Tübingen (noble family)

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Coat of arms of the Tübingen

The Count Palatine of Tübingen were a Swabian noble family who descended from the Counts of Nagold . They acquired extensive property and were particularly good at founding monasteries. The fragmentation into individual branch lines, an elaborate court keeping and generous donations to the monasteries they founded led to the economic decline of the family. The branches of the Counts of Tübingen-Lichteneck (until 1664) and the Counts of Montfort in Tettnang (1779) had the longest existence .



Nagold and Hohennagold Castle (around 1650)

Anselm von Nagoldgau (around 966) is the oldest documented Nagoldgau Count, to whose county the village of Kuppingen belonged in 966. This was followed by an Anselm von Nagoldgau (the younger) , which occurs in the years 1027 and 1048. Between the two Anselmen, who are the only known counts named after Nagoldgau, a Count Hugo I von Nagold appears, probably from the same family, in 1007 with the town of Holzgerlingen assigned to his Gau Glehuntare , and opens the series of those since the last quarter Hugos, Counts and Count Palatine of Tübingen, who became more common in the 11th century.

Tübingen was first mentioned in a document in 1078 in connection with the unsuccessful siege of the “castrum Twingia” by Heinrich IV in connection with the investiture controversy, although he did not succeed in conquering the castle. Hugo III but had to submit to Henry IV the following year. Hugo III and his brother founded the Blaubeuren monastery together .

Count Palatine of Tübingen

Family tree Pfalzgrafen von Tübingen, handwritten manuscript by the secret archivist Wilhelm Ferdinand Ludwig Scheffer , 1821

Hugo V. (1125–1152) was called Hugo I , Count Palatine of Tübingen, from 1146 onwards . Presumably, this increase in rank was based on services that he gave the Staufer Konrad III elected king in 1138 . had done. The dignity of the palatine count was no longer associated with the original task of looking after a royal palace, but meant a kind of control function and representation of the king within the tribal duchies and thus also the second position after the duke within the duchy. Associated with this was an increase in rank over other counts of the duchy and the right to exercise the office of judge in lieu of king. This went hand in hand with hunting, customs and coinage law , as the Tübinger Pfennig , which has been in use since 1185, shows.

Count Palatine Hugo II (1153–1182) married the heiress Elisabeth von Bregenz . He inherited Bregenz and other properties in Churrätien , Tettnang and Sigmaringen . In 1171 he founded the Marchtal monastery . His second son Hugo (-1230) established as Hugo I. the new independent line Montfort . The house of Montfort took over the Palatine coat of arms with changed coat of arms colors.

Count Palatine Hugos II. First son, Rudolf I , founded the Bebenhausen monastery around 1183 . He married Mechthild , the Countess of Gleiberg and heiress of Gießen . Her first son Rudolf II (1224–1247) received rule over Horb, Herrenberg and Tübingen after his father's death. The second son, Wilhelm , founded the Asperg-Gießen-Böblinger line.

Rudolf II's son was called Rudolf III at a young age . von Tübingen and later founded the Herrenberg Line as Rudolf I. der Scheerer , named (after Scheer an der Donau).

Gießen , which came to the House of Tübingen from the county of Gleiberg through the marriage of Rudolf I in 1181 , was sold to the Landgraves of Hesse in 1264 .

The individual lines gradually died out: Horb until 1293, Asperg after 1357, Böblingen until 1377, Herrenberg until 1667. The goods were mainly sold to Württemberg (Tübingen 1342) or donated to the Bebenhausen monastery .

coat of arms

Coats of arms of various lines of the Count Palatine of Tübingen from the Zurich coat of arms roll around 1335/45
Coat of arms of the Count Palatine of Tübingen from Johann Siebmacher's coat of arms book

The Tübingen coat of arms always shows the same picture in different colors (especially the color of the rings and fringes usually adapts to the flag):

  • A three-lobed red church flag ( gonfanon ) with golden rings and fringes in the golden shield represents the original coat of arms of the Count Palatine of Tübingen.
  • The Counts of Montfort took over the red flag, but in a silver shield. This became the heart shield of the Austrian state of Vorarlberg . The Feldkirch family also adopted the coat of arms.
  • The Counts of Werdenberg , who in turn split off from Montfort, chose a black flag in silver .
  • Werdenberg-Vaduz : Silver flag in black;
  • Werdenberg-Sargans : Silver flag in red. Via Werdenberg-Sargans- Trochtelfingen , which was taken over by the Fürstenberg family after it died out, the flag was also included in the Fürstenberg coat of arms.
  • All four lines of the Count Palatine of Tübingen: Tübingen , Herrenberg , Böblingen and Horb carried the Palatine coat of arms. Only the city of Horb later took over the Hohenberg coat of arms, the other main towns kept the coat of arms of the Palatinate. Herrenberg reversed the colors, the golden flag in red. Asperg had a split version. Since Duke Ulrich in 1514, Tübingen added crossed arms with stag sticks to the coat of arms .

Root list of the Count Palatine of Tübingen

Seal of the Tübingen Count Palatine
Donor figure of Countess Adelheid von Tübingen in the choir stalls of the Blaubeuren monastery
  1. Hugo I. von Tübingen (= Hugo V. von Nagold), († around 1152), shortly before 1146 raised by the Hohenstaufen to Count Palatine of Swabia , ∞ Hemma von Zollern, daughter of Count Friedrich I. von Zollern
    1. Friedrich , Count Palatine of Tübingen 1152–1162
    2. Hugo II. (1115–1182), Count Palatine of Tübingen 1152–1182, ∞ Countess Elisabeth of Bregenz , heiress of Bregenz , Montfort and Sigmaringen , daughter of Count Rudolf of Bregenz
      1. Rudolf I (1160–1219) Count Palatine of Tübingen 1182–1219, founded 1183 Monastery Bebenhausen ∞ Mechtild Countess of Gleiberg , heiress of Gießen
        1. Gottfried
        2. Rudolf II († 1247), Count Palatine of Tübingen, Vogt of Sindelfingen
          1. Hugo IV. († 1267), Count Palatine of Tübingen, Count of Horb, founder of the Horb line
            1. Rudolf (* 1259; † 1280), brother of the German order
            2. Hugo V. (* 1259; † 1277)
            3. Otto (* 1270; † 1289)
            4. Ludwig († 1294), Count of Horb, after his death, Horb passed through his sister to the Counts of Hohenberg
            5. Luitgard ∞ Burkhard IV of Hohenberg
          2. Rudolf I the Scheerer († 1277), Count of Tübingen in Herrenberg, founder of the Herrenberg line
            1. Eberhard († 1304), Count Palatine of Tübingen, sold Tübingen to the Böblingen line in 1294
            2. Rudolf II the Scheerer († 1317), Count of Tübingen in Herrenberg
              1. Ulrich
              2. Luitgard
              3. Nobility (died as a child)
              4. or according to other sources: Konrad I ("the Scheerer") († 1376), Count von Herrenberg
                1. Konrad II. († 1391), Count von Herrenberg, sold Herrenberg to Württemberg in 1382
                  1. Anastasia von Tübingen , Abbess of the St. Margarethen Monastery in Waldkirch
        3. Wilhelm († 1252) Count of Asperg-Gießen-Böblingen (Asperger Line) , his descendants sell in 1264 Gießen to the Landgraves of Hesse
          1. Rudolf IV. († 1271), Count of Böblingen
            1. Gottfried I († 1316), Count of Böblingen, Count Palatine of Tübingen ∞ Elisabeth von Fürstenberg
              1. Wilhelm († 1327), Count Palatine of Tübingen
                1. Gottfried II. († 1369), Count Palatine of Tübingen, sold Tübingen to Württemberg in 1342, inherited through his wife Lichteneck , founded the Tübingen-Lichteneck line
              2. AgnesUlrich von Rechberg the Elder
          2. Ulrich I. († 1283) , Count of Asperg, sold in 1264 Gießen
            1. Ulrich II. († 1341), Count von Beilstein, sold Asperg to Württemberg in 1308, ∞ Anna Countess von Löwenstein, heiress of Beilstein
              1. Wilhelm († 1357), sold Beilstein to Württemberg in 1340
        4. Hugo III (V.) (approx. 1185 - July 26, 1216)
        5. Elisabeth, nun in the monastery of St. Margarethen zu Waldkirch
        6. NN, ∞ Gottfried II., Margrave of Bonsberg († 1208)
      2. Hugo III von Tübingen (I. von Montfort, 1185–1228 / 30), Count of Bregenz and Montfort, founder of the → Montfort line , and from this the → Werdenberg line
    3. Heinrich von Tübingen (* around 1118; † April 7, 1167 in Italy in an epidemic)
    4. Adelheid of Tübingen (* around 1120) ∞ NN of Dachau

Tübingen-Lichteneck line

Count Georg II and Konrad V. von Tübingen, gentlemen of Lichteneck
  1. Gottfried II. († 1369), Count Palatine of Tübingen, sold Tübingen to Württemberg in 1342, now holds the title of Count of Tübingen and inherits the rule of Lichteneck through his wife Clara von Freiburg
    1. Konrad I († 1414), Count von Lichteneck
      1. Margaretha ∞ Hesso Margrave of Baden
      2. Konrad II. († 1449), Count von Lichteneck
      3. Rudolf called the Scheerer (* 1414)
        1. Conrad III. († 1477), Count von Lichteneck ∞ Anna Countess von Lupfen
          1. Ulrich (* 1479)
          2. Georg I († 1507), Count of Tübingen, Lord of Lichteneck ∞ Agatha Countess of Arco
            1. Konrad IV. (* 1449; † 1506), Count of Tübingen, Herr zu Lichteneck ∞ Sophia Bock from Strasbourg
              1. Konrad V. († 1569), Count of Tübingen, Mr. zu Lichteneck, from 1536 Mr. zu Lichteneck and Limburg ∞ Johanna Countess von Bitsch, ∞ Catharina Truchseß von Waldburg
                1. Agathe , Countess of Tübingen ∞ Eberhard Graf zu Hohenlohe († March 5, 1570)
                2. George III († at the Waldenburg Carnival in 1570), Count von Lichteneck ∞ Walpurg, Countess von Erbach
                  1. Eberhard (* 1573; † 14 September 1608), Count von Lichteneck, Duke of Württemberg Council, from 1587 Obervogt in the Black Forest ∞ Elisabeth Schenk von Limburg, widow of Jacob, Count von Geroldseck († 11 June 1654)
                    1. Agnes Maria (* 1599; † 1638) ∞ Wolfgang Friedrich Graf von Pappenheim, ∞ Friedrich Ludwig Graf von Löwenstein-Wertheim
                    2. Friedrich († 1622)
                    3. Eberhard († 1603)
                    4. Georg Eberhard († September 9, 1631), Count von Lichteneck
                    5. Konrad Wilhelm, Count of Tübingen-Lichteneck († 1630)
                      1. Elisabeth Bernhardine (born October 11, 1624 - † November 4, 1666) ∞ Karl Graf von Salm-Neuburg, inherits Lichteneck and sells it in 1664
                  2. Konrad (* 1573)
                  3. Albericus (* 1573 - † October 25, 1592 in Strasbourg slain by guards)
                  4. Hermann (* 1573; † 1585 in Padua)
                  5. Georg Posthumus († February 19, 1587)
            2. Georg II. Count of Tübingen, Herr zu Lichteneck (died unmarried)
          3. Heinrich, Teutonic Knight
          4. Johannes, Teutonic Knight
          5. Magaretha, Abbess of Buchau (* 1496)

Ludwig Uhland: The last Count Palatine

Count Palatine of Tübingen on David Wolleber's descendant
table from 1591

Ludwig Uhland set a literary monument to the decay of this once mighty ducal house with his poem “The Last Palatine”.

The last Count Palatine
I, Count Palatine Götz of Tübingen,
Sell ​​castle and town
With people, Gülten, field and forest:
I'm fed up with debt.
I just don't sell two rights
Two rights, good and old:
One in the monastery, with a neat tower,
And one in the green forest.
At the monastery we gave each other poor
And built us to the ground:
For that the abbot has to feed me
The hawk and the dog.
Around the monastery in the beautiful book,
There I have the jealousy:
If I keep that, I don't feel like that
Sorry for all of my other things.
And hear you little monks one day
No longer my hunter's horn,
Then pull the bell, find me!
I'm lying on the shady Born.
Bury me under a wide oak
In the green Vogelsang
And read me a hunter's mess
It doesn't take too long.

Manfred Eimer summarized the specific case as follows:

Around 1304, Count Palatine Gottfried I was heavily indebted to the Bebenhausen monastery. He gave the monastery extensive rights in the city. Böblingen and Calw were also transferred.

In 1311 King Heinrich VII had placed the Württemberg Count Eberhard the Illustrious under imperial ban. Count Palatine Gottfried I (Götz) was placed as field captain of the federal army against Eberhard, probably because, in contrast to the infantry of Esslingen's imperial city, he was also able to provide cavalry. After Eberhard's defeat in the course of the siege of the Württemberg ancestral castle on the Wirtemberg , Götz was able to collect the evacuated imperial army and inflict a defeat on Eberhard on May 22, 1311, combined with the destruction of the ancestral castle. In thanks, the city of Esslingen took over Gottfried's debt in Bebenhausen and redeemed the cities for him again.

But already his sons and then his grandson Gottfried III. were already so in debt that this time a contract with the city of Tübingen to take over the debts with Count Ulrich von Württemberg , Eberhard's son, as a “comforter” ( guarantor ) was concluded. For a period of 9 years, the city was given wide-ranging powers, such as the free choice of officials and the distribution of its tax revenues. 1342 Götz III arrives. in dispute with Ulrich von Württemberg. In the dispute between Ludwig the Bavarian and the Luxembourgers, the Count Palatine is probably on the wrong side this time. At the instigation of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria, he has to give Ulrich full satisfaction. He could only free himself from this predicament by selling. On December 5, 1342, he sold Tübingen for 20,000 gold hellers. He only reserved the following two rights:

1. the dog clutch in Bebenhausen (the monks had to entertain him with hunting dogs and provide them if necessary) and
2. his hunting rights in the Schönbuch.

But as early as 1344 the debt burden was so high that he had to sell both rights and the city of Böblingen to Count Ulrich and Eberhard von Württemberg. But he got it back, in care. Likewise, he, or better said his wife Clara von Freiburg, was forced to pay her uncle, Count Egon von Freiburg, 1000 Marks of silver after the death of her father, Count Friedrich von Freiburg on November 9, 1356, all claims to the rule of Freiburg in 1365 for sale. A fiefdom of the German kings had become a Württemberg fief.

Johann Georg , also known as Hansjörg or "Captain" Tübinger, was the last male descendant of the Palatine family. During the Thirty Years' War he served his duke as castle commandant .


  • Ludwig Schmid : History of the Count Palatine of Tübingen, according to mostly unpublished sources, together with the document book. A contribution to Swabian and German history , Fues, Tübingen 1853 ( digitized in the Google book search)
  • Manfred Eimer: Tübingen, castle and city until 1600 . Tubingen 1940.
  • Gerhard Köbler : Historical lexicon of the German countries. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 7th, completely revised edition. CH Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54986-1 .
  • Decker-Hauff, Hansmartin / Quarthal, Franz [ed.]: The Count Palatine of Tübingen. Urban politics - Pfalzgrafenamt - aristocratic rule in Breisgau . Sigmaringen 1981.
  • Sönke Lorenz : The Count Palatine in Swabia from the 9th to the early 12th century . In: Andreas Bihrer u. a. (Ed.): Nobility and royalty in medieval Swabia. Festschrift for Thomas Zotz on his 65th birthday , Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2009, pp. 205–233, ISBN 978-3-17-020863-6 .
  • Oliver Auge : The Count Palatine and the beginnings of the city of Tübingen . In: Sigrid Hirbodian / Tjark Wegner (ed.): Tübingen. From the history of the city and the university , Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2018, pp. 11–30, ISBN 978-3-7995-2073-7 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Eduard Paulus: Description of the Oberamt Herrenberg.
  2. Friedrich Pfalzgraf von Tübingen , after Dr. L. Schmid: History of the Count Palatine of Tübingen - according to mostly unprinted sources, together with the document book - a contribution to Swabian and German history, 1853, page 62.
  3. a b c The Count Palatine of Tübingen. ( Memento of the original from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.horb-alt.fds.bw.schule.de
  4. ^ Name addition according to Rudolf II. , After Dr. L. Schmid: History of the Count Palatine of Tübingen 1853, page 175–191. At a young age he was called Rudolf III. from Tübingen . In the documents of the Stuttgart Capital Archives, the name suffix only appears from 1306
  5. Coat of arms of the Herrenberg, see e.g. Codex Ingeram , 1459, p. 92 (image file, Wikimedia Commons)
  6. ^ Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, holdings A 602: Württembergische Regesten . Documents from 1306 and later prove the addition to the name of this Rudolf
  7. ^ Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, document from 1328 “… sell Count Rudolf and Konrad to Scheerern v. Tübingen all their goods ... “; the year of death of the aforementioned "Rudolf" contradicts the date of this document
  8. Asperger's coat of arms, see for example Codex Ingeram , 1459, p. 92 ; the Zurich coat of arms around 1330 still gives the golden Gonfanon in red for No. 17 Asperg , that is, the later Herrenberg colors; the Wernigeroder (Schaffhausensche) Wappenbuch around 1500, p. 160 gives Asperg a silver-red split gonfanon on a black-silver split shield (a branch line?); all links image files, Wikimedia Commons (Zurich coat of arms, see picture above).
  9. ^ Johann Daniel Georg von Memminger: Description of the Oberamt Biberach: With a map of the Oberamt, a view of Biberach and four tables. Cotta, 1837, page 173 of 211 pages
  10. ^ Hugo I. von Tübingen, Count von Bregenz and Montfort , according to Genealogical Handbook for Swiss History, Volume I, page 150, quoted by Manfred Hiebl.
  11. a b c d e f g h i Julius Kindler von Knobloch and Baden Historical Commission (ed.): Oberbadisches Geschlechtbuch (Volume 1): A - Ha, Heidelberg, 1898, page: 255.
  12. ^ Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg: Fiefdom and aristocracy archive , Spezialia, T.
  13. ZGORh. Vol. 16, p. 116
  14. ^ Karl Eduard Paulus: Description of the Oberamt Tübingen. Page 188.