|n = about 35|
|Molecular formula||C 6n H 10n + 2 O 5n + 1|
white, crystalline solid
|External identifiers / databases|
|Molar mass||varies with the chain length of the polymer|
178-181 ° C
soluble in hot water, slightly soluble in organic solvents
|As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .|
Occurrence and discovery
Many plants store inulin as a reserve substance , especially types of the sunflower and umbelliferous plants . Examples include yacon , Jerusalem artichoke , chicory , dahlia , artichoke , Dandelion , salsify , chicory , and parsnips . Inulin was discovered in 1807 by Valentin Rose the Younger in the alanten root ( Inula helénium L. ).
Nowadays, inulin is often used as an ingredient in food production , for example in yogurt as a fat substitute and to improve the taste, texture and mouthfeel . In sausages it is used to increase the fiber content. Inulin is one of the prebiotic food additives. It also serves as a base for the hydrolytic production of fructose and oligofructose .
Inulin can be metabolized by bifidobacteria as an energy source . This means that inulin uptake can be used for the selective accumulation of bifidobacteria in the human intestine. Excessive intake can lead to flatulence and diarrhea in people with a diet that favors unbranched and simple carbohydrates, but intestinal flora .
In lesser amounts, inulin plays a role as an additive in animal nutrition.
In the medicine
Low molecular weight inulin is soluble in warm water . It is used in physiological research to determine extracellular space because it easily penetrates the interstitium but not the cells . The measurement of the inulin clearance can be used (instead of the usual creatinine clearance ) to determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys more precisely. This is possible because inulin is completely filtered in the glomerulum , but is neither secreted nor reabsorbed in the tubule system .
Inulin can be used as a starch substitute in the therapy of diabetes mellitus , as it does not affect the blood sugar level. Inulin is not absorbed in the small intestine because humans lack the degrading enzyme ( inulinase ). Instead, it is fermentatively broken down in the large intestine by bacteria ( bifidus bacteria , Bakteroides strains and Eubacteriacae ) into short-chain fatty acids . Due to the increased acid production, the pH value in the colon drops . The gases formed in the process can lead to flatulence in sensitive people (especially irritable bowel syndrome ) - the only known side effect of consuming inulin-containing plant parts, which is why inulin should also be counted among the FODMAPs . The u. a. The resulting propionates can also act as a natural appetite suppressant .
Starting material for other compounds
- Inulin data sheet at Acros, accessed on November 22, 2007.
- The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 14th edition. Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA 2006, ISBN 0-911910-00-X , p. 870 #.
- Article on reduced- fat sausage products in www.foodaktuell.ch ( Memento of the original from September 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Example of a poultry pie ( Memento of the original from April 18, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- opinion on fructooligosaccharides and inulin , food Chemical Society - Division of the German Chemical Society
- Glenn R. Gibson, Emily R. Beatty, Xin Wang, John H. Cummings: Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. In: Gastroenterology. 108, No. 4, 1995, pp. 975-982. doi: 10.1016 / 0016-5085 (95) 90192-2 .
- Nutritional Rhineland-Palatinate: Forgotten vegetables: black salsify . Last visited on January 29, 2018.
- Kurt Widhalm: Nutritional Medicine . Ed .: Kurt Widhalm. 2nd Edition. Verlagshaus der Ärzte, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-901488-51-0 , p. 137 .
- A. Pedersen, B. Sandström, JM Van Amelsvoort: The effect of ingestion of inulin on blood lipids and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy females. In: Br J Nutr. 78 (2), Aug 1997, pp. 215-222. PMID 9301412 .
- L. Sobotka, M. Brátova, M. Slemrová, J. Manák, J. Vizd'a, Z. Zadák: Inulin as the soluble fiber in liquid enteral nutrition. In: Nutrition. 13 (1), Jan 1997, pp. 21-25. PMID 9058443 .
- MVZ Institute for Microecology GmbH: FODMAP-poor diet for irritable bowel patients. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Harald Frater: scinexx - Help against food cravings: A degradation product of dietary fiber inhibits the desire to feast. In: scinexx.de. July 5, 2016, accessed July 5, 2016 .
- Ben-Erik van Wyk: Food Plants of the World. Timber Press, 2006, ISBN 0-88192-743-0 , p. 134.