Joaquín Murrieta Carrillo (also: Murieta , Murietta ) (* 1829 - † July 25, 1853 in Fresno County , California ), known as the Mexican Robin Hood (Mexican Robin Hood) or Robin Hood of El Dorado (Robin Hood of El Dorado ) , was a famous gunslinger in California during the gold rush of the 1850s. While he is officially viewed as a bandit in the United States , Latin Americans tend to mistake him for a Mexican patriot.
Joaquín Murrieta probably served as inspiration for the fantasy figure of Don Diego de la Vega ( Zorro ).
Most biographical sources claim that Murrieta was born in Hermosillo , in the Mexican state of Sonora . However, there are indications that stories about different people were combined into a fictional character of Murrieta.
It is said that Murrieta moved to California in 1849 to make his fortune in the California gold rush . He had experienced racist treatment along with extreme competition in the harsh environment of the mining camps (gold rush camps). While he was panning for gold, he and his wife were attacked by American gold miners who beat him and raped his wife. However, these details go back to the dime novel The Life and Adventures of Joaquín Murieta by John Rollin Ridge and are therefore questionable.
Historian Frank Latta writes in his book Joaquín Murrieta and His Horse Gangs (1980) that Murrieta was from Hermosillo and led a paramilitary gang of relatives and friends. Latta tries to prove that the gang was involved in the illegal horse trade with Mexico and that they helped Murrieta kill at least six of the Americans who attacked him and his wife.
Murrieta and his gang attacked settlers and wagon trains in California, stole horses and drove them along the La Vareda del Monte path through the Diablo Range to Contra Costa County in the Central Valley . The gang is believed to have killed up to 28 Chinese and 13 Anglo-Americans. In 1853, Murrieta was also known to the California State Legislature and was included in a list with the so-called " Five Joaquins " in an ordinance issued in May 1853. The authorities made it possible for a group of 20 California Rangers , veterans of the Mexican-American War, to be recruited for three months . This troop was supposed to hunt " Joaquin Botellier , Joaquin Carrillo , Joaquin Muriata [sic!], Joaquin Ocomorenia and Joaquin Valenzuela" and their gangs. On May 11, 1853, California Governor John Bigler signed a bill that established the California State Rangers . They were led by Captain Harry Love (a former Texas ranger and war veteran).
The state paid the California Rangers $ 150 a month and promised a reward of $ 1,000 if they caught the men. On July 25, 1853, the Rangers encountered a group of Mexicans near Arroyo de Cantua on the edge of the Diablo Range near Coalinga . Three of the Mexicans were killed in the skirmish. The rangers claimed that one of them was Murrieta and another Manuel Garcia , known as the Three-Fingered Jack . Two more were captured. A plaque ( California Historical Landmark # 344) near Coalinga at the intersection of State Routes 33 and 198 today commemorates the incident.
As evidence of the death of the outlaws, the rangers cut off the hand of Three-Fingered Jack and the head of the alleged Murrieta and preserved them in alcohol to hand over to the authorities. Authorities issued the evidence in Mariposa County , Stockton, and San Francisco . The Rangers accompanied the exhibition through California; Visitors could pay $ 1 to view the trophies. Seventeen people, including a Catholic priest, signed affidavits testifying to the head of Murrieta, aka Carrillo, as authentic.
Love and his rangers received the $ 1,000 reward. In August 1853, an anonymous observer from Los Angeles wrote to the San Francisco Alta California Daily that Love and the rangers had murdered innocent Mexican Mustang catchers and bribed them for the affidavits. A little later, various Californian newspapers claimed that Love could not have displayed the head in the gold rush camps. On May 28, 1854, the California State Legislature awarded another $ 5,000 reward to the Rangers for defeating Murrieta and his gang.
Two decades later, legends began to form. In 1879 an OP reported to Stidger that Murrieta's sister had testified that the evidence was not her brother's head. Around the same time, various witnesses reported seeing Murrieta as an old man. These statements have never been confirmed. The preserved head is said to have been destroyed during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire that followed, but a head is on display at the Cosmopolitan Hotel in Old Town San Diego and there are suspicions that the trophy has been preserved.
Historian Susan Lee Johnson writes:
“So many stories have developed around Murrieta that it's hard to tell the fictional from the fact. Apparently they all have in common that the Anglos drove him away from a rich gold digger claim and that in a short space of time his wife was raped, his half-brother was lynched and Murrietta herself was whipped. It may be that he acted as a caraway leaf dealer for a while , then, depending on which version you follow, he became either a horse dealer, or a horse thief, or a bandit. "
John Rollin Ridge , grandson of Cherokee leader Major Ridge , wrote the dime novel in 1854 entitled The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murrieta, The Celebrated California Bandit , which mainly influenced the legend of Murrieta. Ridge had heard of a Mexican prospector who had made a name for himself as a bandit and had worked out the story for the novel. This novel was translated into several European languages, and a section from it was published in the California Police Gazette in 1858 . This part was translated into French and from French by Roberto Hyenne into Spanish, where the “Mexican” became a “Chilean”, probably for nationalistic reasons or to adapt the story for the Chilean market.
Murrieta's nephew, Procopio , became one of the most famous bandits in California in the 1860s and 1870s; it is said that he set out to surpass his uncle's fame.
Murrieta may also have been part of the inspiration for the character of Zorro , the main character in the five-part novel series "The Curse of Capistrano" by Johnston McCulley , which appeared in Pulp magazine in 1919 . Presumably it is an adaptation of the book by John Rollin Ridge .
Hispanic activists see Murrieta as a symbol of resistance to Anglo-American dominance in California's economy and culture. The Association of Descendants of Joaquin Murrieta declares that Murrieta was not a “gringo eater”, but that he only wanted “to get back the part of Mexico that was lost in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo .”
Joaquin Murrieta was often picked up as a character:
- Fulgor y Muerte de Joaquín Murieta ( Splendor and Death of Joaquin Murieta ), play by the Chilean Nobel Prize winner Pablo Neruda
- L'Homme aux Mains de Cuir ( The Man with the Leather Hands ), Robert Gaillard, 1963.
- Fortuna's daughter , novel by Isabel Allende , 1999.
- Звезда и смерть Хоакина Мурьеты ( Zvezda i smert 'Khoakina Mur'ety - Star and Death by Joaquin Murieta ), opera by Alexei Rybnikov & Pavel Grushko based on Neruda's play, 1976.
- The Life and Adventures of Joaquín Murieta . John Rollin Ridge, 1854 (one year after the presumed death of Murrieta, translations into various languages).
- Walter Noble Burns: The Robin Hood of El Dorado . Coward-McCann, Inc., New York 1932.
- Bandit's Moon , children's book by Sid Fleischman , 1998.
- LA Outlaws , novel by T. Jefferson Parker , from the "Charlie Hood" series, Murietta as the ancestor of a main character, 2008.
- The History & Adventures of the Bandit Joaquin Murietta , novel by Stanley Moss, 2012.
- This is a Suit , Slam Poem by Joaquin Zihuatanejo .
- The California Trail , Ralph Compton.
Movie and TV
- The Robin Hood of El Dorado , William A. Wellman , 1936.
- The Bandit Queen , William Berke , with Phillip Reed as Murrieta, 1950.
- The Adventures of Kit Carson , TV series, first episode “California Bandits” with Rico Alaniz as Murrieta, 1936.
- Stories of the Century , TV series, 1954, episode "Joaquin Murrieta" with Rick Jason .
- Death Valley Days , radio / television western anthology, episodes "I Am Joaquin" (1955) with Cliff Fields and "Eagle in the Rocks" (1960) with Ricardo Montalbán .
- Zorro , Disney series, from 1957, with Carlos ( Kent Taylor ) and Pedro ( Paul Picerni ) Murrieta.
- The Last Rebel , Mexican film with Carlos Thompson , 1958.
- The Firebrand , with Valentin de Vargas , 1962.
- Murietta - Scourge of California , Spanish western directed by George Sherman with Jeffrey Hunter , 1965.
- The Big Valley , ABC TV series, 1967, episode "Joaquin" with Fabrizio Mioni .
- Desperate Mission , film made for TV, with Ricardo Montalbán , 1969.
- Star and Death of Joaquin Murieta , Soviet musical film by Vladimir Grammatikow based on Pablo Neruda , 1982.
- The Mask of Zorro , with Antonio Banderas , Victor Rivers , Matt Letscher , 1998.
- Allusions in CSI , season 5, episode 12: "Snakes".
- Behind The Mask of Zorro , History Channel documentation , 2005.
- Faces of Death II , acted documentary, 1981.
- Así Como Hoy Matan Negros , Víctor Jara & Inti-Illimani , after Pablo Neruda and Sergio Ortegas Fulgor y Muerte de Joaquín Murieta .
- Cueca de Joaquín Murieta , Víctor Jara & Quilapayún , in the style of the Chilean national dance Cueca (Album X Vietnam )
- Premonición de la Muerte de Joaquin Murieta , Quilapayún (Album Quilapayún Chante Neruda )
- The Ballad of Joaquin Murrieta , Sons of the San Joaquin (Album Way Out Yonder )
- The Bandit Joaquin , Dave Stamey
- Murrietta's Head , Dave Alvin (album Eleven Eleven )
- Joaquin Murietta , Spectra Paris
- Corrido de Joaquin Murrieta , Los Alegres de Terán
- Stella Ireland and Lady Luck , Debby McClatchy
- Adios Querrida , Wayne Austin (Album By The Old San Joaquin )
- Del Gato , Gene Clark & Carla Olson (album So Rebellious a Lover , 1987)
- La Leyenda de Joaquin Murieta , ballet by Jose Luis Dominguez (Chile), Naxos Records 2016.
- "Review: Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush ", American Scholar , January 1, 2000: 142 Vol. 69 No. 1 .
- The Real Zorro, Unmasked. ( Memento of the original from November 17, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Desert Magazine .
- El Bandito Joaquin Murrieta. In: Desert Magazine .
- "evidence suggests. . . [he] was not one man, but three, or five, whose exploits were recorded as one. "W. Lee Roddy: Wanted! Black Bart and Other California Outlaws. Ceres, California 1970.
- Ron Erskine: Joaquin Murrieta slept here. ( Memento of the original from September 26, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Morgan Hill Times March 5, 2004.
- Peter Mancall, Benjamin Heber-Johnson: Making of the American West: People and Perspectives. , Page 270.
- California State Rangers. California State Military Museum 1940.
- Democratic State Journal , Oct. 17, 1853, Calaveras Correspondence from WCP of Mokelumne Hill; San Joaquin Republican , Oct. 20, 1853, correspondence from Sonora, Tuolumne Co.
- WPA, California State Rangers: History , 1940, California State Military Museum. August 7, 2011.
- The Pioneer , Sat., Nov. 29, 1879; History of Nevada County (Oakland: Thompson & West, 1880; rprt Berkeley: Howell-North Books, 1970), 115.
- Pictures ( Memento of the original from August 19, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. to Murrieta's family.
- “So many tales have grown up around Murrieta that it is hard to disentangle the fabulous from the factual. There seems to be a consensus that Anglos drove him from a rich mining claim, and that, in rapid succession, his wife was raped, his half-brother lynched, and Murrieta himself horse-whipped. He may have worked as a monte dealer for a time; then, according to whichever version one accepts, he became either a horse trader and occasional horse thief, or a bandit. "In: Review: Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush“, American Scholar. Volume 69 No. 1 , , p. 142.
A California Bandit a Nephew of Jouquin Muriata on the Road His Exploits in the Lower Counties a Record of Crime and Blood. In: San Francisco Bulletin, published as Evening Bulletin. 1871-08-28.
John Boessenecker: Lawman: The Life and Times of Harry Morse, 1835-1912. University of Oklahoma Press 1998: 31. ISBN 0-8061-3011-3 , 9780806130118
- John Boessenecker: Bandido: The Life and Times of Tiburcio Vasquez. University of Oklahoma Press 2012: 386. ISBN 0-8061-8316-0 , 9780806183169
- Truecrimecalifornia.com ( Memento of the original from September 13, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (last section), there is a group on Facebook.
- "He wanted to retrieve the part of Mexico that was lost at that time in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo." David Bacon: Interview with Antonio Rivera Murrieta. December 15, 2001.
- Robin Hood of El Dorado in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- The Adventures of Kit Carson: California Outlaws in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Gerry Dooley: The Zorro Television Companion: A Critical Appreciation . McFarland & Company, 2005, ISBN 978-0-7864-2058-2 , p. 121.
- The Big Valley: Joaquin in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- The Desperate Mission in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- The Mask of Zorro in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Behind the Mask of Zorro in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Faces of Death II in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Walter Noble Burns: The Robin Hood of El Dorado. Coward-McCann, Inc., New York 1932.
- Ireneo Paz: Vida y Aventuras del Mas Celebre Bandido Sonorense, Joaquin Murrieta: Sus Grandes Proezas En California ( Spanish ), English translation by Francis P. Belle, Regan Pub. Corp., Chicago, 1925. Republished with introduction and additional translation by Luis Leal as Life and Adventures of the Celebrated Bandit Joaquin Murrieta: His Exploits in the State of California , Arte Publico Press, 1999 .. 1904 edition.
- Susan Lee Johnson: Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush , New York: Norton 2000.
- John Boessenecker: Gold Dust and Gunsmoke: Tales of Gold Rush Outlaws, Gunfighters, Lawmen, and Vigilantes , Wiley 1999.
- Bruce Thornton : Searching for Joaquin. Myth, Murieta, and History in California. Encounter Books, San Francisco 2003, ISBN 978-1-893554-56-6 .
- Joaquín Murrieta , Picacho
- The Legend of Joaquin Murieta
- "Mystery of the decapitated Joaquin" , Benicia News
- "Joaquin Murrieta," Biographic Notes, Inn-California
- Jill L. Cossley-Batt, The Last of the California Rangers (1928)
- "What's the story on Joaquin Murieta, the Robin Hood of California?" , Straight Dope
- American Mythmaker: Walter Noble Burns and the Legends of Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp, and Joaquín Murrieta , by Mark J. Dworkin , University of Oklahoma Press, 2015.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Murrieta Carrillo, Joaquin; Murieta Carrillo, Joaquin; Murietta Carrillo, Joaquin; Mexican Robin Hood; Robin Hood of El Dorado|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Mexican-American outlaw, western character|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1829|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 25, 1853|
|Place of death||Fresno County , California|