openSUSE 15.2 with KDE Plasma Desktop 5.18.5
|developer||SUSE LLC and developer community|
|License (s)||GPL and other licenses|
|First publ.||March 1994|
|Current version||15.2 (July 2, 2020)|
GNU / Linux
↳ SuSE Linux (4.2)
|Architecture (s)||i586 (up to 13.2), x86-64 , ARM|
Language : multilingual
Desktop environments : Gnome , KDE SC , LXDE , LXQt , Xfce etc. a.
openSUSE [ ˌoʊpənˈsuːzə ], formerly SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional , is a Linux distribution from SUSE GmbH . It is widely used in Germany (almost 26 percent of the global user base) and the USA (almost 14 percent of the global user base). The focus of the developers is on creating a stable and user-friendly operating system with a large target group for workstations and servers .
The SUSE Linux GmbH (now a subsidiary of SUSE GmbH) sales in the early 1990s under the company name S.uSE GmbH (society for software and system development mbH), the Linux - distribution Slackware , in-house development already YaST was offered as a configuration program . In May 1996 the independent distribution SuSE Linux, developed on the basis of jurix , was published for the first time with the version number 4.2. The numbering refers to the number 42 from the novel The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy , which is considered to be the answer to the question "about life, the universe and all the rest".
With version 5, a version of SuSE Linux, optimized for major customers, appeared in June 1997 as a so-called business Linux product , which offered longer release cycles and extended support, and whose concept is being continued by SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES). SuSE Linux was in addition to the Intel - 80386 platform from version 6.1 on the DEC - Alpha AXP platform, version 6.3 on the PowerPC porting platform. In the further course versions for AMD Athlon 64 , Intel Itanium and IBM -S390- (Z-Series) systems were added.
For end users , three product lines were offered in versions 7.0 up to and including 9.1:
- Personnel : inexpensive with limited program scope
- Professional : with additional server and development software
- Campus : cheaper professional version without manual
In November 2003, the American software company Novell took over SUSE Linux GmbH, changing the name of the distribution from SuSE to SUSE from version 9.1 onwards. The takeover went hand in hand with further innovations such as the ability to install the operating system over the Internet via FTP , software offerings for 64-bit systems ( AMD64 and Intel 64 CPUs) and the release of YaST for the GNU General Public License . The innovations introduced by Novell also included the greater weighting of the Gnome desktop compared to the K Desktop Environment , which were offered equally as a pre-selection for the desktop environment .
For SUSE 9.2, comprehensive ISO images of the distribution were offered for download for the first time and the personal version was discontinued. The reduced campus version and the cheaper update package were sold up to and including version 9.3. As of version 10.0, the various product lines have been completely discontinued. From version 11.2 KDE Plasma Desktop is again the preselection for the desktop environment. Gnome is still offered.
With the creation of the openSUSE project, the development of SUSE Linux was made public, which means that users can also test the alpha and beta versions of SUSE Linux and report any bugs found in a public bug tracker . Furthermore, you can actively participate in the development of the project by contributing patches to existing packages or by contributing to the writing of the openSUSE documentation.
The first final version created with the participation of this project could either be downloaded as a complete open source distribution without any proprietary software ( SUSE Linux OSS 10.0 ) or it could be downloaded or bundled with proprietary software such as Adobe Reader and Flash Player as well as MP3 players purchased ( SUSE Linux 10.0 Eval ).
Since May 11, 2006, the "OSS" has been removed from the name. Furthermore, only versions are published that contain exclusively free software and drivers. However, up to and including version 11.0, proprietary software was still carried in a separate directory.
With the release of version 10.2 on December 7th, 2006, the name of the distribution was changed from SUSE Linux to openSUSE to reflect the influence of the project and to avoid confusion with the commercial offshoots.
At the end of January 2014, SUSE employee Michal Hrušecký announced that the employees employed by SUSE for the development of the openSUSE distribution would temporarily turn to other tasks within the openSUSE project, as a result of which the release of version 13.2 was postponed from July to November 2014. Significant innovations are the Btrfs / XFS file system established in SUSE Linux Enterprise and the current version of KDE Plasma 5 , which, however, must be installed from the repositories.
At the same time, the project gave up its distribution variant, previously called Tumbleweed . The name was retained for the rolling release , which is generated from the development branch ( factory ) using snapshots that have been tested with openQA . Unlike other distributions, Tumbleweed is a tested rolling release , which is very good for stability.
For the version released in autumn 2015, the development team has agreed on the name openSUSE Leap with the different version number 42.1. As in openSUSE Version 4.2 of May 1996, which was then called SuSE Linux, the number 42 refers to the question about "after life, the universe and all the rest" of the book series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy . In the future, the substructure will consist of software components that use the latest SUSE Linux Enterprise ; The project wants to take over desktop surfaces and applications from Tumbleweed , the rolling release edition of openSUSE.
At the openSUSE conference held in Nuremberg in 2016, statistics were announced that the number of users has increased since the conceptual reorientation with openSUSE Leap 42.1. According to this, the number of downloads is 400,000 DVD images per month and the trend is rising. Every month there would be 1,600 installations added and 500,000 packages installed. The number of Tumbleweed users is 60,000, half of whom update frequently . This means that the number of tumbleweed installations has doubled in the last year.
Another thing you can see from the statistics is that most installations are done from DVD images. The dominant architecture is x64 . According to these figures, the geographical distribution of users has hardly changed. A third of the users are from Germany, 12% are in the US, 5% in Russia and 3% in Brazil.
Special features of the distribution
A significant feature of the distribution is the in-house installation and configuration tool YaST (“Yet another Setup Tool”), which is a central tool for installing, configuring and administering the system. The program also provides a convenient way to search for packages.
The tool zypper , which has been used as a backend for package management since openSUSE 10.2, enables the resolution of dependencies, the installation and removal of packages and update management. Zypper also offers solutions to satisfiability problems and SAT problems . The installed repositories in zypper are synchronized with those in YaST, since YaST itself also uses libzypp as the package management engine.
Up to version Leap 15.0 YaST offered a clear software selection structured in a topic tree based on the RPM groups. It was ideal for discovering new software on specific topics. With this, Suse stood out positively from many software management tools from other distributions. From version Leap 15.1 onwards there are only flat, unstructured package groups.
Compared to other home user distributions, openSUSE uses the LSB certification .
The build service enables developers and users to package software for openSUSE and thus integrate it firmly and automatically into openSUSE. This allows openSUSE to provide a large amount of software and different versions.
OpenSUSE is traditionally a KDE- centric distribution. Its desktop environment, based on the Qt library , has been installed as the standard desktop environment since the late 1990s. SUSE Linux GmbH supports the KDE project financially. After the takeover of SUSE by the software company Novell, which had previously bought the company Ximian (today's name: Xamarin ) from the Gnome founder Miguel de Icaza , the emphasis on development work shifted more towards Gnome. As of openSUSE 10.3, Gnome and KDE Plasma Workspaces were now available as equivalent options on those installation media that contained both platforms . From version 11.2, KDE is the standard interface again. In addition to live DVDs provided as installation media, the only one of these included two desktop environments. Additional desktop environments such as Blackbox , IceWM , LXDE , LXQt , Openbox , Window Maker and Xfce are also supplied on the installation media .
Another special feature was the SUSE support database and the SUSE component database. Both provided extensive information and assistance for the installation and configuration of the system and the corresponding hardware. Above all, the hardware database has also been actively used by users of other distributions. Both mechanisms were also included on the distribution media and thus supplemented the product documentation. The support database (SDB) has been integrated into the openSUSE Wiki .
A test framework called openQA has been established since openSUSE 12.1 for the quality assurance of the continuously worked development branch . Basic functionality, e.g. B. Whether the boot loader, kernel and window management start as well as whether the standard programs such as browser and word processing are working properly can be checked continuously. Both the automatic installation and test component and the web interface were published as free software under the GNU GPL .
SUSE Linux products
openSUSE (formerly SuSE Linux)
- Is co-developed by the openSUSE community and published every 12 months.
- The distribution is available in several versions (KDE Live, Gnome Live, Full DVD, Netinstall) by download.
- Security and bug fix updates are offered for 18 months and are free of charge.
- Target group: private individuals
- Box versions are offered by third party providers such as the Open Source Press.
- Under the name “Evergreen”, selected versions as LTS were maintained by the community for an additional 6-30 months from 2011 to 2016 in order to enable longer use.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (SLED)
- The previous versions were named SUSE Linux Desktop 1 and Novell Linux Desktop 9 ( NLD ).
- Maintenance and security updates as well as support are offered for five or seven years, but require an active maintenance contract.
- Target group: Companies that need support and a long product life cycle for desktop systems
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES)
- Suitable for servers.
- Maintenance and security updates as well as support are offered for five or seven years, but require an active maintenance contract.
- Target group: companies
Branches of development
- openSUSE Factory is the main development branch of openSUSE. This branch leads to the respective upcoming release of the distribution.
- openSUSE Tumbleweed is a rolling release , but only with stable releases. Anyone can suggest new versions that the application developers consider stable. The administrators check this and ensure that there are no unpleasant surprises for the user when updating. This branch is aimed primarily at advanced users. In parallel to the release of openSUSE 13.2, Tumbleweed was combined with the "Factory" branch, which was previously managed separately.
SUSE Linux (up to version 10.1)
|Older version; no longer supported: 1.0||March 1994||1.0.0||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 1.0.9||July 1994||1.0.9||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11/94||November 1994||-||On Slackware basis|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4/95||April 1995||1.2.9||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8/95||August 1995||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9/95||September 1995||-||Linux aktuell , released every 2 months, German Slackware distribution from SuSE GmbH|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11/95||November 1995||1.2.13||-||First SuSE Linux|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.2||May 1996||1.2.13, 1.3.93||-||First official SuSE Linux|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.3||September 1996||2.0.18||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.4||November 1996||2.0.25||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.4.1||February 1997||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.0||June 1997||2.0.30||-||Based on RPM|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.1||November 1997||2.0.32||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.2||March 23, 1998||2.0.33||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.3||October 9, 1998||2.0.35||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.0||December 21, 1998||2.0.36||-||ALICE auto installation|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.1||April 7, 1999||2.2.5||-||Support for AXP platform|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.2||August 12, 1999||2.2.10||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.3||November 25, 1999||2.2.13||-||Support for PowerPC|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.4||March 27, 2000||2.2.14||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.0||September 27, 2000||2.2.16||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.1||January 24, 2001||2.2.18, 2.4.0||-||First version on DVD.|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.2||June 15, 2001||2.2.19, 2.4.4||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.3||October 13, 2001||2.4.10||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.0||April 22, 2002||2.4.18||-||First version of AutoYaST for automatic installation|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.1||September 30, 2002||2.4.19||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.2||April 7, 2003||2.4.20||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.0||October 15, 2003||2.4.21||-||Support for AMD64|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.1||April 23, 2004||2.6.4||1.3||Unicode ( UTF-8 ) fully implemented|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.2||October 25, 2004||2.6.8||2.0|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.3||April 16, 2005||184.108.40.206||-|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.0||October 6, 2005||2.6.13||3.0||Support from the openSUSE project|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.1||May 11, 2006||220.127.116.11||-||On October 13, 2006, SUSE Linux 10.1 was released again as a "Remastered Edition", which contained all updates released up to then.|
openSUSE (up to version 13.2)
|version||Code name||LTS||publication||End of support||Kernel||LSB||annotation|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.2||✘||December 7, 2006||November 30, 2008||2.6.18||3.1||ext3 replaces ReiserFS , better support for internal card readers, introduction of the suse-updater and zypper , KDE 3.5, Gnome 2.16, Xfce 4.2, Mesa 6.5, X.Org 1.2, OpenOffice 2.0|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.3||✘||4th October 2007||October 31, 2009||2.6.22||Presentation of the 1-click install feature, KDE 3.5, Gnome 2.20, Xfce 4.4, Mesa 7.0, X.Org 1.3, OpenOffice 2.3|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.0||✘||June 19, 2008||July 26, 2010||2.6.25||Revision of the installer design, KDE SC 4.0, Gnome 2.22, Xfce 4.4, Mesa 7.0, X.Org 1.4, OpenOffice 2.4|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.1||✔||December 18, 2008||April 13, 2012||2.6.27||3.2||Revision of various YaST modules, introduction of a YaST security module, KDE SC 4.1, Gnome 2.24, Xfce 4.4, Mesa 7.2, X.Org 1.5, OpenOffice 3.0|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.2||Emerald||✔||November 12, 2009||1. November 2013||2.6.31||4.0||ext4 replaces ext3 , presentation of the Web YaST configuration tool , support for in-place upgrades using zypper , KDE SC 4.3, Gnome 2.28, Xfce 4.6, Mesa 7.6, X.Org 1.6, OpenOffice 3.1|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.3||Teal||✘||July 15, 2010||January 20, 2012||2.6.34||Official support of the btrfs file system, LXDE is offered for the first time as an additional desktop environment , KDE SC 4.4, Gnome 2.30, Xfce 4.6, Mesa 7.8, X.Org 1.8, OpenOffice 3.2|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.4||Celadon||✔||March 10, 2011||July 1, 2014||2.6.37||Optimization of the boot process, implementation of the MultiCurl backend for ZYpp , KDE SC 4.5, Gnome 2.32, Xfce 4.8, Mesa 7.10, X.Org 1.9, OpenOffice 3.3|
|Older version; no longer supported: 12.1||Asparagus||✘||November 16, 2011||May 15, 2013||3.1||OpenOffice.org is replaced by LibreOffice 3.4, introduction of snapper for btrfs , systemd replaces init , KDE SC 4.7, Gnome 3.2, Xfce 4.8, Mesa 7.11, X.Org 1.10|
|Older version; no longer supported: 12.2||Mantis||✘||5th September 2012||15th January 2014||3.4||Changeover to GRUB 2 , introduction of Plymouth|
|Older version; no longer supported: 12.3||Dartmouth||✘||13th March 2013||19th January 2015||3.7||Among other things, the MySQL database was replaced by MariaDB and support for UEFI Secure Boot was incorporated; Since the two direct start systems with KDE Software Compilation (edition 4.10) and Gnome (edition 3.6) are now too big for normal CDs , a rescue system called Rescue - with around 570 megabytes and the desktop environment Xfce (edition 4.10) - is now offered|
|Older version; no longer supported: 13.1||Bottle||✔||19th November 2013||November 30, 2016||3.11||YaST porting from YCP to Ruby. Long-term support from the Evergreen project|
|Older version; no longer supported: 13.2||Harlequin||✘||4th November 2014||18th January 2017||3.16||Revised YaST installer and btrfs is used as the new standard file system. Gnome has been updated to version 3.14 and contains, among other things, new animations, better handling of WiFi hotspots and improvements in the applications. KDE applications come in version 4.14.2 and Xfce in version 4.10. Wicked is now the management program for the network and initial ramdisks are created using dracut .|
openSUSE Leap (from version 42.1)
|version||Code name||publication||End of support||Kernel||LSB||annotation|
|Older version; no longer supported: 42.1||Malachite||4th November 2015||May 16, 2017||4.1||5.0||In contrast to previous versions, it is not based on openSUSE Tumbleweed, but on SUSE Linux Enterprise 12.1. Due to the changed distribution base, the version nomenclature and the support duration of the distribution were also adapted. The publication of new versions is based on the SLES product cycle . Basically, a version should be supported for at least 36 months. Annual product updates lead to an increase in the minor version, whereby these are supported for 18 months from publication.
As one of the few Linux distributions, openSUSE Leap 42.1 recommends the file system btrfs for the system partition and XFS for data partitions. KDE Plasma Workspaces 4 will be replaced by KDE Plasma 5 version 5.4. The Gnome desktop environment has been updated to version 3.16. Xfce 4.12 and MATE 1.10 can also be used as a desktop environment. The distribution also contains the free graphics library Mesa 3D in version 11.0, the compiler suite GCC 4.8 and LibreOffice 5.0
|Older version; no longer supported: 42.2||November 16, 2016||January 26, 2018||4.4||Updates from Leap 42.1: systemd 228, Gnome 3.20, Qt , Kernel 4.4, KDE Plasma 5.8
No change from Leap 42.1: X Window System
|Older version; no longer supported: 42.3||July 26, 2017||June 30, 2019|
|Older version; no longer supported: 15.0||May 25, 2018||3rd December 2019||4.12||Updates from Leap 42.3: RPM Package Manager 4.14, KDE Plasma 5.12, Gnome 3.26, Xfce 4.12, MATE 1.20, Budgie 10.4,|
|Older version; still supported: 15.1||May 22, 2019||End of November 2020||4.12||Updates compared to Leap 15.0: the NetworkManager for laptops and desktops is used as standard . YaST has an improved partitioner, better management of services, and a new user interface for managing firewalls. OEM support for Slimbook and TUXEDO computers. Support for container technology like Singularity|
|Current version: 15.2||2nd July 2020||End of December 2021||5.3||Updates compared to Leap 15.1: Various artificial intelligence and machine learning packages have been added to Leap. With the new container technologies that are supported, openSUSE users now have more options to develop, ship and provide containerized applications. YaST has been further improved. The Yast partitioner can now manage the Btrfs file system.|
Known descendants ( derivatives ):
- available in the versions Static (based on openSUSE Leap) and Rolling (based on openSUSE Tumbleweed).
- with Enlightenment desktop, real-time kernel and software for musicians, media artists, producers of music (the project has been discontinued).
- Distribution optimized for use as workstation computers in schools.
- Distribution of the Ministry of Education of the Generalitat de Catalunya, specifically for use in educational institutions.
- Linux sample solution
- Server version distributed by the Baden-Württemberg State Media Center for school use (up to version 2.3, 2007).
- Live DVD focused on security.
- openSUSE Education
- an additional DVD for openSUSE containing over 100 applications for schools and universities.
- openSUSE Medical
- a distribution based on SUSE Studio for doctors, clinics and medical students.
- openSUSE.org project website with forum and German-language wiki
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- Linupedia Wiki from the Linux Club (responsible Thomas Mönkemeier)
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