Black Laos Scorpion ( Heterometrus laoticus )
|Ehrenberg , 1828|
The largest scorpion discovered so far is a Heterometrus swammerdami . It has a body length of 26 cm and lives on the Indian subcontinent. The Heterometrus species are less poisonous; but their sting can be quite painful for humans. They also react much more frequently with a sting than the related Pandinus species from Africa , which are more likely to defend themselves with the Pedipalps .
The species of the genus Heterometrus are native to the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka as well as in Southeast Asia up to the Wallace line . They live in the undergrowth of the tropical rainforests, where, unlike the scorpions in the arid climate, they are also diurnal. Numerous species developed on the Indian subcontinent. Species and subspecies can usually be distinguished by the construction and length of the scissors and the pedipalps as well as the number of trichobothria on them .
The genus Heterometrus currently comprises 37 species:
- Heterometrus atrascorpius Mirza, Joshi, Desouza & Sanap , 2012
- Heterometrus barberi ( Pocock , 1900)
- Heterometrus beccaloniae Kovařík , 2004
- Heterometrus bengalensis ( CL Koch , 1841)
- Heterometrus cimrmani Kovařík , 2004
- Heterometrus cyaneus ( CL Koch , 1836)
- Heterometrus flavimanus ( Pocock , 1900)
- Heterometrus fulvipes ( CL Koch , 1837)
- Heterometrus gravimanus ( Pocock , 1894)
- Heterometrus indus ( DeGeer , 1778)
- Heterometrus kanarensis ( Pocock , 1900)
- Heterometrus keralaensis Tikader & Bastawade , 1983
- Heterometrus laoticus Couzijn , 1981
- Heterometrus latimanus ( Pocock , 1894)
- Heterometrus liangi Zhu & Yang , 2007
- Heterometrus liophysa ( Thorell , 1888)
- Heterometrus liurus ( Pocock , 1897)
- Heterometrus longimanus ( autumn , 1800)
- Heterometrus madraspatensis ( Pocock , 1900)
- Heterometrus minotaurus Plíšková, Kovařík, Košulič & Šťáhlavský , 2016
- Heterometrus mysorensis Kovařík , 2004
- Heterometrus nepalensis Kovařík , 2004
- Heterometrus petersii ( Thorell , 1876)
- Heterometrus phipsoni ( Pocock , 1893)
- Heterometrus rolciki Kovařík , 2004
- Heterometrus scaber ( Thorell , 1876)
- Heterometrus sejnai Kovařík , 2004
- Heterometrus serratus ( Pocock , 1900)
- Heterometrus spinifer ( Ehrenberg , 1828)
- Heterometrus swammerdami Simon , 1872
- Heterometrus telanganaensis Javed, Mirza, Tampal & Lourenço , 2010
- Heterometrus thorellii ( Pocock , 1892)
- Heterometrus tibetanus Lourenço, Qi & Zhu , 2005
- Heterometrus tristis ( Henderson , 1919)
- Heterometrus ubicki Kovařík , 2004
- Heterometrus wroughtoni ( Pocock , 1899)
- Heterometrus xanthopus ( Pocock , 1897)
The species of the genus Heterometrus have a weak poison compared to those of the Buthidae family . Poisoning is common in the tropical countries of Asia, especially in summer and during the monsoons from May to October. A sting locally causes severe burning pain that can last for minutes to hours and edema . Systemic reactions such as hypotension , bradypnea , restlessness, dizziness and vomiting, abdominal pain, severe thirst, headache, fever, chills and shock can also occur. There have been few reports of deaths involving children and infants. Since there is no antivenin against the poisons of the types of heterometrus , treatment is limited to symptom relief.
Pharmacological studies have shown that the venom of Heterometrus bengalensis can induce contractions in smooth muscle preparations , impairment of nerve cells, the release of kinins and indirect haemolytic effects. In addition, changes in the metabolism in the liver and brain were observed in animal experiments .
- Antony Gomes and Aparna Gomes: Scorpion Venom Research Around the World: Heterometrus Species. In: Ponnampalam Gopalakrishnakone et al. (Ed.): Scorpion Venoms. Springer, Dordrecht 2015, pp. 351–368, doi : 10.1007 / 978-94-007-6647-1_9-1 .
- František Kovařík: A Review of the Genus Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828, with Descriptions of Seven New Species (Scorpiones, Scorpionidae) . Euscorpius, No. December 15, 2004 online version (PDF, 6.18 MB)
- Wolfgang Bücherl and Eleanor E. Buckley (eds.): Venomous Animals and their Venoms, vol. 3. Venomous invertebrates. Academic Press, New York 1971, p. 342, ISBN 978-0-12-138903-1 .
- Antony Gomes and Aparna Gomes: Scorpion Venom Research Around the World: Heterometrus Species, pp. 351-352.
- Antony Gomes and Aparna Gomes: Scorpion Venom Research Around the World: Heterometrus Species, pp. 354-357.
- Rein, JO: The Scorpion Files. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2006 Online (English)