fiction, April 1947 )
- German: The answer. In: Ruth J. Kilchenmann (Ed.): Smart boxes make stories. IBM, 1977.
Fireproof (in: Astounding Science Fiction, March 1949 )
- German: Feuerfest. Translated by Eva Sander. In: Expedition to the Sun. 1974.
Halo (in: Galaxy Science Fiction, October 1952 )
- German: harvest time. Translated by Lothar Heinecke . In: Galaxy Science Fiction, # 14. Moewig, 1959. Also called: Der Ernteplanet. Translated by Eva Sander. In: Expedition to the Sun. 1974.
- Critical Factor (1953, in: Frederik Pohl (Ed.): Star Science Fiction Stories No. 2 )
- Ground (in: Science Fiction Adventures, December 1953 )
- Dust Rag (in: Astounding Science Fiction, September 1956 )
- Planet for Plunder (in: Satellite Science Fiction, February 1957 ; with Sam Merwin Jr. )
Cycle of Fire (1957)
- English: The fire cycle. Translated by Heinz Nagel. In: Wolfgang Jeschke (Ed.): Departure into the galaxy. Lentz # 74, 1980, ISBN 3-88010-074-8 .
- The Lunar Lichen (in: Future Science Fiction, No. 47, February 1960 )
Sunspot (in: Analog Science Fact → Fiction, November 1960 ; also: Sun Spot , 1969)
- German: expedition to the sun. Translated by Eva Sander. In: Expedition to the Sun. 1974.
- The Green World (in: If, May 1963 )
- Hot Planet (in: Galaxy Magazine, August 1963 )
- Raindrop (in: If, May 1965 )
The Foundling Stars (in: If, August 1966 )
- German: Die Foundlingssterne. Translated by Eva Sander. In: Expedition to the Sun. 1974.
The Mechanic (in: Analog Science Fiction → Science Fact, September 1966 )
- German: The Mechanic. Translated by Eva Sander. In: Expedition to the Sun. 1974.
Bulge (in: If, September 1968 )
- German: Die Gravitationsfalle. Translated by Walter Ernsting and Thomas Schlück . In: Clark Darlton and Thomas Schlück (eds.): Galaxy 13. Heyne SF&F # 3155, 1969.
- Planetfall (1972, in: Robert Hoskins (Ed.): Strange Tomorrows )
- Mistaken for Granted (in: Worlds of If, January-February 1974 )
- The Logical Life (1974, in: Judy-Lynn del Rey (Ed.): Stellar 1 )
- Stuck With It (1976, in: Judy-Lynn del Rey (Ed.): Stellar # 2 )
- A Question of Guilt (1976, in: Gerald W. Page (Ed.): The Year's Best Horror Stories: Series IV )
Longline (1976, in: Jack Dann and George Zebrowski (Eds.): Faster Than Light )
- German: Longline. In: Jack Dann, George Zebrowski (Ed.): Twelve times faster than light. Bastei Lübbe Science Fiction Special # 24101, 1987, ISBN 3-404-24101-0 .
- Seasoning (in: Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine, September-October 1978 )
- Status Symbol (1987, in: Hal Clement: Intuit )
- Blot (1989, in: Martin H. Greenberg (Ed.): Foundation's Friends: Stories in Honor of Isaac Asimov )
- Phases in Chaos (1991, in: Martin H. Greenberg (Ed.): Phases in Chaos )
- Eyeball Vectors (1992, in: Martin H. Greenberg (Ed.): Unnatural Diplomacy )
- Sortie (4 parts in: Harsh Mistress, Spring / Summer 1994 ff .; also: Simile , 1995; also: Seismic Sidetrack , 1995; also: Settlement )
- Options (1998, in: James Cahill (Ed.): Lamps on the Brow ; as Harry C. Stubbs)
- Oh, Natural (in: Absolute Magnitude, Spring 1998 )
- Exchange rate (in: Absolute Magnitude, Winter 1999 )
- Office Politics (2003, in: Readercon 15 Souvenir Book )
- First Flights to the Moon (1970)
- Some Notes on Xi Bootes (1960)
- Left of Africa (1976)
- Hans Joachim Alpers , Werner Fuchs , Ronald M. Hahn : Reclam's science fiction guide. Reclam, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-15-010312-6 , pp. 100-102.
- Hans Joachim Alpers, Werner Fuchs, Ronald M. Hahn, Wolfgang Jeschke : Lexicon of Science Fiction Literature. Heyne, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-453-02453-2 , pp. 330-332.
- John Clute , David Langford : Clement, Hal. In: John Clute, Peter Nicholls : The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction . 3rd edition (online edition), version dated April 12, 2017.
- Don D'Ammassa : Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Facts On File, New York 2005, ISBN 0-8160-5924-1 , pp. 86-88.
- Albrecht Fritzsche: The solution to the problem is the focus of the story. Hal Clement and the Inclusion of Scientific Facts. In: The Worlds of Science Fiction. Corian-Verlag Meitingen, 1988. ISBN 3-89048-313-5 .
- Donald M. Hassler: Clement, Hal . In: James Gunn : The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Viking, New York et al. a. 1988, ISBN 0-670-81041-X , p. 97.
- Donald M. Hassler: Clement, Hal . In: Noelle Watson, Paul E. Schellinger: Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers. St. James Press, Chicago 1991, ISBN 1-55862-111-3 , pp. 144 f.
- Usch Kiausch: A conversation with Hal Clement. In: Wolfgang Jeschke (Ed.): The Science Fiction Year 1991 , Wilhelm Heyne Verlag Munich, ISBN 3-453-04471-1 , pp. 453-463.
- George Mann : The Mammoth Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Robinson, London 2001, ISBN 1-84119-177-9 , pp. 109-111.
- Robert Reginald : Science fiction and fantasy literature. A checklist, 1700–1974 with contemporary science fiction authors II. Gale, Detroit 1979, ISBN 0-8103-1051-1 , p. 856.
- Robert Reginald: Contemporary Science Fiction Authors. Arno Press, New York 1974, ISBN 0-405-06332-6 , p. 52 f.
- Donald H. Tuck : The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy through 1968. Advent, Chicago 1974, ISBN 0-911682-20-1 , p. 412, sv Stubbs, Harry Clement .
- Hal Clement in the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (English)
- Hal Clement Fantastic Fiction Bibliography
- Hal Clement in the Science Fiction Awards + Database
- Hal Clement in Fancyclopedia 3 (English)
- Literature by and about Hal Clement in the catalog of the German National Library
- Hal Clement in the bibliography of German science fiction ( books , stories , articles )
- Literature by and about Hal Clement in the WorldCat bibliographic database
- Works by and about Hal Clement at Open Library
- Hal Clement , Texts on Free Speculative Fiction Online
- Works by Hal Clement in Project Gutenberg ( currently usually not available for users from Germany )
- Hal Clement in the database of Find a Grave (English)
- Hal Clement in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Hal Clement (1922-2003) ( Memento from November 22, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), obituary by Paul Levinson on the SFWA website(English)
- Hal Clement, 81, craftsman of sci fi novels , Tom Long obituary, Boston Globe , October 31, 2003
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Stubbs, Harry Clement (real name); Richard, George (pseudonym)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American science fiction - writers|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 30, 1922|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Somerville, Massachusetts , USA|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 29, 2003|
|Place of death||Milton, Massachusetts , USA|