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EP-V3A 6001 in Victoria tram depot.jpg
Number: V951: 37
V54: 265
Manufacturer: Electroputere
Year of construction (s): V951: 1951-1953
V54: 1955-1959
EP / V3A: 1976-1982
Axis formula : B'B '
Gauge : 1435 mm ( standard gauge )
Length over coupling: 14,805 mm
Length: 14,200 mm
Width: 2,292 mm
Trunnion Distance: 6,010 mm
Bogie axle base: 1,800 mm
Empty mass: 18,000 kg
Power system : 600 V = ( Oradea , Timișoara ) or
750 V = ( Bucharest )
Power transmission: Overhead line
Number of traction motors: 4th
Operating mode: One-way vehicle
Seats: 22nd
Particularities: not capable of multiple traction, designed for passenger flow

The V54 , also written V-54 , was a Romanian tram - railcar made by the manufacturer Electroputere (EP) from Craiova . The company - actually a locomotive manufacturer - produced a total of 265 of these open seating cars in the second half of the 1950s . They arrived at the tram Bucharest , in the tram Oradea and the tram Timişoara used. The type designation is a short form for vagon de anul 1954  - Romanian for car of the year 1954 - and is derived from the year of construction. In Oradea and Timisoara , the four-axle, were based on the - some American US by the Pullman Company produced - PCC streetcar , also known as Type Pullman referred.

Predecessor series V951

The V54 is largely identical to the three years older Bucharest type V951, which was also known as the Festival . It was named after the World Festival of Youth and Students , which took place in Bucharest in 1953. The 37 copies with the company numbers 3001 to 3037 were still produced directly by the main workshop of the Bucharest transport company - at that time Întreprinderea de Transport București or ITB for short  . The prototype was completed in 1951, the series cars followed in 1952 (six pieces) and 1953 (30 pieces). After the type Gb 2/2 of the Timișoara tram, which was produced from 1948 , the V951 was the second modern large-capacity tram in Romania.

Like the type V54 later, the festival wagons also had conventional peg bearing motors and direct shifting, which meant that they could not be operated in multiple traction. Car 3037 came to Electroputere in Craiova in 1954 and served as a prototype for the later V54 series, in this context the design was slightly revised and improved.

The Bucharest main workshop, on the other hand, used the capacities that had become available to modernize the old wagons with wooden bodies, some of which were built before the First World War . In this way, the Reko type V10 sidecars and finally from 1956 the Reko type V56 railcars were built

Operation companies V54


Two V54 or V951 railcars meet at the university, on the right with a non-motorized V54 as a sidecar, on the left with a V12 two-axle sidecar
June 1996: The 1978 modernized railcar 6032 with a V12 / V3A sidecar

In the years 1955 to 1959, 231 railcars were delivered to Bucharest, by far the largest share of the V54 production, with the first car leaving the factory in Craiova on January 8, 1955. The V54 were added to the inventory there under the company numbers 3038 to 3268, whereby the festival car number 3037, which was used as a prototype, was henceforth partly also listed as the V54. However, due to the lack of electrical equipment, 106 of them initially had to run as a sidecar and during this phase carried the type designation V13, they could only be completed in the 1960s:

1961: 26 subsequently motorized
1962: 20 subsequently motorized
1963: 18 subsequently motorized
1964: 21 subsequently motorized
1965: 21 subsequently motorized

The later motorized sidecars were in turn replaced by two-axle V12 sidecars specially produced for this purpose, 43 of which were put into operation in 1964 and another 60 in 1965.

One festival and three V54 railcars were withdrawn from the stock relatively early in 1968. The main workshop of the Bucharest tram - which now operated under the name of Uzina de Reparaţii Atelierele Centrale , URAC for short - finally modernized the 264 remaining vehicles extensively in the years 1976 to 1982. Here again 92 railcars were demotorized. As a result - due to the modern bogies taken over from the V3A series  - the new EP / V3A series was created, but the newly created sidecars were also referred to as type V14:

modernized modernized and converted to a sidecar
1976: 6001 6201
1977: 6002-6023 6202-6223 twelve of them festival
1978: 6024-6043 6224-6243 eight of them festival
1979: 6044-6068 6244-6268 including two festival
1980: 6069-6093 6269-6286, 6288-6292 including eleven festival
1981: 6094-6162 including two festival
1982: 6163-6172

In addition to the new bogies, the converted wagons could be recognized by the new single-arm pantographs , the one-piece windshield with new line display and the folding doors. Before that, they had two-part sliding doors, a two-part windshield and a simple line number display. They also received new electrical equipment. From 1980 URAC also converted 80 older two-axle sidecars into four-axle sidecars, especially for use behind the EP / V3A multiple units, and gave them new numbers:

1980: 6287
1981: 6294-6362
1982: 6363-6372
Driver's cab

The V12 sidecars from the 1950s and 1960s served as donor cars. The conversion wagons also received V3A bogies and were therefore designated as V12 / V3A, but alternatively also as V15. Hence, the 172 four-axle EP / V3A railcars were now available with exactly 172 four-axle sidecars. However, due to numerous defective railcars, the Bucharest Transport Company also formed Electroputere three-car trains with one railcar and two trailers from 1988 onwards. In the second half of the 1990s, used trams taken over from West Germany finally replaced the EP / V3A, which were removed from the stock as follows:

1995: 55 railcars and 55 sidecars (32 EP / V3A and 23 V12 / V3A) retired
1999: 51 railcars and 60 sidecars (30 EP / V3A and 30 V12 / V3A) retired
2000: 66 railcars and 57 sidecars (30 EP / V3A and 27 V12 / V3A) retired

The last Electroputere trains in Bucharest therefore ran in 2000, and some were also retained as work cars .


The 20 wagons for Timișoara were delivered as follows:

  • 1955: 5 cars (208–212)
  • 1956: 7 cars (213-219)
  • 1959: 8 cars (220-227)

The numbering followed the seven Gb 2/2 open-plan cars with the numbers 201 to 207. For systematic reasons, cars 208 and 209 were given the new numbers 228 and 229 in 1964, which is why 22 cars are mentioned in some sources. At times the type V54 was also referred to as T.8 in Timișoara. The V54 were initially only used solo in Timișoara. In the years 1961 to 1966, the tram company called Întreprinderea de Transport Timișoara (ITT) from 1962 finally procured 41 two-axle V12 sidecars from ITB. Of these, 24 were intended for use behind the V58, while the remaining 17 were intended for the V54. In the 1960s, the Electroputere railcars were also fitted with pneumatic folding doors as follows:

  • 1965: 210 and 228
  • 1966: 211, 215, 220 and 229
  • 1967: 212, 213, 214, 216, 218, 219 and 226
  • 1968: 217, 221, 222, 224, 225 and 227
  • 1969: 223

Because the Timișoara tram network was mainly designed for bidirectional traffic in the 1950s , the first V54s could only be used on line 2 (renamed line 1 in 1962) and ring line  6. It was not until October 1959 that a second ring line was set up - Line 5, which was renamed Line 7 in 1962 - a third route was added. The closure of the ring in the Fabric district finally made it possible to use Line 3 from the end of 1959, which was renamed Line 2 in 1962. However, after the ring traffic on line 7 was interrupted again in 1969 due to the closure of the line through what was then Calea Șagului , line 7 was no longer used as an area of ​​operation after ten years.

Between 1972 and 1976, the V54 were then also replaced on the main lines 1, 2 and 6 by Timiș-2 trains. In the second half of the 1970s, they could be found on Line 8, which was newly introduced in 1973, and briefly on Line 4 from 1976, and finally on Line 7 until the mid-1980s, which again operated as a ring line with one-way cars from 1980 has been. With the exception of car 229, which served as a work car for a few years, all Timișoara V54s were scrapped. After wagon 229 had also been broken off in 1996, the local transport company - at that time still called Regia Autonomă de Transport Timișoara - procured the railcar 6026 from Bucharest in 1999 in order to be able to show a V54 in Timișoara for historical reasons. The railcar was restored in 2008 and given the number 229.


Oradea was allocated the lowest number of cars with 14 cars; they were delivered there as follows:

1956: Railcar 44, 45 and 46
1957: Railcar 47 and 48
1958: Railcar 49, 50 and 51
1959: Railcars 52, 53 and 54,
side cars 111, 112 and 113

The three most recently delivered sidecars were already motorized in the first half of the 1960s and were given the new numbers 58, 59 and 60 in this context. Particularly characteristic of the Oradeaer V54 was its lyre pantograph . As in the other two cities, they were used both solo and together with two-axle ITB sidecars. While all 14 railcars were still available at the end of 1980, there were only five V54s in stock at the end of 1986, before these were also retired in 1989 and replaced by Timiș 2 trains and V2A and V3A articulated cars . In Oradea, the carts were nicknamed săgeata roşie , Romanian for red arrow .

Passenger flow

Interior view of the Bucharest museum car number 6001

A special feature was the passenger flow process originally used in the V54. Entry was initially via the slightly wider door area in the middle, the conductor seated there handling two passengers at the same time. These then moved either to the left or to the right into the car, the passage between the two halves of the car was prevented by a bar. The exit was via the somewhat narrower doors at the front and rear. However, this principle did not prove itself, which is why the cars were later converted to a normal passenger flow with entry at the rear door - where the conductor's seat was from now on .


  • Dorin Sarca, Gh. Radulovici: Centenarul tramvaielor din Timișoara, monograph 1869-1969 . Timișoara 1969.
  • Hans Lehnhart and Claude Jeanmarie: Tram Companies in Eastern Europe II . Verlag Eisenbahn, Villingen 1977, ISBN 3-85649-032-9 .
  • 1869 −1994, 125 de ani de circulație cu tramvaiul în Timișoara, monograph . Timișoara 1994.
  • A. Günther, S. Tarkhov, C. Blank: Tram atlas Romania 2004 . Working group Blickpunkt Straßenbahn e. V., Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-926524-23-5 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Favázas NVV kocsik on eminescu.rdsor.ro ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.eminescu.rdsor.ro
  2. Drapelul roșu newspaper
  3. Uzina de Reparaţii - Atelierele Centrale on www.ratb.ro
  4. ^ Tram atlas Romania 2004. Page 10
  5. 1869 −1994, 125 de ani de circulație cu tramvaiul în Timișoara, monograph . Timișoara 1994.
  6. Borcea Liviu, Mihai Apan, Moisa Gabriel: De la o stație la alta. Editura Arca, Oradea 2006, p. 120.
  7. Ronald Hochhauser, Nagy István: 110 ani de transport public cu tramvaiul electric în Oradea, 2016, p. 138, online at crisia.mtariicrisurilor.ro, accessed on March 31, 2020
  8. Hans Lehnhart: The tram companies in Romania. Reprint from the trade journal DER STADTVERKEHR issue 11 / 12-1966 and 3/1967, p. 4.