|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Area :||6.41 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||272 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||56-513|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 62|
|License plate :||DOL|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Oleśnica - Ostrów Wielkopolski|
|Rail route :||Warsaw - Wroclaw|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
|Gminatype:||Urban and rural municipality|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||57 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0214053|
|Administration (as of 2014)|
|Mayor :||Jarosław Głowacki|
ul.Kolejowa 13 56-513 Międzybórz
Międzybórz ( German Neumittelwalde , until 1886 Medzibor ) is a small town in southwest Poland . It belongs to the Powiat Oleśnicki in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship , is located about 60 km northeast of Wroclaw and 40 km southwest of Ostrów Wielkopolski and is the seat of the urban and rural municipality of the same name .
Geography and traffic
Międzybórz is located in the extreme northeast of Lower Silesia, right on the border with Greater Poland . The municipality extends over the eastern foothills of the Lower Silesian mountain range Wzgórza Trzebnickie ( Trebnitzer Land Ridge ), which merges here into the Wzgórza Ostrzeszowskie mountain range and is densely forested. The city is surrounded by extensive mixed forests within a radius of 10 to 15 kilometers . The highest point in the municipality is at
The main line of the railway runs through Międzybórz from Wroclaw via Kalisz ( Kalisch ) and Łódź ( Lodsch ) to Warsaw , which bends here at a 90-degree angle to the north. Until the Second World War, Międzybórz was a border station on what was then the German- Polish border. The closest larger city is Oleśnica ( Oels ), it is located around 30 kilometers southwest of Międzybórz.
Międzybórz was first mentioned in 1228. The spelling of the name varied, the forms Mechobocz (1310), Meczebor (1376) and finally Medzibor (1637), which in Polish means "between forests", are passed down. The name Mittelwalde, which was already mentioned in the town survey document of 1637, only became official in 1886.
As a part of Silesia , Medzibor shared its history over the centuries - from the Piastic beginnings to belonging to the Holy Roman Empire , to Prussia to the transition to Poland in 1945. The later town emerged from a tavern and a collection of craftsmen's huts, was first in 1228 Mentioned in a document and was initially the center of its own rule within Silesia with a large fortified manor that burned down in the 18th century. Among other things, Medzibor was owned by the von Prittwitz family . In 1599 it fell to the Duchy of Oels . Duke Heinrich Wenzel granted Medzibor city rights on May 6, 1637 . He also ordered the renaming to Mittelwalde, but this did not prevail. From 1649 to 1884, the Duchy of Oels belonged to princes from Württemberg and then from Brunswick-Lüneburg . From the 19th century, the von Buddenbrock family was wealthy in Medzibor.
In contrast to the majority of the places in Lower Silesia, Medzibor in the district of Groß Wartenberg retained its importance for the Polish population into the 20th century thanks to its location directly on the German-Polish language border and there was both a German and a Polish Protestant church community in the village. In the 17th century, an important hymn book for Polish Protestants , the Kancjonał Międzyborski of the evangelical clergyman Samuel Kret, was published here. In the 19th century, the local Protestant pastor and Polish patriotic journalist Jerzy Badura published the Nowiny Szląskie here and in Wroclaw , a weekly newspaper for the Polish-speaking Protestants of Lower Silesia, which was part of the German Empire. The town's primary school is named after Jerzy Badura, who is buried in Międzybórz.
As a result of the Versailles Treaty , the north-eastern part of the Groß Wartenberg district was ceded to Poland without a referendum in 1920. Neumittelwalde stayed with Germany, but became a border town.
After the Second World War Neumittelwalde fell to Poland and received the official place name Międzybórz. The city's German population was expelled and replaced by Poles. Subsequently it became a regional focus of the wood processing industry. From 1975 to 1998 the city belonged to the Kalisz Voivodeship , since then it has been part of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship . The industrial and ambient festival Bez kontroli / Temple of Silence takes place every year in Ostrów Wielkopolski and in the former evangelical church in Międzybórz .
coat of arms
Międzybórz's coat of arms, first used in the 17th century, shows a tree with exposed roots and the St. Andrew's cross . Before the Reformation , the apostle Andreas was the patron saint of the later Protestant parish church.
Culture and sights
- Classicist former Protestant parish church (reconstruction in the 18th century )
- Neo-Gothic Catholic Parish Church of St. Joseph (1894)
- Remains of fortifications from the 14th century
- Preserved fragments of the old Protestant cemetery with the tombs restored for the “defenders of Poland”, the pastors Robert Fiedler and Jerzy Badura.
The urban and rural community ( gmina miejsko-wiejska ) consists of the city of Międzybórz and the following 13 localities with a school administration ( sołectwo ) :
- Bąków (Bunkai ; 1937–1945 Grünbach)
- Bukowina Sycowska (Bukowine ; 1937–1945 Buchenhain)
- Dziesławice (Distelwitz)
- Hałdrychowice (Klein Ulbersdorf)
- Kamień (Polish stones ; 1939–1945 beautiful stones)
- Klonów (Klenowe)
- Kraszów (Kraschen)
- Królewska Wola (King's Will)
- Ligota Rybińska (Ellguth-Rippin ; 1937–1945 Ostfelde)
- Niwki Kraszowskie (Kraschen-Niefken ; 1937–1945 state stop )
- Niwki Książęce (Princely Niefken)
- Ose (Ossen)
- Oska Piła (Charlottenfeld)
- Ernst August Moritz von Froelich (1787–1858), Lieutenant General
- Alfons Perlick (1895–1978), German educator and local historian and folklorist - born in Ossau
- Fred Schmidt (1902–1997), German seaman and writer
- Paul Bojack (1913-2008), artist
- Official data (GDP) for Międzybórz (Polish)
- The former Protestant parish church - information and pictures (Polish)
- Bez Kontroli & Temple of Silence - Festival Homepage (Polish)
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Stefi Jersch-Wenzel (ed.), Sources on the history of the Jews in Polish archives. Volume 2: Former Prussian Province of Silesia (Munich 2005) p. 463.
- Karl-Heinz-Eisert, From the development of Neumittelwalde (Schwäbisch Gmünd 1961)