The Doberan Minster was until the mid-16th century, the church of the Cistercian - Doberan Abbey . Today it is the church of the Evangelical Lutheran Parish Bad Doberan in the Rostock provost in the Mecklenburg parish of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany (Northern Church) .
The minster as a monastery church
After Prince Pribislaw had accepted the Christian faith in 1164, he approved the establishment of a monastery for the first Schwerin bishop, Berno . This was done by a convent of Cistercian monks from the Amelungsborn monastery in the Weser Uplands in Althof , a village near Doberan at the time. The monastery was occupied in 1171 and, thanks to generous donations, was soon given considerable property. It was the first monastery in Mecklenburg. After the death of Pribislav in 1178, the monastery was destroyed in 1179 in the violent clashes for the throne. 78 people died. In Althof, today a district of Bad Doberan, there are still remains of the old monastery barn. The resettlement took place in 1186 in Doberan.
In 1232 there was a smaller Romanesque predecessor building on the site of the monastery, which was replaced by a new minster in the 13th century . Construction began around 1280, with preserved parts of the Romanesque church being incorporated into the new structure. Around 1297 the shell and roof of the Gothic minster were completed, and in 1301 the first bronze bell was consecrated under Abbot Johann von Elbing. Nine years later, the initial furnishings of the choir room were finished, the high altar as early as 1300. On June 3, 1368, the monastery church was consecrated by the Schwerin bishop Friedrich II. With his auxiliary bishop Goswinus Grope . The minster was the most important tomb of the sovereigns in the Middle Ages, which underscored its special political importance.
Completion of the shell around 1296
In 1296 the shell and roof of the Gothic minster were completed. According to the latest dendrochronological investigation, the roof structure was made from freshly built oak as early as 1296 . The shell construction was thus completed in an extremely short construction period of around 15 years.
A characteristic feature of the church are the ribbed vaults , which formed the end of the shell. Step by step, supported by falsework , the belt ribs , then the cross ribs and the keystone were installed. Without supporting scaffolding, the vault caps were walled in and cemented with a casting mortar. On the roof of a 20 meters high graced roof skylights church, already in a cast in 1301 bronze bell under Abbot John of Elbing was hung and consecrated. Nine years later, the initial equipment of the choir was ready, the high altar as early as 1300. The east choir was probably covered as a makeshift and was used from 1310, separated by a partition.
At the same time as the construction work began, the Romanesque church was demolished . The old material was used to backfill the pillars and walls, as the stones, once consecrated, were not allowed to be used for profane purposes. Diverse sources of financing enabled the rapid progress of construction. The agricultural land belonging to the monastery was no longer cultivated by the lay brothers on their own as early as the 14th century , but the land was leased. The tenants were either landless or formerly free farmers. The free farmers settled in monastery villages were led into feudal dependence.
The monastery granted them patronage in wars, military service as well as other needs and the associated debt. The free farmer surrendered his land against interest and services and got this and another piece of land back as a fief. The Cistercian monasteries became more and more feudal centers that represented an important economic and political power. Other sources of income were skillful financial operations and real estate transactions as well as rich foundations, donations and indulgences of church origin.
The monastery owned extensive property until the Reformation . Due to the isolation and insignificance of Bad Doberan from the dissolution of the monastery in 1552 to the 19th century, the renewal phases of the Renaissance , Baroque and Rococo at the Doberan Minster largely passed by. Today, despite losses over the centuries, it contains the most complete original furnishings (85%) of all Cistercian monastery churches .
In the beginning of the 16th century there were important attempts at reform and the new doctrine of the Reformation and the teachings of Martin Luther increasingly found supporters in Mecklenburg. The most important supporters of the new doctrine were the two Mecklenburg dukes Heinrich V and Albrecht VII. At the same time there was political rivalry between the two brothers. Both dukes were only taken with the Reformation. But Albrecht VII and his wife Anna von Brandenburg soon turned back to Catholicism, while his brother Heinrich V professed the new faith and joined the Torgau Bund in 1526 as an opposition to the Catholic imperial estates. In his part of the country he introduced the Reformation. The open conflict between the brothers led on May 7, 1520 to a division of Mecklenburg ( Neubrandenburg house contract ) into the parts Schwerin and Güstrow. Developments in the opposite direction then occurred in the divided areas.
After Albrecht VII's death in 1547, Heinrich V and his nephew Johann Albrecht I were able to enforce the rejection of the Augsburg interim in the Güstrow part of the country on July 20, 1549 at the state parliament in Sternberg and elevate Lutheranism to the state church. From then on there was a common creed. The monastery Doberan now fell under the jurisdiction of Schwerin, which was under Henry V. In 1521 Joachim Slueter was appointed to the Rostock University as a reformer for Mecklenburg . There was close contact to Wittenberg through Slüter. It was also Slüter who drove the Reformation in Mecklenburg further.
In 1535 most of the country was Lutheran. In a visit to the Schwerin part in 1535, the Doberan monastery was also visited. The Doberan monastery was still under the protection of the duke, who himself pushed the Reformation. The dukes, however, held back for political reasons. So it came about that Mecklenburg converted to the new faith relatively late. This happened in 1549 on the state parliament at the Sagsdorfer bridge near Sternberg. The Reformation required a new organization. The regional church was formed from the general church. Superintendencies were set up. The last Catholics were generally treated gently.
At a general visit initiated by Johann Albrecht I in 1552 , a revised church order was published. This new order regulated the secularization of the state monasteries and the incorporation of their possessions into the sovereign domanium , which has been postponed up to now. This ended the monastic era in the Doberan monastery, which had only received confirmation of its privileges from Emperor Charles V in 1530 . On March 7, 1552 there was a comparison between the incumbent abbot Nikolaus Peperkorn and the duke. The abbot confirmed to the duke that he had handed over the monastery and the possessions "ganns freely, informally and undisturbed". Presumably after the first visitation in 1535 there was a clearly visible decline of the Doberan monastery, which had to give up its spiritual supremacy to the recently founded University of Rostock as early as 1419. It is recorded in a letter from Abbot Nikolaus Peperkorn to Duke Johann Albrecht I that he asked for help from the Duke. He continues to write because “yck unde myne myth Conventsbrodere unde Personen olde swacke gifted invited were” who can no longer manage the monastery and the property in the usual way. To maintain the convent, the abbot has already sold items of equipment and horses. In a document about the constitution of the monastery by the abbot it also says that the current Duke Johann Albrecht I. "syck dysses klosters and dersulwigen underdanen onde thogehorygen guderen gnedychlych tho undernehmen unde de myth ieren amptluden fürder tho order".
A deed of abdication is signed by the abbot, in which the duke compensated him with an annual annuity of 100 thalers. The abbot and his fellow brothers who were still alive withdrew to the Pelplin daughter monastery . A ducal office was established in Doberan and the monastery and its property were taken over by the ducal captain Jürgen Rathenow; Relics were removed in the minster and the monastery complex was destroyed. The grounds of the Doberan Monastery, which fell into ducal ownership after the dissolution, could only be used as a quarry in his planning.
Duke Ulrich von Mecklenburg was able to put a stop to this process and prevent that after the first demolition of parts of the enclosure building, the monastery church was also removed stone by stone. The reason for his efforts was to preserve the cathedral as the burial place of the Princely House. Soon afterwards, at the instigation of Duchess Elisabeth, the wife of Duke Ulrich, a renovation of the cathedral began. After her death on November 23, 1586, David Chytraeus wrote :
“The splendid Closter Church in Doberan, in it from the beginning of the Christian religion in these lands of 400 years hero the praiseworthy princes of Meckelnburg, including her first lord and husband Hertzog Magnus, ire begrebnus when she changed religious in this modern age Conquered by the princes and bawfellig by the longevity of the time, she stopped at the Hertzog zu Meckelnburg for so long and with vermanen and please did not leave it until she, in honor of her highly praiseworthy ancestors, did not revalue them at low cost and improve and decorate them everywhere to have."
After the last Doberan abbot, Nikolaus Peperkorn, died in Pelplin in 1564, the first evangelical preacher Hermann Kruse was installed in Doberan in the same year . This ultimately secured the minster as a Doberan parish church .
The venerable cathedral, with its long tradition as the family burial place of the Mecklenburg rulers, had had its day. Johann Albrecht wanted to start again; According to his ideas, the cathedral of Schwerin should gain importance as a Lutheran family burial place. Despite a different will in his will, he had his uncle Heinrich V buried in Schwerin . The relationship with his mother Anna von Brandenburg was determined by constant religious conflicts, and here too he disregarded her wishes after her death. The Catholic Duchess was also buried in Schwerin.
An inventory from 1552 names numerous items of equipment from the entire monastery. For example, the high altar with silver and gold objects is listed for the cathedral. There were also crystal candlesticks, several boxes, shrines and other cassettes in the church. Chalices, crucifixes and gilded angels on the altar are mentioned for the gate chapel . There are more than 150 books in the library. The workshops (glazier and shoe shop) and the stables were well equipped, and there were many supplies in the kitchen, in the bakery and in the mill.
Sven Wichert writes about the further development of the former monastery: "After the secularization, the possessions of the abolished monasteries Doberan and Marienehe together formed the Doberan office, which the ducal brothers Johann Albrecht I and Ulrich administered together." In 1611 the country was divided again the duchies of Schwerin and Güstrow. “With the Treaty of Fahrenholz in 1611, the Mecklenburg offices were divided between the dukes Johann Albrecht II. And Adolf Friedrich I. , with Duke Adolf Friedrich I. taking over the office of Doberan with a slightly different layout. In 1625, Duke Adolf Friedrich I planned to lease the offices of Doberan and Bukow to a compaignia from Holland for 100,000 guilders a year. "
The time after the Thirty Years War until today
After the monastery survived the secularization relatively unscathed, the monastery complex and the cathedral were looted and damaged in the Thirty Years' War in 1637 . Securing work on the roof and equipment of the minster began just one year later. At the end of the war, some monastery buildings were demolished. Major renewal phases such as the Baroque style were largely absent. From 1774 the cathedral was the seat of the superintendent ; The first superintendent was Ferdinand Ambrosius Fidler , who escaped punishment in 1778 after embezzling church funds.
Doberan and the cathedral did not experience a major boom until 1793 when Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I. Doberan established the first German seaside resort in Heiligendamm . Doberan became his summer residence.
In the years 1829–1834 repairs and a new version of the interior were carried out by Carl Theodor Severin , and from 1848 to 1875, above all, the furnishings were restored by Ludwig August Bartning and Theodor Krüger .
In the period between 1883 and 1896, on behalf of Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II, a restoration was carried out under the direction of the building councilor Gotthilf Ludwig Möckel . The interior design of the minster was alienated in the contemporary neo-Gothic style. The structural condition of the church showed considerable defects. Static problems and urgently needed repairs to the building fabric made major interventions necessary. The choir chapels were given their own roofs, while until then all chapels were covered with a common roof. The current shape of the roof turret also dates from this period . According to the rules of the order of the Cistercians , the minster has no west towers and no big bells, but only a roof turret.
The minster was not damaged in World War II . A restoration that began in 1962 and continued inside the church in 1976 removed the major changes. From 1964 to 1984 the cathedral was again restored outside and inside. Renewing the painting was decisive for the effect of the interior. Remains of glass paintings date from the beginning of the 14th century. These are ornamental discs with ivy, maple and vine leaves as well as figural discs with an architectural background. This was funded by the government of the GDR in order to preserve the cathedral as an outstanding example of Nordic brick Gothic. The former monastery church was ranked third on the list of nationally significant monuments with international works of art in the GDR.
Further extensive, long-term restoration work began in 2002. In 2009 the renovation of the Schuke organ was completed. The cathedral is currently used for church services, but also for concerts, tours and sightseeing. Around 200,000 visitors are counted annually.
Failed application for a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Doberaner Munster was on a list of the German Democratic Republic with proposals for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage , but was not included in the all-German tentative list after reunification in 1990.
Since 2005, the city of Bad Doberan, together with the cathedral administration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Community and the Association of Friends and Supporters of Doberan Monastery e. V. aims to achieve world heritage status. Application documents for inclusion in the world cultural heritage were prepared for the unique, highly Gothic interior of the minster.
In the application process, all parties with the exception of the NPD in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania state parliament passed a state parliament resolution on May 23, 2012 to include the Doberaner Munster - on an equal footing with the Schwerin Residence Ensemble - in Germany's list of proposals for the world cultural heritage. During this parliamentary session it was emphasized that the application for a high-Gothic interior decoration was unique and could therefore meet the request of the UNESCO commission to fill in the "gaps in content" in the world cultural heritage. In addition, the chances for the state to achieve a further listing on the world heritage list are more promising. In advance, the Doberan working group and their specialist advisors had already drawn up the relevant application documents. The specialist authors were Gerhard Weilandt ( Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald ) and Markus Hörsch (Bamberg / Leipzig). In the state parliament session, the strong will of the Bad Doberans for the project was pointed out through a signature campaign with several thousand votes.
The application of the minster failed in 2014. Referring to the 70-page final report of the advisory board, two main reasons led to the non-inclusion of the Doberan minster in the list of proposals. First, the thematic priorities set by the advisory board: The religious heritage with regard to Christian sites was not a priority topic in the selection process, which means a clear disadvantage for the Doberan application and thus offered no possibility of placing the unique equipment under protection. The applicants, including the Doberan working group and their advisors, were not aware of this category formation. Secondly, the items of equipment do not constitute cultural goods according to the UNESCO Convention, whereby the Advisory Board recognizes the special artistic and craftsmanship quality of the objects, but items of equipment are not cultural goods as defined under Article 1 of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the Cultural and Natural Heritage of the World “Monuments, ensembles and sites”. In addition, the application includes movable cultural assets that are not considered in accordance with the Operational Guidelines § 48. Doberans are considering a new application in a few years.
The Doberan Minster is a unique symbiosis of a mature Gothic cathedral building based on the model of the French cathedrals, of stylistic elements from the other Hanseatic churches and influences from the building rules of the Cistercians .
The Doberan monastery church shows little of the former pursuit of simplicity and severity of the Cistercians. The reform of the order was already 250 years ago. In contrast to the founding of other religious orders, the Cistercians liked to look for remote and inaccessible areas to found new monasteries, away from the life of the big cities. In doing so, they played an important role in the cultivation and fertility of the country and, because of their agricultural and water management skills, they were very welcome among sovereigns.
During their travels in France, Doberan monks saw the Gothic churches growing there. They brought these building ideas with them and implemented them here. The construction of Gothic churches as city churches also began in the surrounding Hanseatic cities . The local rulers also exerted a further influence on the construction of the church. Doberan became the most important burial place of the Mecklenburg princes, who donated money for equipment in connection with it. The models for this building are the Marienkirche in Lübeck , the Nikolaikirche in Stralsund and the Marienkirche in Rostock .
With a height of 26 meters and a width of eleven meters (total internal length 76 meters), the vaulted central nave has a more intimate character than other comparable churches that rise significantly higher in the interior. With the two side aisles , which are half as high , the cross-shaped transept and the polygonal end of the choir , which are adjoined by five chapels on the outside , the cathedral is an example of form and technical considerations. In accordance with the rules of the order of the Cistercians, the cathedral has no west towers and no big bells, but only a roof turret , which was given its current shape during the restoration by Gotthilf Ludwig Möckel .
Behind the current main portal , which was applied from 1884 to 1891, the closed exam tract of Monks at. A Romanesque arch wall from 1220 has been preserved. The western front of the central nave is adorned with an ornamental gable, the current state of which corresponds to that of 1350. On the western front of the south aisle there are remains of the first Romanesque church with a round arch portal, cross-arch frieze and half stepped gable . The gable rosette and the proportions of the roof turret to the overall building are a result of the restoration by Möckel.
The north portal from around 1300 once led to the monks cemetery. To the northeast of this is the early Gothic ossuary from 1250, which housed the remains of the monks' cemetery. It was also extensively restored in 1883, with the early Gothic wall paintings being completely painted over. The lantern added at this time , an openwork, turret-like attachment above the vault, is now covered by a tent roof and can only be seen from the inside.
- Central pillars in the transepts
The color design does not correspond to the building regulations of the Cistercian order for simplicity and simplicity. Only that these are not figuratively painted and not plastically decorated is still typical of the order. The colored tile painting on the central pillar in the north transept (a comparable pillar is located in the south transept ) was created in the 14th century based on oriental models. The oriental tile pattern could have been brought from the homeland of Christ by Heinrich I , known as "the pilgrim", from his pilgrimage before 1302 . The pillars create a deliberate fragmentation of the rooms that makes sense for use as a burial site and place of memory . The central pillars, together with the expanding arches in the crossing , the yoke beams under the ceiling vaults and the buttresses also have a secondary static function. This means that the building in the swampy terrain has as many supports as possible in the vicinity of the crossing.
The high altar (around 1300) is the oldest winged altar in art history. It has a type-historical origin from the stone reredos on the one hand and the reliquary shrines on the other. It is four meters high without the pinnacle towers and was restored at the end of the 19th century. In the middle part, high Gothic architectural forms are reduced in a seven-axis arcade row with eyelashes , which once contained reliquaries . Above the central part rise three delicate openwork spire towers, of which the middle one is six meters high. On the wings, scenes from the Old and New Testament were reproduced in typological correspondence in the two upper rows of figures . These figures resemble French cathedral sculptures in their graceful posture and drapery, their origin is controversial (Luebian or Westphalian-Magdeburg). The bottom row of figures is more recent (before 1368) and differs in style and content (the 12 apostles, the two patron saints against the plague (Pope Fabian and St. Sebastian) and the coronation of Mary ) from the rest of the figurative decorations.
The double-sided cross altar is now back in its original place between the former monk choir and the choir of lay monks (converses), after having been placed on the west wall of the church for several centuries. The cross altar and the former tall rood screen wall separated the monks' choir in the east from the lay choir in the west. It combines a two-sided winged altar with a double-sided, 15 meter high monumental triumphal cross and dates from around 1360/70. For the final consecration of the church in 1368, it was probably largely completed. It is the most monumental work of its kind and time in Europe.
The most important difference to the earlier work is the degree of nature observation actually implemented. In this regard, the altar represents the turning point in North German art. The complete work is designed on both sides with more than 30 scenes from the Bible and includes on the Christ side to the west the predella , reredos and triumphal cross and on the Mary side to the east reliquary , reredos and the "good guys." Tree of Mary ”in the shape of a cross. The cross was designed as a tree of life - according to the words of Christ: "I am the vine, you are the branches" (Jn 15: 5). The representation of Christ in the life-giving tree triumphing over Satan is one of the most important symbols of medieval faith. The death-bringing cross is no longer an instrument of torture, but through the resurrection of Jesus Christ a symbol of eternal life .
From left to right, as with the high altar, scenes from the Old Testament are juxtaposed with those from the New Testament - a so-called typological program, since, according to the medieval way of thinking, the Old Testament already contained references to the New Testament's work of redemption (typology). For example, the praying prophet Elijah was assigned to the representation of Christ on the Mount of Olives. In the scene of the Fall of Man on the west side of the reredos , the paradisiacal nudity is covered by two very finely carved tracery doors from the time the altar was created, which were probably opened in a liturgical celebration on Holy Saturday to commemorate the liberation of Adam and Eve from limbo. Passion scenes such as the carrying of the cross and the crowning of thorns are contrasted with the mockery of Job . The same applies to the Marian side of the altar, as well as to the monumental cross ( master of the Lübeck triumphal crucifixes ). This unique work of art (lay altar and triumphal cross as a unit) is closely linked to the art of master Bertram von Minden (around 1335–1415), who can be traced back to Hamburg in 1367 .
The Latin saying between the cross and the altar “Effigiem Christi qui transis pronus adora sed non effigiem sed quem designat adora” means: “The image of Christ - whom you pass - adore reverently (or bow reverently) - but not the image - but the one it represents - adore ”. The vine leaves around the cross were restored in luster color in 1982 according to a medieval recipe . Consisting of oak wood carved leaves are provided with a chalk base provided, covered with a thin metal coating and coated with in oil dissolved verdigris . The luster paint was a valuable substitute for the enamel used in goldsmithing and was more complex and costly to produce than gilding a comparable surface. However, the darkening effect due to oxidation has not yet set in to the desired extent with the reconstructed luster color . The color contrast is quite large for the viewer. At the beginning of 2007, a slight change in the luster was considered in connection with a planned conservation . A glaze was applied to four of the sheets to soften the contrast. However, the result was unsatisfactory. The State Office for the Preservation of Monuments pleaded for the color version from 1982 to be retained because it is undoubtedly very close to the medieval state. The contrast, which is often regarded as unsatisfactory, is also due to the "dull" gilding applied in the 19th century to the altarpieces and the reliefs on the arms of the cross. The remains of the medieval gilding underneath are bright gold.
- The holy figures on the predella
One of the artistically most valuable and important carvings in the Doberan Minster is the Marien chandelier in the choir room . The candlestick, as it can be found in today's form, was created in two stylistic epochs : The Mary chandelier hanging in the presbytery with a figure of Mary in the late Romanesque- early Gothic style from around 1280 was made at the beginning of the 14th century. The Madonna with the Christ Child is the oldest part. It is one of the earliest crescent moon madonnas in Germany . The oak figure stood as the main figure in the central niche of the high altar from around 1300 , so it was initially created for another piece of furniture. This was the result of a rehearsal in the main altar in 2007. When the high altar was increased by the apostle row around 1350/60, this use was no longer possible. The sacrament tower, which is almost twelve meters high, was created for this function.
Around 1400 the Madonna became the main part of the newly created Marien chandelier. Possibly the growing wealth of the monastery or a change in the keeping of the sacraments led to the replacement of the wooden Madonna by a newly created Silver Madonna in the high altar. She is now represented as the queen of heaven with a canopy , star crown, sun and crescent moon, as an apocalyptic Madonna, according to the revelation of John 12: 1: “And a woman appeared, clothed in the sun, and the moon under her feet and on hers Mainly a crown of twelve stars. ”And especially emphasized by inserting it into the candlestick. The candlestick was designed according to this biblical verse, with the twelve stars of the crown symbolizing the twelve tribes of Israel and the crescent moon the changing times in church and world. The sun is a sign of the glory of Mary.
The Mother of God Mary was the main patroness of all Cistercian monastery churches and therefore has a high priority in the visual art of sacred buildings. It is also depicted on the sacrament tower (around 1350), the chalice cabinet (around 1310), some side altars, the rood screen altar (around 1360), on the choir stalls (14th century) and in the medieval windows of the Doberan church. The child and the Madonna hold a pyxis , a small container in which the consecrated host , the bread for the daily mass with the Eucharist , was most likely kept.
In the lid of the canopy the " Ave Maria " appears as an infinite homage to the patron saint , at the same time as a symbol for infinite prayer: the first letter of the word "Ave" is also the last letter of the word "Maria". There is a verse on the console: “hec est illa dulci rosa / pulchra nimis et formosa, / que est nostra advocata, / apud deum virgo grata, / eam devote salutate, / illam rogo inclinate”. In addition, under the feet of the picture, at the point above the moon, was the inscription, now completely covered by the gold coating, which has been preserved in a copy from 1648: "Multae filiae congregaverunt divitias, tu supergressa es universas"
The entire carving is 2.58 m high, the figure of Mary about 1.50 m. In the course of history the work of art was in different locations. Around 1700 the Madonna was stolen by soldiers under Colonel Bredow during the Danish-Saxon billeting, but was sent back by Prince Ruprecht von der Pfalz. Today it is back in its original place in the choir , after the picture was moved to a side chapel, the Pribislav Chapel, in 1858. On April 2nd, 1813, the entire chandelier fell there and was hung up again on April 28th of the same year.
The mill altar from around 1410/20 in the northern area of the chapel was created as one of the first depictions of this kind. Presumably donated by Albrecht III. (Mecklenburg) and his second wife Agnes, he originally stood on the east wall of the south transept. The mill altar is a specialty in terms of art history, because the motif of the mill shows a remarkable accumulation in the Rostock and Bad Doberan area at this time . So far, only 24 representations are known in art history, nine of which are altars. There are four mill altars in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . In addition to the Doberan Altar, there are mill pictures in the University Church (Rostock) , the village church Retschow near Bad Doberan and a high-quality carved work in Tribsees . The representations are already clearly more pictorial than those of the Doberan high altar from around 1300 and the cross altar from 1360. The orders of preachers , which were emerging in the 15th century , placed more value on the clear language of the proclamation, which was also reflected in the visual arts. This change probably also influenced the Cistercian monks in Doberan.
The middle panel of the Doberan altar shows the mill picture. Difficult theological issues should be conveyed to the laity in an understandable way. Since all people in the Middle Ages knew the basic principle of a mill, this principle was used to explain the doctrine of transubstantiation to them . The main components of what is happening make a cross. The trunk of the cross is formed by the four evangelists with their symbolic heads above and the four church fathers below, the arms of the cross by the twelve apostles on both sides. The representation is divided into three parts: the mill and the apostles form the level of mediation between heavenly and earthly spheres. The mill symbolizes the body of Christ, who brings about the change, but also the church as steward of the word and the bread of grace. God the Father is not shown, but is symbolically represented by the rainbow . The inverted rainbow symbolically closes the heavenly world, which is however opened by the heavenly beings, the four evangelists.
The middle main panel has the following representation: In the middle, the four geniuses of the evangelists float above a rainbow on a gold background , pouring the word of God into a mill funnel from spherical bottles with long necks . The word is represented by banners that come out of the bottles and bear inscriptions from the bottle of the eagle (John): “In principio erat verbum et”; from the bottle of man (Matthew): "Non omnes capiunt verbum istud"; from the bottle of the bull (Luke): "Videramus hoc verbum quod factum est"; from the bottle of the lion (Markus): "Qui seminat verbum seminat". From the funnel comes a ribbon with the word u'bū (= verbum ). perhaps as a continuation of the ending "et" on the ribbon of the eagle, and goes to the millstones.
The twelve apostles, six on each side, stand in a row next to the body and turn the mill shaft on a rod. The apostles drive the mill, they cleanse and spread the word and use it to prepare the salutary food of the soul for the people for their renewal and redemption. Proverbs of properties, abilities and effects of the word support this statement. The movement of the mill represents the earthly life of Christ, the apostles are closest to him; they lived and worked with him. The lower millstone is a symbol for the old, the upper for the New Testament of the Bible, with the help of which the message of the Old Testament is purified. A banner runs from the mill funnel through the mill into the chalice of the four church fathers with the inscription: “Et verbum caro factum est et habitavit in nobis et vidimus gloriam eius”. The ribbon with the word “gloriam” goes into a chalice held by four kneeling people: a pope ( Gregory the Great ), a cardinal ( Hieronymus ) and two bishops, or an archbishop and a bishop ( Ambrosius of Milan and Augustine of Hippo ), of which the one kneeling with the Pope is old, the one kneeling with the Cardinal is very young; both wear the same regalia . The church fathers receive the bread of grace, administer it and distribute it to the believers. The people are led by a monk on both sides. On each side of the church princes a monk kneels with a banner, on the left: "Opus restauracionis nostre est incarnacio verbi dei."; right: “Non liberaretur genus humanum nisi verbum dei fieret humanum”. Two secular persons kneel behind the monk on the left: a woman in a red cloak and a white veil cap and a man in a green costume. Behind the monk on the right, two men in green robes kneel. Next to the monk's face on the left is a sarcastic sharp face with a mustache. The lack of pope, emperor and preacher on the earthly plane can possibly be traced back to the fact that the Doberan order wanted to see itself independent of representatives of the estates.
The apocalyptic Madonna is shown in the upper right of the heavenly sphere . In the upper left, in a very small representation, a kneeling king in prayer, in a red cloak, with the crown on his head; next to him kneels a female figure in a red and gold robe, with long hair and a veil; she puts her left hand on the king's shoulder and points with an outstretched right and with a jubilant face at the geniuses of the evangelists - with a haunting gesture the Tiburtine Sibyl draws the attention of Emperor Augustus to the event of the birth of Christ .
The paintings on the side wings are very damaged; nothing can be seen on the back walls. On the front of each wing there are two pictures one below the other: top right: the blessing Bishop Martin von Tours in front of Valentinian I , next to whom flames are beating out of a square; top left: a blessing bishop can still be recognized; left and right below the representations are completely missing.
The predella under the altar from around 1490 does not belong to the mill altar.
Corpus Christi Altar
The Corpus Christi altar with the Last Supper table (around 1330) shows one of the oldest panel paintings in Mecklenburg . At the time of the monastery it was probably in the gate chapel at the west gate of the monastery or in the north aisle , visible to the guests of the monastery who had access to the monastery church. The altar is one of the oldest pieces of early Gothic painting in Mecklenburg. The middle part could be removed from the frame for processions . The portable altar with oculus witnessed an early, from the exhibition dissolved sacrament worship , staged by changing screens, relics support and backlighting of the midsection kept Holy Blood host. Already in 1201 a shepherd to to Steffenshagen a host of the Eucharist taken in the mouth home, kept in his shepherd's crook and his flock henceforth have protected it, discovered to the mystery and the bleeding Host was brought back to the monastery where it from now on as miraculously enjoyed great veneration. Doberan soon became a famous place of pilgrimage and pilgrims flocked in large numbers, even from distant places. Since women were usually not allowed to enter the monastery church, but they wanted to show the miracle to the whole people, the host was shown in front of the church in the chapel at the gate. And yet it was not until 1385 that noble and honorable women were allowed to enter the church and monastery on solemn occasions.
Above the altar is a plaque with the inscription: “Are dic isti nomen de corpore Christi. Istic fundatur, veneratur, glorificatur, Et colitur munus immensum, trinus et unus, Hicsemperque pia veneratur virgo Maria. ”(A chalice.) The tablet comes from the second quarter of the 14th century.
The right wing shows the Lord's Supper on the inside and John mourning on the outside. The left wing was missing as early as 1700.
Reredos with the crucifixion of Christ by virtue
The virtue Crucifixion -Altar also comes from the construction of the Doberan Minster and was probably around 1330/40. The middle panel shows the crucifixion of Christ through the following seven virtues symbolized by female figures: Obedience (lat. Oboedentia) pushes the crown of thorns onto Christ's head from the crossbar. At the top left, standing on a ladder, humility (lat. Humilitas) knocks a nail through Christ's hand, while mercy (lat. Misericordia) does the same on the right. To the left of Christ stands love (lat. Caritas) and sticks him in the chest with a lance, while perseverance (lat. Perseverantia), on the right, holds a goblet to catch the blood and other nails ready. Justice (lat. Iustitia) and peace (lat. Pax) kneel on the floor below the two.
Each of the virtues also holds a Latin banner. However, part of the central panel is already badly damaged, so that only three banners can be clearly deciphered. They contain quotations from the New Testament: “Christ was obedient to the Father until death” ( Phil 2,8 EU - Oboedientia), “My truth and my mercy” (Misericordia), “And like his his own who are in the world had loved, he loved them to the end ”( Jn 13.1 EU - Perseverantia). The meaning: Christ dies through his good qualities, through his virtues, which are not recognized in the world and bring him to the cross so that the virtues can become secular. Where the virtues come to rule, as with Christ, the kingdom of God has dawned.
This rare representation is based on the one hand on Isa 4,1 EU , which was interpreted as a battle of virtues for the soul of man. On the other hand, the allegory goes back to an Easter sermon by Bernhard von Clairvaux . The four virtues he mentioned (patience, obedience, mercy, humility) were later expanded to five and then seven to create a parallel to the seven sacraments, the seven deadly sins, and the seven works of mercy.
The prophets Isaiah , Ezekiel , Jeremiah and Daniel are depicted on the inside of the side wings . Each of the prophets holds a banner in their hands, which is written in Latin. Translated these mean: "Seven women will seize a man" (Isaiah), "Pay attention and see if there is a similar pain" (Jeremiah), "I gave you up to the insults and scorn of the peoples of the whole world" ( Ezekiel), "My appearance was changed and I became powerless" (Daniel). The side wings show the Christmas story with the Annunciation to Mary, the birth of Christ, the adoration of the kings and the offering in the temple. The wings of the Virtue Crucifixion altar are closed for Christmas, so that the otherwise invisible outer sides of the altar wings with the Christmas scenes can be viewed until the festival of apparitions on January 6th.
The Doberan Altar of Virtues, like the Corpus Christi altar, is often referred to as the Corpus Christi altar. In 1664 at the latest, the two reredos were placed on top of each other and not set up again until the beginning of the 20th century.
On the northern side of the high altar (seen from this on the right, the more important side) there is a magnificent tower of sacrament (also a tabernacle , Lord's house or Eucharist cabinet) from the Middle Ages , which is carved from oak and is considered the most exquisite work of art of its kind in Mecklenburg. There is also only one similar, large tabernacle in the church of the former Cistercian nunnery of the Holy Cross in Rostock and a small tabernacle in the church of the village of Hanstorf near Bad Doberan, both of which are also on the north side of the altar.
The tower of the sacrament was made as early as 1350/60 in the form of a high pyramid or a monumental Gothic monstrance to store the Holy Sacrament, probably by the same carver who also made the lower row of the high altar. The 11.60 m high carving is the oldest sacrament tower in Germany. It was completed after the final consecration of the church in 1368, because the sayings on the banners of the characters are already written in a trained minuscule , which has only developed on monuments since the middle of the 14th century. The sayings are Leonine hexameters of medieval education.
The style of the figures (from bottom to top: figures of the Old Testament, the New Testament and saints) corresponds to that of the cross altar. The coloring, however, differs from the usual method: the gilding is predominant, only the lower sides of the robes are glazed in silver-green; red and blue, the two common colors which are also used in the architecture of the tabernacle, are completely absent from the figures.
The tabernacle has a foot, a handle, a hollow main body closed in the outer walls and closed with a door, and above it a high, openwork pyramid. It stands on a granite slab. It is made entirely of oak; all smooth and protruding surfaces are gold-plated, the fillets are glazed alternately red and blue on a silver background. The work is excellent and done in a pure pointed arch style.
The whole, six-sided building consists of the following departments:
I. The lower main part:
1) The foot. At the bottom, each of the six sides is decorated with a large, openwork rosette in depressions painted in red. Six seated figures of saints are attached under canopies above these rosettes.
2) The handle. This is drawn in and decorated with strong knobs and foliage.
3) The first floor. This is not perforated, but is hollow on the inside and has a lockable door on one side. A standing figure of a saint is attached to each of the six sides.
4) The second floor. This is of openwork work and also has a door to the inside. On this level, a display host was probably kept in a monstrance.
These four sections of the lower main part are made from a single, large oak trunk.
II. The upper main part.
5) The third floor and
6) the fourth floor consists of two different pieces, which form a pointed, openwork tower.
The chalice cabinet to the left of the sacrament tower is an extremely rare piece of equipment. A similar cabinet has only survived in a Danish monastery. The dendrochronology of the Doberan cabinet dated the creation around the year 1310. The chalice cabinet is, as it was probably built shortly before the high altar , the oldest worship piece of equipment in the church. The cabinet was made for the new Gothic cathedral and not, as previously assumed, for the previous building. In the twenty compartments inside it was once kept the Vasa sacra , which were used for the Eucharist ( Last Supper ), probably liturgical utensils for the two main and 18 side altars of the monastery church .
On the inside of the wings (only cleaned, never recast), two Old Testament figures are depicted as signs of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ: Melchizedek with the chalice, Abel with the lamb, who was identified with the lamb of God . They present their gifts on a bust of Christ giving blessings in the gable field ( Wimperg ). The Redeemer holds an open book which the priests have with an Old Testament saying, which today is only handed down in old copies, to take special care with the sacred vessels prompted.
Of the sixteen relief figures in the goblet, only four have survived: Mary (mother of Jesus) , Christ , the apostle Paul and Ezekiel. Contrary to older opinions, the goblet cabinet is thus a work of a piece - which is clearly demonstrated by the style-critical comparison of the bust in the gable with the reliefs on the outside of the cabinet doors. Its purpose has always been to store the liturgical utensils, which is proven not only by the traditional inscription on the gable, but also incised old lettering on the inside of the cabinet doors, which record the number of chalices that were once present. The chalice cabinet, stylistically not too far removed from the high altar, reveals influences from French Gothic and perhaps from the so-called Lower Saxony art circle. Traces of brick on the side walls show that the cabinet was originally walled into the brick choir screen, which is no longer in existence .
To the right of the high altar is the Gothic sideboard or preparation cabinet from around 1300. It is part of the original equipment of the Gothic minster and, like almost all medieval items in the minster, was carved from oak. The liturgical implements for the celebration of the Eucharist at the high altar were prepared in it. An area offering storage space for chalice and paten to the wine pour and hang the hosts. The cupboard was walled into the choir screen like the chalice cupboard .
The three- seated Levite stalls were the seat for the priest , deacon and sub-deacon celebrating the mass . Its lower parts up to the height of the leaning date from the 14th century. The original canopy is on the altar of the Catholic Church of St. Helena and Andreas in Ludwigslust . The canopy on the Doberan stalls is a reconstruction from the 19th century.
The dial of the astronomical clock, which was destroyed in the Thirty Years War, hangs above the west entrance. The former astronomical clock in the Doberan Minster dates from the early days of wheel clocks . This was made around 1390 by Nicolaus Lillienveld according to the geocentric view of the world, originally with a calendar.
The clock was originally located on the west wall of the south transept on the stairs to the monks' dormitory where the monks came to the church to pray at night. Famous philosophers and astronomers of antiquity and the Middle Ages are represented in the four corners . In 1637, during the Thirty Years' War, the silver apostle figures that could be moved around the apostles were stolen by Swedish soldiers and melted down into silver coins. The mechanism was also destroyed. The remains of the movement were destroyed in 1830, but the dial remained in very good condition. The clock could show two times: the unequal temporal hours , the earthly time, in which the time span of the bright day and the dark is divided into twelve equal parts, so that only at the equinoxes the day hours are exactly as long as the night hours, as well the hours of sunshine of equal length that are customary today, the divine or cosmic time, by which we are used to live - regardless of the season. For a relatively long time, well into the 15th century, the monks must have followed the temporal hours. At that time, this was no longer common in the cities. In addition, the beginning and the end of (nautical) twilight and thus fixed points for determining the prayer times can be read. All of these sizes depend on the latitude of the clock location and the position of the sun in the zodiac. This work of watchmaking from the 14th century tells of an era in which astrology and astronomy were still presented as royal sisters and in which measuring time was much more than a purely mechanical-quantitative act. The entire construction is very presented cosmopolitan. Famous philosophers and astronomers of antiquity and the Middle Ages are depicted in the four corners:
Claudius Ptolemy , died after 160, was an Alexandrian astronomer, mathematician, and geographer. He represented the geocentric view of the world, which was valid for 1500 years.
King Alfonso X (Castile) died in 1284 and was a great patron and patron of science, initiated collections of laws, the writing of the history of Spain and the world, promoted the translation of Arabic works and was himself a literary writer. Around 1250 he commissioned the scholars of his country to translate Arabic astrology works and to create improved planet tables. He had the Alfonsine tablets made for seafaring, which were used to a large extent until the 19th century. That is why he was given the nickname Astrologus.
In the lower two spandrels Hali and Abu Ma'schar are shown. The latter was an Arab astrologer who lived in Baghdad since 805, died in Iraq in 886. He created astrological handbooks, which for a long time remained authoritative for the setting up of natal charts thanks to their Latin translations. In Wilhelm Knappich's History of Astrology , this earned him the title of prolific writer. Hali is Ali ibn Ridwan or Haly Abenrudian (not to be confused with the legendary Haly Abenragel), he lived in Egypt in the 11th century and wrote a significant commentary on the Centiloquia of Ptolemy. Ribbons from these scholars show basic astronomical facts. But they formulate directly or indirectly: God alone is the creator of time and determines the fate of the individual. Ptolemy's scroll reads: “Vir sapiens dominabitur astris.” (“The wise man will overcome the stars.”) The Halis scroll says: “Motus solis et planetarum in obliquo circulo est.” (“The movement of the sun and the planet takes place in an oblique circle. ")" Post deum omnium viuencium vita sol et luna. "(" Next to God, the origin of all living creatures is the sun and the moon. ") So Abu Ma'schar.
The following conclusions about the structure and function of the Doberan clock can be drawn from a comparison with the work of the same master in the St. Nikolai Church (Stralsund) and the functioning clock in Lund , Sweden : It had three hands, the sun and hour hand, the moon hand and the sphere of the zodiac signs . The large arc on the disk that opens downwards is the horizon line. It separates the day area above from the night area surrounding it. The blurred area that adjoins it indicates the time of twilight, which is shorter in winter than in summer. The first thing you see is the hour ring with the Roman numerals I-XII. This is where we find today's hour counting, which was by no means taken for granted at the end of the 14th century. It was customary to divide the day and night, separated by the rising and setting of the sun, into twelve unequal hours. The summer daytime hours could last up to 80 minutes, the winter daytime hours only 40 minutes of our time. The unequal hours could be read off the narrow, arched lines at the intersection of the horizon arc. The concentric circles in the central part of the disc show in interaction with the circular zodiac hand and the rod-shaped sun or moon hand in which of the zodiac signs the sun or the moon move.
The clock showed the time of day in equally long and unequal hours, the times of sunrise and moonrise and their sets, the position of the moon in the signs of the zodiac and thus the approximate date and the mutual position of the sun and moon.
The cathedral received the first organ very likely after the monastery was dissolved in 1552, i.e. after the monastery church had become a parish church through the Reformation. The books show that Duke Karl von Mecklenburg commissioned the organ builder Valentin Christian around 1600 to build a new organ with 22 sounding voices, distributed over the top, chest and pedal . This instrument was repaired in 1646 after its destruction in the Thirty Years War and was in the Münster until 1860.
In the year 1860 the Mecklenburg organ builder Friese from Schwerin built a new organ with 27 registers with main organ , swell organ and pedal, whereby he took over some registers from the old organ.
This Friese organ was in use until 1978. Wood pests and outdated, susceptible technology of this organ were the reason why the decision was made to build a new organ. On Easter Sunday, March 26th, 1978, there was the farewell game on the old organ. In the meantime, the stand Sauer - positive four register trains in the sanctuary available before the steps of the high altar on the north side. The assembly of the new organ began on November 12, 1979, and its intonation began on April 7, 1980. The new organ was consecrated on July 6, 1980. The instrument has 43 registers (3220 sounding pipes) on three manuals and a pedal. In the swell there is an originally preserved register from the historic Friese organ, the "gambe", a delicate bow register. It can be heard at church services, organ meditations and concerts. From May to September there are minster concerts every Friday at 7.30 p.m.
- Coupling : I / II, II / I, II / III, III / II, I / III, III / I, I / Ped., II / Ped .; III / Ped
- Playing aids : register roller, electronic typesetting system, coupling available as foot pistons, sequencer pistons
Of the numerous important works of art of the rich medieval furnishings, the chalice cabinet , today again in its original place on the north side of the chancel , the choir stalls of the monks and the conversations should be mentioned.
In the western part of the church in the ( Konversenchor ), on both sides of the entire nave, there is the monk's stalls carved from oak . It is very rare in its coherence and completeness. The rows of chairs in the lower parts of the Konversen presumably originate from the previous church from around 1280. The strong round shape on the dividing walls, the console-like misericords and the small Romanesque half-columns point to this early period. The canopies with their elaborate carvings were added later based on the example of the choir stalls in the eastern part of the church. Noteworthy are the artfully carved cheeks at the end of the chairs, which show various symbolic depictions of animals in conjunction with plant ornaments.
The cheek of the eagle stool with oaks and fig leaves shows, with the figurative representation below, a scene in which the devil with the bull's head tries to tempt a lay brother. The monk's answer begins with a capital "N", above it is a cross, i. that is, he speaks in the name of Jesus Christ. The devil represents evil personified, which monks should constantly fight against. Both figures carry banners. The devil says: “Quid facis hic, frater vade mecum.” The converse replies: “Nil in me reperies mali, cruenta bestia.” A pair of trees (oak and maple) grows above them.
The cheek of the pelican stool shows the pelican as a symbol for Christ, his sacrificial death and the Eucharist, because according to ancient ideas the pelican feeds its young with its own blood and even brings it to life.
The roof turret houses three bells . The middle bell was cast in 1301 and is the second oldest bell in Mecklenburg. Their sound structure corresponds to that of a pure octave bell. The sound of the bell is a 1 and its weight is around 560 kilograms. Its inscription (in Lombard capitals ) reads: "In the year of the Lord 1301 this bell was cast on December 1st, under the abbot Johannes von Elbing" . The bell was welded on and hangs on the wooden yoke in the historic wooden bell chair.
Up until 2008, a bell from the Schilling company in Apolda, cast in 1960, rang out. The 1,100 kilogram bell had the strike note f sharp 1 ; it bore the inscription HE IS OUR PEACE . The bell rang on the cranked steel yoke. This became damaged, so that the bell had to be shut down in 2008. Among other things, this gave the occasion to replace the bell.
On August 5th, 2011, the big bell was cast in the Bachert bell foundry in Karlsruhe . It weighs 900 kilograms, has a shoulder circumference of 1.99 meters, a height with a crown of 1.15 meters and has the strike note f sharp 1 . It is the successor to a medieval bronze bell that was destroyed during the Thirty Years War in 1638. In 1926 a new casting was made that only lasted for a short time: during the Second World War, like many other bells, it had to be delivered for armaments production. The new bell bears the inscriptions of the previous bells: on the shoulder of the bell the Latin text of the bell destroyed in 1638 + EN EGO CAMPANA NUNQVAM DENUNCIO VANA LAUDO DEUM VERUM PLEBEM VOCO CONGREGO CLERUM. A second inscription describes the history: + MULTOS ANNOS SERVIENS RAPTA SUM ANNO DOMINI 1638 + NOVITER FUSA AD 1926 + DENUO RAPTA BELLO AD 1942 + DULCE SONO REDIVIVA CANO LAUDEM DEI AETERNI. ANNO DOMINI 2011.
Just like the big bell, the small bell was also cast in the Bachert bell foundry. The casting took place on November 25, 2011. The bell weighs 249 kilograms, has a shoulder circumference of 1.23 meters, a height with the crown of 0.72 meters and sounds on the strike note d 2 . The inscription is borrowed from the hour bell from 1390: + ANNO DOMINI MCCCXC IN VIGILIIS SIMONIS ET IVDE. BENEDICTUS QVI VENIT IN NOMINE DOMINI Another inscription goes into the story: + REFUSA ANNO DOMINI 1831 + NUNC REDIVIVA VOCO VOS AD SACRA AD 2011 On April 29, 2012 the new bells were consecrated.
Clock bells on the west gable
On the west gable of the minster there is a striking mechanism with a large hour bell and a smaller quarter-hour bell from 1831. In the 1970s, the quarter-hour bell crashed and was badly damaged. A repair was no longer possible. It was stored in the minster's attic for many years. In recent years the parts have been put together and exhibited in the entrance area.
Both bells are cast in a strongly shortened rib. Since there are no special sonic requirements for bells, they have often been cast in a more or less shortened form since the 14th century, which required a considerably smaller amount of metal and therefore had a favorable effect on the price. Both bells do not have a crown, but only a knob with a central hole so that they can be mounted on a support rod one above the other. The “crown” plate is covered all around with a palmette frieze starting from this knob. The hood is strongly arched and has a kink towards the shoulder.
The larger clock bell for the hour strike (Ø 1090 mm) bears the inscription in Antiqua between five thin circumferential lines: HOURS GO, HOURS COMING, / LISTEN TO YOU! LIKE THE EVIL / LIKE THE RELIGIOUS / DOES THE LAST COME - DO YOU KNOW WHEN? Opposite is: THE COMMON TO DOBERAN / THIS BELL IS WONDERED / BY THE GRAND DUKE [in decorative capital letters] / FRIEDRICH FRANZ / VON MECKLENBURG. (The last line with two leaves on the left and right) / CAST BY SIMON ZACH / IN STRALSUND IN THE YEAR CHRIST 1831. On the other sides of the bell (90 °) there is a coat of arms, on the one hand the coat of arms of Doberan (deer, Abbot's staff and swan), on the other hand the Mecklenburg coat of arms, surrounded by drapery. A bundle of three webs (round web between two thinner ones) runs around the Wolm. The lower edge is offset like a ribbon; Above it, a palmette frieze standing closely on a rope stick.
The identically designed smaller bell for the quarter chime bears the same text on the flank as the large one: THE GEMEINE ZU DOBERAN / IS THIS BELL WONDERED / BY THE GRAND DUKE / FRIEDRICH FRANZ / VON MECKLENBURG. (The last line with two leaves on the left and right). Opposite is: CAST BY SIMON ZACH / IN STRALSUND IN THE YEAR OF CHRIST 1831. The hanging knob, a large piece in the hood and another in the brass knuckles are missing from the bell, which broke into several shards when it fell from the west gable from about 30 meters.
The bell could have been re-cast by welding with the lost shards, but since the many welds would have completely disfigured the bell and the text could no longer be understood, a facsimile cast was made in the Bachert bell foundry in Karlsruhe in 2012 .
The striking mechanism with a copper hood at a height of around 40 meters was repaired in November 2015.
From the abundance of grave sites and monuments in the Doberaner Munster, the following should be particularly emphasized:
The Pribislav Chapel had been the burial place of the Mecklenburg Princely House since 1302. After the remains of the monastery founder Pribislav were found here in 1856, a new grave slab was made in his honor. A special feature is the pillar with its colored tile pattern based on an oriental model.
The grave monument of Margaret of Denmark († 1282 in Rostock), stylistically related to the Madonna of the Marienleuchter and thus to the high altar (around 1300).
At the beginning of the 16th century, three dukes of Mecklenburg received remarkable standing figures on pillars in the ambulatory.
Numerous grave slabs of abbots and aristocrats of the region (Peter Wise, von Axekow family) have been preserved, some of them of good quality.
The sarcophagus of Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I is in the west of the north aisle.
Two memorial plaques of the Oertzen (noble family) commemorate nine of the family who died in the First World War and 32 who died in the Second World War. Most of them were officers, but towards the end of the war and afterwards also civilians, including two women.
Tomb of Queen Margaret of Denmark
The late Romanesque-early Gothic grave sculpture of Queen Margarete († 1282 in Rostock) with a realistic depiction of the drapery of the robe is carved from oak wood and is considered the oldest grave sculpture in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and the oldest female grave sculpture of all Cistercian monastery churches in Europe and is therefore of high art-historical value. The sculpture shows the queen in a long, green undergarment with tight sleeves, a top that is compressed at the belt, and a red cloak that is gathered over the body. Around the neck and shoulder of the figure is a collar made of black-brown strips of fur that are arranged in steps. The head and neck are surrounded by a tightly fitting container that emphasizes the triangular shape of the face. The queen wears a crown on the headscarf, which is only loosely thrown on.
Equestrian statue of Count Samuel von Behr
In the northernmost ambulatory chapel there is an equestrian statue on a sandstone sarcophagus with a canopy above it. It is the grave complex of the Duke's Privy Councilor, Count Samuel von Behr . The tomb was built from 1622 by the Leipzig master builder Franz Julius Döteber and his assistant Daniel Werner, the canopy was built in 1626 by the Dutchman Gerhart Evert Pilooth . The Behrs grave is, among other things, an expression of the changed demands on courtly representation and is not least due to the close relationship of trust between the duke and the count.
Samuel von Behr sits high on his horse, in full splendor armor. As a sign of his official dignity, he holds a scepter in his right hand and at the horse's feet you can find a guard dog as a symbol of loyalty to the duke. The rider, the horse and the dog are wood carvings. A canopy decorated in the Baroque style was built on top of six pillars . In order to take into account the long family tradition, the Behr coat of arms is located at the foot of the front center column and to the left and right of it the busts of the deceased's parents. Many inscriptions adorn the sarcophagus.
The silver horseshoes, saddle fittings, reins and stirrups were stolen by Swedish soldiers during the Thirty Years' War. The tomb was badly damaged. In 1886, the entire grave, which had been badly dilapidated, was restored by the building officer Gotthilf Ludwig Möckel . When the sarcophagus was also opened, the bones and skull of the deceased could be seen through a disc attached to the lid of the coffin.
In the eastern ambulatory, the octagon, an octagonal burial chapel for 13 Mecklenburg dukes, was built to bar the small altar between the pillars. On the two corners of this three-part masonry projecting into the easternmost ambulatory stand two short black marble columns about 90 centimeters high and 15 centimeters in diameter, with high romanized capitals made of white marble with elaborate foliage and identical bases. The walled-in late Romanesque columns made of Aachen limestone - from an old cloister or a burial site? - probably date from around 1240.
Located between the two eastern pillars of the ambulatory, it was possible to enter the octagon from two sides. You are between the Chapel of Adolf Frederick I and the octagon, you can at the lower base of the octagon see a copper plate from the 19th century, with the inscription, which is on the coffin of the Duke Albrecht VII. (Mecklenburg) had found . In 1547 he was the last of probably 13 dukes who found their final resting place here. Behind the plate was originally the opening that led into the crypt. A wooden balustrade and an octagonal stone canopy with a vault have been erected above it in the late Gothic style . With reference to the buried dukes and the donor Katharina von Sachsen-Lauenburg , corresponding coats of arms can be seen in the balustrade. The carvings on the balustrade are noteworthy. On the demarcation wall there is a high barrier in the middle between two pillars, and above it a high pointed arch on the pillars. Two heraldic shields stand upright in the corner fields above the pointed arch : heraldically on the right the shield with the Mecklenburg bull's head, on the left the shield with the Rostock griffin ; In the upper opening of the pointed arch hangs the diagonally divided shield for the county of Schwerin : as a whole, the ducal Mecklenburg coat of arms of the 15th century is shown.
At the bottom of the barrier are four shields leaning to the right in the following heraldic order: at the bottom right a shield with the Rostock griffin; lower left a sign with the Mecklenburg bull's head; Upper right a three-part shield: upper right the Saxon shield with the crossbeams covered by the diamond wreath, upper left the Mecklenburg bull's head, lower right two red-colored lions jumping on top of each other. On the capitals of the two columns, which carry the open pointed arch above the barriers, there are two small Gothic niches with canopies in which two small figures stand: a heraldic figure on the left with an open flap and the left hand on a shield which the Mecklenburg bull's head stands; on the right an armored figure with a pimple bonnet or cap and wrapped in a coat. Perhaps these figures are supposed to represent the two sons of the Duchess, as sovereign donors. The octagon also refers to the holy guardians at the tomb of Jesus Christ .
In any case, the carving was made by Duchess Katharina von Sachsen-Lauenburg after the death of her husband, Duke Johann IV. (Mecklenburg) , probably during the time of her state reign around the year 1422. Katharina von Sachsen-Lauenburg was a born princess of Sachsen-Lauenburg and after the death of her husband while her two sons, Heinrich and Johann, were minors, until 1436 the state regent. She apparently had a burial site that may have existed since 1397, in keeping with the dignity of the dukes. The octagonal chapel was the most important prince burial place of its time in the Doberan Minster. The importance of this ducal burial place can already be seen in the exposed location behind the high altar.
Duke Johann IV. (Mecklenburg) died on October 16, 1422. On this occasion, a new crypt was probably set up for the dukes behind the high altar, as there is no trace of princely burials from the 15th century in the old crypt in the north transept can be found, while on this altar behind the high altar there are several indications that this place was particularly dear to the dukes of the 15th century.
One discovers a painted treasure when one enters the octagon from the choir room and is thus in the upper area of the tomb. Above an altar pedestal there are grisaille paintings of the three wise men bringing presents and a figure of Mary with the child in her arms. This extends the left hand to one of the gifts that are given to him. The pictures are painted on the back of the four coats of arms in the cupboards facing the high altar.
On the wall surfaces on both sides of the octagon, facing the ambulatory, four life-size pictures of the duke are painted on the stone wall, two on each side, one below the other, in water colors. These wall paintings show the three sons of Albrecht II (Mecklenburg) :
- top left: Albrecht III. (Mecklenburg) with the heading: “King Albrecht van Sweden hertege to mekelenborch. 1385-1412 ";
- bottom left: Heinrich III. with the heading: "Hertege hinrick van mekelenborch 1379-1383";
- top right: Johann IV. (Mecklenburg) , with the heading: “Hertege iohan van mekelenborch 1384–1422”;
- below right: Magnus I (Mecklenburg) with the heading: “Hertege magnus van mekelenborch. 1379–1384 "
These pictures were probably painted under Magnus II (Mecklenburg) around 1480, who also had the five-shielded coat of arms placed over the barriers in the pointed arch; This is also supported by the style of the clothing, which is more highly dressed up with high feathers on the beret and the like. This demonstrated the power and solidarity with the church and the Doberan monastery.
In 1547 - five years before the monastery was dissolved - the last ducal burial by the monks took place here, that of Albrecht VII (Mecklenburg) .
Tomb of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and wife Anna Maria of East Friesland
Adolf Friedrich I died on February 27, 1658. Despite a testamentary condition, his son Christian Ludwig I did not come to the request to bury him in the Doberan Minster. It was only after the death of his son in 1692 that the duke was transferred to the cathedral by his grandson and buried next to his first wife.
The tomb and the crypt of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and his wife Anna Maria von Ostfriesland were built since 1634 by Franz Julius Döteber from Leipzig and Daniel Werner from Dresden in the transitional style from Renaissance to Baroque based on the Italian model. The tomb was made of limestone, the ceiling and the angel were carved from wood. The angel holds a crown and a palm branch in his hands. On the banner on his chest is a verse from the Revelation of John, chapter 2, verse 10: “Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life.” There are mother-of-pearl windows in the ceiling . The carved life-size ducal figures are shown in the Spanish fashion customary at the time. At the entrance of the tomb there is Jesus Christ , the risen Savior, made of limestone. On the front of the loggia, flags with the coat of arms of the ducal family were originally hung on the standards.
Grabtumba Albrecht III. and wife of Richardis
The grave tumba for Albrecht III. , buried in the octagon behind the high altar, and his first wife Richardis , is an important example of Gothic funerary art. The lion and dog among the figurative representations symbolize strength and loyalty. The princess sculpture is designed in the Gothic style. Noteworthy is the Gothic folds of the Richardi's robe.
Tomb of Duke Johann Albrecht and Princess Elisabeth
The tomb of Duke Johann Albrecht and his wife Elisabeth von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach was made around 1910 by Building Councilor Winter from Braunschweig . He took Byzantine buildings from Ravenna and Bologna as a model for the tomb, which was also influenced by Wilhelmine-German architecture . It consists of a base made of gray-blue, Norwegian Labrador , roofed by a ciborium made of Verona marble, among other things . The jewelry coffin only suggests the crypt of both people, which is located further ahead. The sarcophagus was made of Botticino marble . It is divided into several fields on the long and gable sides, which, in contrast to the early Christian models in Ravenna, now also contain the bull's head and griffin as the Mecklenburg coat of arms, as well as the diamond shield and Thuringian lion as the coat of arms of the Saxon-Weimar house. As a very special decoration, mosaics with early Christian representations made of gold-plated tiles were used on the tomb . The mosaic floor contains pictures depicting mythical creatures. The chapel is closed off from the ambulatory with a wrought iron grille, decorated with the coats of arms of Mecklenburg , Thuringia and Stollberg .
Johann Albrecht was buried as the Duke-Regent and the last person in the walls of the former monastery church, like his direct ancestor Prince Pribislaw 750 years earlier and more than fifty other princely persons buried in the Doberan Minster. When Albrecht's first wife Elisabeth died, he had the grave monument erected in the Doberan Minster.
In the chapel, in contrast to the rest of the church, the neo-Gothic color version of the restoration with stenciled patterns in the vaults and in the window reveals by Gotthilf Ludwig Möckel was retained. The entire church had a similar neo-Gothic painting from the end of the 19th century until the interior restoration in 1974–1984. The color scheme has been reconstructed from 1974 onwards due to the rich medieval furnishings based on the medieval original painting (red belt ribs, blue cross ribs with white pilaster strips ).
Next to the north aisle, bordering the north transept to the east, there is a chapel with two simple cross vaults separated by a belt arch. The chapel was donated by the Schwerin bishop Friedrich II von Bülow in 1372. Regular masses should be held in the chapel for the benefit of his own soul, as well as that of his parents, brothers and the other close relatives of Bülow's bishops. The walls of the chapel were equipped with Gothic portraits of this group of people, which are no longer preserved.
In 1874 the von Bülow family asked the Grand Duke to be able to restore the dilapidated chapel, which had been used as a material room for years, as a family chapel. The request was granted with the condition that the family association had to keep the chapel. After that, the chapel was restored until 1877 according to plans by the Schwerin building councilor Theodor Krüger . It is a rare example of a complete design in the style of historicism .
The floor is covered with a colored, patterned plaster made of burnt brick tiles and the windows are adorned with gray carpet patterns with colored borders and the Bülow coat of arms. The two keystone medallions, carved in oak , were newly made according to the old remains and richly decorated with gilding and colors. The western one, surrounded by foliage, bears the von Bülow coat of arms in the middle; the eastern in a similar enclosure the bishop's miter. An altar table with a step made of sandstone was set up again on the east wall and the table was provided with a low attachment carved in oak. The entrance to the chapel is closed by an oak gate with stylish iron fittings.
The decorative equipment was in the historicist style and was based on existing remains of the painting and reports on it. As a result, the old inscription Capella de Bülow was renewed below a console above the door , but on the console a group made of oak by Hermann Narten “a knight shooing a monster back with a spear” and above it the Low German inscription Stah up - listen! van de Dör restored.
The figural decoration of the walls shows the crucifixion with Mary and John on the east wall; next to Mary St. Thomas of Canterbury in archbishop's robes, next to John St. Olaf in royal robes. In the corners kneeling next to St. Olaf the knight Vicco von Bülow (1309/35), the father of Bishop Friedrich; to the right of St. Thomas, the knight's wife, Gesa Carlow, both designated by the coat of arms opposite. According to the old representation, the individual figures are separated by slender columns with a canopy-like crown. Next to the windows on the north side are the four Schwerin bishops of Bülow: Gottfried I , Ludolf I , Heinrich and Friedrich II. On the west side next to the window on the left, Bishop Friedrich's brother, Canon Johann Bülow (1325/37), was originally depicted , but this portrait was wrongly given the name of the monk Eckhard von Bülow on the occasion of the restoration in the 1870s. On the right on the west wall of the chapel, the Abbot of Doberan is shown standing in the same way. On the southern wall above the entrance there is a knight in armor, holding the sword resting on the floor in front of him, with the inscription: Henricus de Bülow . This knight is a representation of the brother of Bishop Friedrich, the squire and ducal councilor Heinrich von Bülow (1334/51). In addition, above the barred opening on the south side, there is a depiction of a squire with a falcon on his hand. Originally there was a depiction of a praying knight at this point, which was to remind of Bishop Friedrich's other brother knight Reimar von Bülow (1341/63). On his right, St. Bernard is shown seated in gray monastery costume, while St. Benedict of Nursia is probably shown on the left .
These paintings were designed by the history painter Karl Christian Andreae ; the heads of the portrayed bishops and knights are said to have been given portrait-like echoes of outstanding family members of recent times.
In addition, a Latin and a Low German inscription were restored.
Secular building use
A number of directional radio and GSM systems (with antennas that cannot be seen from the outside) are also housed in the roof turret of the cathedral at the height of the bell cage. This makes it by far the highest cellular structure in the region.
- Memorabilia Dobberanensis Templi Epitaphia (inscriptions from the Doberan monastery church, Latin and German, 17th / 18th centuries), BSB Cgm 5300, (digitized) , Bavarian State Library
- Wolfgang Erdmann: Doberan Cistercian Abbey. Cult and art (= the blue books ). Langewiesche, Königstein im Taunus 1995, ISBN 3-7845-0411-6 .
- Günter Gloede: The Doberan Minster. History, building history, works of art. Berlin 1960, . (6th edition 1970)
- Markus Hörsch: Bad Doberaner Munster - interior. (= Art Guide. Volume 2524). Regensburg 2003, ISBN 3-7954-6443-9 .
- Johannes Voss: Notes on the history of the cross altar and its reredos in the Doberaner Münster. Conception and results of the restoration 1975–1984. In: Uwe Albrecht , Jan von Bonsdorff (ed.): Figure and space. Medieval wooden sculptures in a historical and art-geographical context. Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-496-01121-1 , pp. 112-123.
- Johannes Voss: The Doberaner goblet cabinet. A contribution about construction, location and dating. In: Hartmut Krohm, Klaus Krüger, Matthias Less (eds.): Origin and early history of the winged altar shrine. Publication of the contributions to the International Colloquium "Origin and Early History of the Winged Altar Shrine". Berlin, June 28-29 , 1996. Berlin / Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-89500-343-3 , pp. 125-142.
- Christof L. Diedrichs: ... like empty eye sockets. The high altar retable in the Doberan Minster. (= Doberaner Münster. Special issue. 1). Doberaner Munster, 2009, OCLC 837820710 .
- Marianne Strack: The church is very beautiful ... - Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy in Dobberan 1824. (= Doberaner Münster. Issue. 2). Doberaner Munster, 2009, OCLC 828784987 .
- Carl-Christian Schmidt: The history of the princely chapel in the cathedral to Bad Doberan. (= Doberaner Münster. Special issue. 3). Doberan Minster, 2011.
- Claus Peter: The history of the bells in the Bad Doberan Minster. (= Doberaner Münster . Issue 4). Münster administration of the Evangelical Lutheran Parish, Bad Doberan 2012.
- Kathrin Wagner: The cross altar in the Minster in Bad Doberan. (= DKV art guide. No. 635). Munich / Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-422-02016-0 .
- Renate Krüger: Doberan tracery. A report. Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-372-00206-7 .
- Carl-Christian Schmidt: The Minster of Bad Doberan. Recordings by Jutta brothers. (= DKV art guide. No. 408). 12th edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin / Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-422-02298-0 .
- Johannes Voss (text), Jutta Brüdern (photos): The Minster in Bad Doberan. (= Large DKV art guide ). Munich / Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-422-02048-1 .
- Martin Grahl: The word of God and its allegorical interpretation - the cross altar of the minster of Doberan. 2011, ISBN 978-3-8416-0120-9 .
- Stefan Thiele: The Cistercian monastery church in Doberan. Research and preservation of monuments at the »Doberaner Münster« in the 19th and 20th centuries. (= Contributions to the history of architecture and the preservation of monuments in Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania. 12). Thomas Helms Verlag , 2016 (Dissertation University of Leipzig 2012).
- Tobias Pietsch: The Bülow Chapel in the Doberan Minster. A genealogical study of the church foundations of the Bülows in the late Middle Ages. In: Mecklenburgische Jahrbücher. 131, 2016, pp. 7-55.
- Gerhard Weilandt, Kaja von Cossart (Ed.): The equipment of the Doberaner Minster. Art in context. (Edition Mare Balticum; 2). Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2018. ISBN 978-3-7319-0176-1 .
- Martin Heider, Christian Kayser (Ed.): The Bad Doberaner Münster. Construction - history - context. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2020. ISBN 978-3-7319-0004-7 . [Published: January 2020].
- The Doberan Minster. Director: Karlheinz Mund, DEFA studio for documentary films, 1984
- Pearl of brick Gothic - The Bad Doberan Minster. DVD, a film by: Katja Voget, Eddy Zimmermann and Richard Jacobi, 2011.
- Website of the Doberan Minster
- State Office for Culture and the Preservation of Monuments MV: The Prince Epitaph in Doberan Minster - Monument of the Month July 2007
- Handwriting to inscriptions
- Friedrich Lisch : Documents on the history of the Church in Doberan. In: Mecklenburgische Jahrbücher. Volume 9, 1844, pp. 297-299.
- Sven Wichert: The Doberan Cistercian Monastery in the Middle Ages. (= Studies on the history, art and culture of the Cistercians. Volume 9). 2000, p. 245.
- Document from the archive of the German Unesco Commission: GDR proposals for the World Heritage List. In: MDR.DE. Retrieved March 7, 2018 .
- State Parliament Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania - plenary minutes 6/17 of May 23, 2012. (PDF; 1.2 MB) p. 69
- Doberan equipment not nominated. In: muenster-doberan.de. July 8, 2014, accessed on February 20, 2018 (German).
- Andreas Meyer: World Heritage: Münster is thinking about a second attempt. on: ostsee-zeitung.de , September 26, 2014; accessed on March 27, 2015.
- Voss: The Minster in Bad Doberan. 2008, p. 100.
- On the triumphal cross see: Master of the Luebeck Triumphal Crucifixes .
- German: “See the rose full of sweetness / full of beauty, greet them; / See the maiden full of grace, / who stands up for our debts / bow to her before her / with humble gestures ”.
- "Many daughters have accumulated riches, you have surpassed them all", Proverbs 31:29.
- Translation: “In the beginning was the word and”, Jn 1,1.
- Translation: “Not everyone can take the word”, Mt 19:11.
- Translation: "We had seen this word which has become."
- Translation: “The sower sows the word”, Mk 9:14.
- Translation: "And the word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we saw his glory", John 1:14.
- Translation: "The work of our being born again is the Incarnation of the Word of God."
- Translation: "Mankind would not be redeemed if the word of God did not become man."
- Official website of the minster on the mill altar.
- German: “Call this altar by name of the body of Christ; here the immeasurable sacrifice of the Triune is exhibited, venerated, glorified [praised] and adored; here the pure Virgin Mary is constantly venerated. "
- Johannes Voss: The Minster of Bad Doberan. (= Large DKV art guide ). Munich / Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-422-02048-1 , pp. 52-54.
- The huge sandstone tabernacles in Ulm Minster and St. Lorenz in Nuremberg were not created until the 15th century. Excessive pomp is still avoided on the Doberan Tower by the Cistercians.
- Georg Christian Friedrich Lisch: Sheets on the history of the church at Doberan: the high altar and the tabernacle in the church at Doberan. In: Yearbooks of the Association for Mecklenburg History and Archeology. Volume 14, 1849, pp. 351-380. (Digitized version)
- Wolfgang Erdmann: Doberan Cistercian Abbey. (= The blue books ). Koenigstein / Ts. 1995.
- A. Kobe: Tempus fugit - The history of the astronomical clock in the Minster in Bad Doberan. Kobe, Rostock 2011.
- Dieterich Schröder: "Wismarian firstlings or some documents and messages serving to explain the Mecklenburg Church history" . The end of the series or the last piece. Friderich Gottlieb Hornejus, Wismar 1734, p. 398–399 ( digitized on the pages of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek). ; Archives of the cathedral administration, unpublished.
- Friedrich Schlie : Art and History Monuments of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Volume 3: The district court districts of Hagenow, Wittenburg, Boizenburg, Lübenheen, Dömitz, Grabow, Ludwigslust, Neustadt, Crivitz, Brüel, Warin, Neubukow, Kröpelin and Doberan. Schwerin 1899, p. 612 (digitized version).
- Archives of the Münsterverwaltung, unpublished.
- “What are you doing here, brother? Come with me."
- "You shall find no harm in me, you hideous beast."
- German: See, I, the bell, never proclaim nothing. I praise the true God, call the people and gather the clergy.
- German: I served for many years until I went under in 1638, resounded in 1926, destroyed again in the war in 1942. Risen again in the year of the Lord 2011 with a pure tone, I sing the praises of the eternal God.
- German: Cast in the year of the Lord 1390 on the day before Simon and Judah (October 27th), in the year of the Lord 1390. Praise be who comes in the name of the Lord.
- German: Newly cast in the year of the Lord 1831 + now risen again in the year of the Lord 2011, I call you to worship.
- Mecklenburgische & Pommersche Kirchenzeitung. Edition 31/2011, August 7, 2011.
- Tobias Pietsch: The Bülow Chapel in the Doberaner Münster. A genealogical study of the church foundations of the Bülows in the late Middle Ages . In: Mecklenburgische Jahrbücher . tape 131 , 2016, p. 7-55 .
- See the description in Deutsche Bauzeitung 11, 1877, p. 57 f.
The Low German reads ( Deutsche Bauzeitung 11 (1877), p. 58):
Wieck Düvel, wieck wieck wiet van mi, Ick scheer mi nich een hoar üm di.Ick bün een Meckelbörgsch nobleman, What does Düvel go to? Ick suup with mine Lord Jesus Christ, If you want to dehydrate Düvel forever; Ick drink with Em de söt kolleschal, When you sit in the agony of hell, Drum rahd ick wiek, loop, rönn un gah! Sünst, bi den Düvel, ick to Schlah.