Russow village church

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Russow village church
Russow village church

The village church Russow is a medieval brick building in Russow, a district of Rerik in the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . The parish belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany .


The village of Russow was first mentioned on November 28, 1305 as to Rossow . But already on May 16, 1245 a pastor Theodericus de Rossowe was named in a document. In 1308, Prince Heinrich von Mecklenburg sold Russow, Rakow and Altbukow to the Holy Spirit Hospital in Lübeck for 1,360 Marks Lübisch Pfennig . In 1318 the village came under the sovereignty of the von Plessen, von Preen and von Stralendorf rulers, along with the island of Poel and other villages. On November 22, 1318, Prince Heinrich von Mecklenburg sold the property of the entire island of Poel and several villages, including Russow, to the knights Helmold von Plessen , Berthold and Gottschalk von Preen and Friedrich von Stralendorff in Wismar . In 1344 the Rathmann Johann von Kröpelin zu Wismar von Reimar von Plessen acquired properties in Russow, with which he granted a vicarie in St. Marien in Wismar. On June 28, 1345 a Hermann von Oertzen van Rogghowe was named in connection with Dobberan monastery affairs . Since 1466, possibly even earlier, the history of Russow and the village church has been shaped by the centuries-long patronage of the von Oertzen family, who have their headquarters in the neighboring village of Roggow . At that time Russow was a small village with a small church, nine farms and the Vorwerk estate. In 1568 and 1594 Jaspar II. Von Oertzen on Roggow opposed the church visitation in Russow.

During the Thirty Years' War , four of the nine farms in the village of Russow were almost devastated and all of them abandoned by the peasants. It was only after 1645 that Jasper von Oertzen managed to set up a dairy there. Jasper von Oertzen died on June 23, 1649.

From 1900, District Administrator Helmuth Friedrich von Oertzen auf Roggow had been in legal dispute with the Church of Russow for seven years about the publication of Pfarracker. The patron died on January 8, 1909 at the age of 75. His mother-in-law, Rat Therese Tretow vom Hof Zweedorf , gave the Infirmary Foundation, which was founded in 1893, a capital of 25,000 marks.

Building history

It is not known exactly when the Russow village church was built. The period from the end of the 13th to the beginning of the 14th century is assumed. Friedrich Lisch estimates that the church was built around 1275, but keeps the nave younger for 100 years.

On the north side of the church there is a walled up burial chapel with coffins.

In 1655 the rectory burned down by chance while Pastor Joachim Möring was in the church. During his tenure, the rectory was rebuilt.

In 1814 the rectory burned down for the second time and was rebuilt on the same site as a single - storey half-timbered house with a high half- hipped roof and barn. The pastor's horse, cow and sheep were also housed in the barn and the cowherd had his bedroom. In 1817 the patron, District Administrator Jasper VI. von Oertzen (1768–1835) to mark the anniversary of the Reformation using the bricklayer to repair the outside walls and pillars as well as the entire roof, whitewash the inside church walls, lay the floor, repair the pews, the windows on the north side and a new one Make a gate on the west side. At Pentecost 1841, the church patron Wilhelm Detlof von Oertzen (1806–1849) had the whole church whitewashed from his own resources, the two chairs between the pulpit and the confessional redone and painted, the organ and the altar painted and this with new beautiful figures and Decorate golden strips, make a new border around the altar and paint all the pews. His wife, Mrs. Eleonore von Oertzen, b. von Klitzing gave the church red velvet ceilings with golden counters to cover the altar and the pulpit. Her two coats of arms are on the parapet of the organ gallery. On December 12, 1863, Pastor Friedrich Ludwig Franz Lechner celebrated his 50th anniversary in office with the award of a councilor. He was active in Russsow from 1813 to 1872. He experienced a nasty surprise on August 21, 1864, when the church tower was struck by lightning and suffered severe distortion . In the Russow church book he noted: On August 21, at 9 o'clock in the evening, a violent thunderstorm hit the tower of this church (which, according to the local chronicle, had the same fate 164 years ago), damaging the belfry and the organ in the church Kind of, that the big bell as well as the organ have become unusable for the moment. The lightning had ignited only in the top of the tower. There was nothing to be done with the local extinguishing tools, part of the tower burned and collapsed. For the next forty years it had only been temporarily secured. In July 1901, District Administrator Helmut Friedrich von Oertzen, as patron of the Rusow Church, wrote in the parish register: In 1901 my wife, District Administrator Sophie von Oertzen, born Schröder, had this tower rebuilt. The construction is carried out according to plans and under the direction of the secret court building officer Möckel zu Doberan. The carpenter Rosenkranz and master mason Danehl zu Neubukow and the master roofer Christians from Rostock contributed to the construction. The current preacher is prepositus Berger.

From 1901 to 19034 the church was extensively rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style according to plans by the Doberan architect and court building councilor Ludwig Möckel , and the interior of the church was extensively renovated.

In 1949, Mayor Abshagen made the Oberkirchenrat in Schwerin aware of the dilapidation of the church tower. The answer was to wait for better times. In 1952 the church received electric lighting. In 1968 the danger from the desolate condition of the tower became more and more threatening that in October 1969 the dismantling of the spire began. The subsequent carpentry and roofing work dragged on until May 1973. The small towers on the buttresses of the tower, the choir and the south chapel with the chimney have been removed. The south porch was due to strong dry rot canceled -Befalls in wood and masonry in 1972,

By resolution of the Bad Doberan District Council on May 6, 1976, the Russow Church was included in the district monument list and placed under monument protection on September 1, 1979. A new extension was planned in 1991, but was not carried out due to financial difficulties.

Building description

The Russow village church is a rectangular brick building that was started with hewn field stones up to a different height .


The two-bay nave is a little younger than the two-bay , slightly retracted choir . On the south side there is a square chapel extension , its gable is decorated on the slopes with blinds, pinnacles and crabs . A little later a sacristy was added to the north side . The neo-Gothic west tower , with a square floor plan, was built with side extensions from 1901 to 1904 according to plans by Gotthilf Ludwig Möckel . The eight-sided pointed helmet was broken off in 1969.


Groin vaults were drawn in in the nave, in the annex and in the choir . The two eastern bays are separated from the two western ones by a triumphal arch. There are wall preserved and vault paintings from the construction period. From the 15th to the 19th century, the interior furnishings were continually supplemented and changed, with the various members of the von Oertzen family being responsible for the financing as patrons, as was the case with the two-storey patronage box in the choir after 1700. Major renovations, especially painting, were carried out 1702 and 1703, 1817 and 1813 were arranged by the patronage families. In the vault the representations of the Last Judgment, various saints and tendrils can be seen, on the east wall a picture of St. Christopher . The paintings were uncovered and extensively supplemented between 1901 and 1904. The building has been extensively renovated since 2006; the floor was renewed, the stone walls were drained and the roof was re-covered.


The masonry substructure of the altar was preserved during the church renovation in 1901–1904. The red marble slab mentioned on the altar table can no longer be seen because the altar is covered with a wooden plate under the altar cloth. The baroque altarpiece, commissioned by Joachim von Oertzen in 1668 on the orders of his mother Eva von Pentz, has been lost. The now existing, neo-Gothic altarpiece was probably made by the Doberan court carpenter Albert Kasch . When the church was redesigned from 1901 by the court building officer Ludwig Möckel , who worked at the Doberaner Munster , the oak wood carved with artistic carvings and a crucifix and crowned with a white body came into the church. Unfortunately, the neo-Gothic altar is no longer completely preserved, the Christ body was removed because it was dilapidated. The now existing wooden Christ body was created in 2003 by the Chemnitz artist Oliver Lasch. Abel, the shepherd, and Isaac, son of Abraham, can be seen in the lower left of the altarpiece. Above left the high priest Aaron and right the image of Melchizedech with bread and wine.


The pulpit is said to date from 1702. The polygonal pulpit shows colored representations of the four evangelists Matthew , Mark , Luke and John . The individual fields are separated from one another by artfully turned small wooden columns. Below the evangelist pictures there are small medallions with the traditional symbols of the evangelists. The entire pulpit rests on a large twisted column. In the inventory of 1811, a special preacher accessory is listed: To the right there is a glass sand clock of 4 minutes , which is no longer there.

The pulpit cover, also known as the sound cover, with rich carving and the crowning pelican is older and is dated to 1624. It has the inscription: Father, sanctify us in your truth, your word is the truth. The coat of arms of the von Oertzen and von Bülow families can be seen next to the pelican to crown the sound cover. These probably stand for Helmut Friedrich von Oertzen (1673–1754), who was married to Susanna von Bülow (1686–1754) for the first time. The pulpit originally stood on the south side of the church and was moved to the north side together with the pulpit cage in 1702. The renovation could be the reason that the pulpit basket is not exactly in the middle of the pulpit. The panels of the apostles Peter and Paul can be found at the entrance door to the pulpit . On the back wall of the pulpit you can read: Blessed are those who hear God's word and keep it.

Baptismal font

To the north of the altar is the Romanesque baptismal font made of limestone , also called Taffünte, in the shape of a chalice and decorated with a round-arched dazzle and is said to date from the middle of the 13th century. The baptismal font was not always in its current location, was not in use for a long time and was parked in various places. In the inventory from 1811 it is noted: The font is out of use, put away and is under the organ, for sale. In 1817, for the great Reformation anniversary, the baptismal font is said to have been in the south chapel again, after which it was placed in the morgue and in 1904 it was on the north side of the choir, the current location.

Patronage Lodge

On the south wall in the choir there is a two-storey patronage box, also known as the Oertzen chair, with artfully carved tendril and column ornaments. The lodge was built at the instigation of Joachim von Oertzen in 1700. The year and the coat of arms above on the front of the box stand for Joachim von Oertzen (1642–1707) and his second wife Barbara von der Lühe (1660–1729).

Opposite the Oertzen box, built onto the pulpit, there is another patronage seat. Two wooden coats of arms incorporated on the left and right represent Jürgen I. von Oertzen (1589–1618) and his wife Anna von der Wische († 1616) as the patron saint at the time. The two colored metal coats of arms of those von Oertzen in the middle are probably former coffin fittings.


In 1700, Joachim von Oertzen, as patron of the church, had a new organ with the organ prospect built by the organ builder Johann Engelbrecht Gebhardt from Rostock . The Russow organ is of great importance for the organ landscape of Mecklenburg today. It is regarded as the last still tangible evidence of Gerhardt's working method with regard to the shop and action construction and as the first new organ built by the Rostock organ builder. It is one of the oldest organs in Mecklenburg from the heyday of the north German organ baroque. Its housing resembles the pulpit staircase in certain features. In 1703 the organ and the case were painted in color and noted in the church book as painted and decorated . In 1841 the color of the organ prospectus was renewed.

Hidden behind the music stand , on the back of the so-called wave board , the history of the organ can be read through ancient pencil entries. For example, that the Rostock organ builder Paul Schmidt worked on the organ in 1756 and 1781 and that in 1822 the organ builder Heyl from Wismar carried out a repair. In 1892 the organ builder Edmund Bruder from Wismar undertook a fundamental renovation; all inner pipes were removed and only the decommissioned prospect pipes were retained. Four new registers were installed on the original wind chest.

Since 1981, the instrument was no longer playable and was shut down. After almost thirty years, the organ was returned to its presumed original condition by Jehmlich Orgelbau , Dresden, and can be played again after the organ was consecrated on December 6, 2009. A mid-tone mood was set. The pitch is about a semitone above normal tuning. The disposition of the single-manual and pedalless instrument has the following nine registers :

Manual CDEFGA – c 3
Principal 8th'
Gedact 8th'
Octave 4 ′
Gedact 4 ′
Nasat 3 ′
Suboctave 2 ′
Mixture V-VI
Dulcian 16 ′
Trumpet 8th'

coat of arms

In the church in Russow there are 33 coats of arms of ten noble families on the organ loft, the patronage box, the pulpit, the stalls, the grave slab and the windows . These include those from Bülow, von Klitzing, von der Lühe, von Lützow, von Oertzen, von Pentz, von Plessen, von Pogwisch, von Schröder and von der Wische.

The wooden parapet of the organ gallery is provided with 16 coats of arms of the Roggow-based estate owners von Oertzen, who belonged to eight generations of the families. Name the coats of arms in chronological order from left to right:

  • Jasper II. (1568–1618) and Margarete von Pogwisch.
  • Jasper III. (1600–1649) and Eva von Pentz (1598–1666).
  • Joachim (1642–1701) and I. 1669 Charlotte Baronin Erskin (1653–1673) and II. 1676 Barbara von der Lühe (1660–1729).
  • Helmut Friedrich (1673–174) and I. Susanna von Bülow (1686–1727) and II. Elisabeth von Bülow.
  • Wilhelm Friedrich (1747–1773) and Ida von Bülow (* 1747).
  • Jasper VI. (1768-1835) and Luise von Pentz (1772-1840).
  • Wilhelm Detlof (1806–1849) and 1832 Eleonore von Klitzing (1811–1889).
  • Helmut Friedrich (1833–1909) and 1879 Sophie Schröder (1854–1930).

Grave slab

In front of the altar is the grave slab of Jasper von Oertzen (1670–1728) with his coat of arms and the coats of arms of his two wives Sophie Charlotte von Lützow (1677–1720) and Agnes Emilie von Plessen (1688–1733). The text reads: Mr. Jasper v. Oertzen auf Roggow and Wakendorf Hereditary Lord, Her Royal Majesty in Denmark and Norway appointed Lieutenant Colonel in Roggow born 1670, on August 30th, died on December 10th 1728 at the age of 58 years, 3 months and 11 days. The funeral text from Psalm 116, verses 7–8, is written on the edge around the grave slab.

Below the grave slab is a vaulted family crypt, which was last examined in 1904 by Helmut Friedrich von Oertzen and then filled in. There should be three different burial chambers, two of them underground, the third above ground, visible from the outside and bricked up.


The foundry logo by Timmo Jheger

Two bells once hung in the belfry in the tower. The large still existing Hosanna bell with a diameter of 1277 mm with the large Aachen pilgrimage sign was cast in 1435 by Lübeck caster Timmo Jheger in 1435. The bell bears the cross of St. Anthony, the foundry mark and the inscription Hosanna, my name is Timmo Jheger, he poured me, amen . The small, no longer existing bell had the inscription O Rex glorie veni cum pace ano dni MCCCCIIII came from the year 1404 and is said to have cracked as early as 1773.

The sacred objects include a gilded silver chalice from 1753, a gilded silver paten from the 18th century, and a silver box from 1817. The silver baptismal bowl was made between 1860 and 1870.


On the north side of the cemetery is the burial chapel of the von Oertzen family, built in 1849. Other graves of the patronage family are located around them. On the gable of the chapel is the double coat of arms of Oertzen and von Klitzing and the year 1849. The chapel was probably built on the occasion of the death of Wilhelm Detlof von Oertzen on July 27, 1849. He was only 43 years old, left behind his widow and eleven underage children. The life dates of the deceased and his wife Eleonore von Klitzing can be found on tin plates, presumably as coffin fittings, on a memorial stone on the burial site. The wife's grave slab is next to the chapel. There are still three grave slabs on the south side of the church.


Names and years indicate the verifiable mention as pastor.

  • 1245– 0000Theodericus de Russowe.
  • 1306 - 0000Pleban Gerhard.
  • 0000–1599 Joachim N ..., then transferred to Bukow.
  • 1599–1614 Heinrich Detlovius.
  • 1614–1650 Johann Möhring.
  • 1651–1694 Joachim Möhring, son of the predecessor, built a new parsonage under him in 1655.
  • 1694–1699 Johann Martin Dantz.
  • 1699–1709 Johann Daniel Sukow.
  • 1710–1731 Werner Erich Tannmacher.
  • 1731–1772 Emanuel Dietrich Collasius, also Biendorf.
  • 1774–1812 Christian Rudolph Gesinius.
  • 1813–1872 Friedrich Ludwig Franz Lechler, 1863 Church Councilor on the 50th anniversary of his office.
  • 1873–1909 Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm Berger.
  • 1909–1915 Martin Wilhelm Stammer.
  • 1917–1922 Herbert Leopold Vossberg.
  • 1922–1951 Hugo Kalkhofen, also Biendorf.
  • 1953–1957 Hansalbrecht Steffen, also Biendorf.
  • 1957–1972 Günter Pistor, also Biendorf.
  • 1973–1978 Hans-Hinrich Griesbach, also Biendorf.
  • 1979–2003 Wolfgang Graf, also Biendorf.
  • 2003–2017 Karen Siegert, also Rerik and Biendorf .
  • 2018– 0000Jean-Dominique Lagies, also Rerik and Biendorf.

Today's church

The parish Russow was from 1 April 1972 to 30 November 2003 with the parish Biendorf connected, the parish seat was Biendorf. Russow has been associated with the Rerik parish since December 1, 2003 and was declared a dormant pastor's office from July 1, 2004. The districts of Biendorf with church, Büttelkow, Gersdorf, Horst, Roggow, Russow with church, Wischuer and Zweeedorf belong to today's Evangelical Lutheran parish Biendorf - Russow. The parish of Russow is looked after today by Pastor Jean Dominique Lagies from Rerik.

Support association

The Friends of the Village Church Russow e. V. was founded in 1999 with the aim of maintaining and renewing the church.


  • Gunther Martin Göttsche: "The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg". A contribution to their history and equipment. Sinntal-Sannerz 2012.
  • Horst Ende : Village churches in Mecklenburg. Berlin, 1975, p. 146.
  • Friedrich Schlie : The art and history monuments of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Volume III: The district courts of Hagenow, Wittenburg, Boizenburg, Lübenheen, Dömitz, Grabow, Ludwigslust, Neustadt, Crivitz, Brüel, Warin, Neubuckow, Kröpelin and Doberan. Schwerin 1898 (reprint 1993) ISBN 3-910179-14-2 , pp. 503-506.
  • Günter Gloede: Churches in the coastal wind. Volume 2, churches in and around Wismar. Berlin 1970.
  • Heinrich Trost, Gerd Baier, Horst Ende, Brigitte Oltmans: The architectural and art monuments in the Mecklenburg coastal region with the cities of Rostock and Wismar. Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00523-3 .
  • Georg Dehio : Handbook of the German art monuments, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Munich, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-422-03081-6 , p. 503.
  • ZEBI eV., START eV .: Village and town churches in the Wismar-Schwerin parish. Bremen, Rostock 2001, ISBN 3-86108-753-7 , pp. 24-25.
  • Jürgen Luttmann: The coats of arms in the churches Rerik and Russow. Karlsburg 2007.
  • Bento grains: Russow village church. Neubuckow 2008.
  • Bento grains: Rittergut Roggow - headquarters of the von Oertzen. Neubukow 2007.
  • Walter Haacke, Reinhard Jaehn: Paul Schmidt and Mecklenburgs organ building in the 18th century: In: Acta Organologica. Volume 18, Kassel 1985.
  • Beatrix Dräger: Russow, district Bad Doberan, church, organ. In: KulturERBE ​​in Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania. Volume 5, Schwerin 2010, ISBN 978-3-935770-29-3 , pp. 167-168.
  • Dörte Blum: Churches in Mecklenburg. Rostock 2013, pp. 198–199.


Printed sources

Unprinted sources

  • State Main Archive Schwerin (LHAS)
    • LHAS 3.2-3 / 1 Provincial Monastery / Monastery Office Dobbertin. No. 1190 Register of monthly statements 1713–1714. No. 3185 estate of organ builder Schmidt 1797/98.
    • LHAS 5.12-7 / 1 Mecklenburg-Schwerin Ministry for Education, Art, Spiritual and Medical Matters. No. 7776 Employment income of the parish in Russow 1906–1922. No. 8169 Retirement of the clergy of the parish in Russow 1907–1921. No. 8649 Parish and the decrees of the secular regiment 1850 required for handling, reoccupying, etc.
    • LHAS 11.3-1 / 3 Family History Collection by Pentz , No. 690.
  • State Church Archives Schwerin (LKAS)
    • OKR Schwerin, Specialia Abt. 4. Russow, No. 05 Parish occupation, protest of the parish Russow by the Jurats because of unfavorable times of worship, 1865. No. 015 Legal dispute between the Church in Russow and the District Administrator of Oertzen auf Roggow about the publication of Pfarracker, 1900– 1907.
    • OKR Schwerin, parish archive Russow, No. 014 memorial plaque for those who fell in World War I for the Russow Church. No. 016 Russow Church Chronicle, 1706–1920 and Russau Church Book from 1703.

Web links

Commons : Dorfkirche Russow  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. MUB V. (1869) No. 3039.
  2. a b MUB I. (1863) No. 570.
  3. ^ Georg Wilhelm Dittmer: About the origin and scope of the delivery of barley from Russow. MJB VIII. (1843) pp. 177-182.
  4. MUB VI. (1870) No. 4025.
  5. MUB IX. (1875) No. 6374, 6375.
  6. MUB IX. (1875) No. 6546.
  7. ^ Günther Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2012, p. 3.
  8. ^ Friedrich Schlie: Das Kirchdorf Russow. 1896, p. 503.
  9. ^ Bento grains: Russow village church. 2008, p. 32.
  10. LKAS, OKR Schwerin, Specialia, Section 4 Russsow, No. 014.
  11. ^ Bento grains: Russow village church. 2008, pp. 74-75.
  12. ^ A b c Friedrich Schlie: Das Kirchdorf Russow. 1899, p. 504.
  13. ^ Georg Dehio: Russow, community Roggow, district Doberan. 2000, p. 503.
  14. ^ Friedrich Lisch: The Church of Russow. MJB 41 (1876), p. 200.
  15. a b Friedrich Schlie: The church village Russow. 1899, p. 505.
  16. ^ Bento grains: Russow village church. 2008, pp. 68-69.
  17. ^ Bento grains: Russow village church. 2008, pp. 90-93.
  18. LKAS, OKR Schwerin, Buildings in Russow 1950–2012.
  19. ^ Gunther Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2012, p. 7.
  20. Renovation since 2006 ( Memento from April 12, 2013 in the web archive )
  21. ^ Friedrich Lisch: The Church in Russsow. MJB 41 (1876), p. 201.
  22. after Körner: Village Church Russow. On p. 24 it was around 1955 and according to Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. It was after 1972 on page 21.
  23. ^ Gunther Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2012, p. 22.
  24. Georg Dehio: Russow, Gem. Roggow, District Doberan. 2000, p. 503.
  25. ^ Günther Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2010, p. 12.
  26. ^ Günther Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2012, p. 13.
  27. Georg Dehio: Russow, Gem. Roggow, District Doberan. 2000, p. 503.
  28. ^ Günther Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2012, pp. 14-16.
  29. In the church book of 1703 on page 37 the year 1702 is mentioned.
  30. ^ Günther Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2012, pp. 17-18.
  31. Beatrix Dräger: Russow, district Bad Doberan, church, organ. 2010, p. 167.
  32. ^ Günter Martin Göttsche: The village church in Russow / Mecklenburg. 2012, pp. 31–32.
  33. ^ Andreas Hahn: The organ by Johann Engelbrecht Gerhardt in Russow. In: Ars Organi . 59th volume, issue 2, June 2011.
  34. Jürgen Luttmann: The coats of arms in the churches Rerik and Russow. 2007, p. 3.
  35. Jürgen Luttmann: The coats of arms in the churches Rerik and Russow. 2007, pp. 31-33.
  36. Jürgen Luttmann: The coats of arms in the churches Rerik and Russow. 2007, p. 36.
  37. ^ LKAS, OKR Schwerin, parish archive Russow, history of the parish Russow 1822-1919.
  38. Claus Peter: The bells of the Wismar churches and their history. 2015, pp. 226–227.
  39. ^ Friedrich Schlie: Das Kirchdorf Russow. 1899. p. 506.
  40. Jürgen Luttmann: The coats of arms in the churches Rerik and Russow. 2007, pp. 40-41.
  41. Gustav Willgeroth : The Mecklenburg-Schwerin Parishes since the Thirty Years' War. Volume III. Wismar 1925.
  42. ^ Friedrich Schlie: Das Kirchdorf Russow. 1899, pp. 503-504.
  43. ^ LKAS, OKR Schwerin, Personalia and Examina, L 040.
  44. LKAS, OKR Schwerin, Personalia and Examina, p. 402.

Coordinates: 54 ° 3 ′ 38 "  N , 11 ° 38 ′ 56.3"  E