A hairdresser (also hairdresser ; female form hairdresser , hairdresser , hairdresser or hairdresser ; in northern Germany also Putzbüd (d) el , in Switzerland coiffeur , coiffeuse ; sometimes also referred to as a hairstylist, hair stylist ) is a specialist in the care of the head hair and the design of the hairstyle .
The word is derived from French, where the verb friser means something like "curl" or "twirl". The term hairdresser was never very common in French and has now died out. Originally the "official" female form of the job title in German was hairdresser . Hairdressing was common in German since the end of the 17th century. Gradually, the term hairdresser took hold instead of a hairdresser . The term stylist is also used these days .
The older German name was Frisierer , Haar (e) Schneider , Haarkräusler or Barber (the latter for the barber ).
After two classic comedies, the term “Figaro” is occasionally used as a synonym for a hairdresser. Both comedies - The Barber of Seville and The Great Day or Figaro's Wedding were the subject of famous operas:
- The Barber of Seville by Gioacchino Rossini and
- Le nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
For a long time, hairdressing salons in Germany mostly only bore the name of the operator. Around the turn of the millennium , especially in large cities, salon names with puns became fashionable, for example “Four Times of Hair”.
Numerous hairdressing salons differentiate - depending on the professional experience - different performance levels, which are reflected in a correspondingly higher remuneration for the customers. A distinction is often made between the following levels, which, however, are not uniformly regulated:
- Young stylist : Hairdresser at an advanced stage of training or documented specialist with 1–4 years of professional experience
- Stylist : Specialist with a completed training and at least one or at least 3 years of professional experience
- Top stylist : Specialist with at least 3 or at least 5 years of professional experience
- Master stylist : master hairdresser
Tasks and services
Hairdressers work in hairdressing salons, in theaters or visit customers at home. Her activities include classic washing, cutting (dry and wet) and blow-drying as well as shaving . In addition, they advise their customers, give them recommendations on hair styling and mostly also sell hair care products. Furthermore, hair is colored (hair, eyelashes, eyebrows), tinted or provided with strands ( American colors , foil, hood, comb and glove strands , painting ) and inserted using curlers or water wave curlers , with permanent or cold waves or Volume waves provided. Hair treatments are often offered for care . For special occasions, they create gala hairstyles, updos, but can usually also do hair extensions and hair thickening . In addition to the classic business, the field of activity generally includes type advice , eyebrow plucking, eyelash coloring and eyelash waving, manicure and cosmetics .
In addition to the actual hairdressing trade, the job profile also includes wig making, skin and nail care and decorative cosmetics (make-up).
The path to becoming a hairdresser with a federal specialist certificate ( professional examination ) and then to a hairdresser with a federal diploma ( higher technical examination ) is open as further training . The federal diploma roughly corresponds to the master craftsman's certificate in Germany.
A state license is required to work as a hairdresser in the United States . The requirements for this license vary from state to state. The training to become a hairdresser or barber takes place at barber schools, cosmetology schools and beauty schools. In most states, training takes around 9 to 18 months. The schools can be private hairdressing schools or state community colleges. Tuition fees range from $ 6,000 to $ 14,000. Few community colleges also offer the academic degree “ Associate in Applied Science in Cosmetology”, which includes additional business training in addition to the license and lasts at least four years.
Protection of the customer
As a rule, customers are wrapped in a cloak to protect their clothing from being soiled by hair, shampoos and paint. Under the collar this cloak mostly paper towels or a stretchable be ruff clamped to prevent hygienic reasons and on the other to rub on the neck to one.
Hairdressers are obliged to adhere to the Infection Protection Act (IfSG - Law for the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Humans) and the hygiene regulations of the respective country based on it. The recognized rules of hygiene must be observed. This includes, for example, regular cleaning and disinfection of work equipment; especially if the customer was accidentally injured and thereby contaminated with blood or other secretions, and the use of freshly cleaned robes and towels. This also means that people infected with head lice may not be served.
Protection of workers
Within the framework of the DGB, the union ver.di is responsible for the trade union perception of employee law issues in the hairdressing trade . The statutory accident insurance, as with the doctors and nursing professions, is the professional association for health services and welfare (head office Hamburg).
Monday is traditionally a day off for hairdressers and is still common. Many hairdressers also open on Saturdays, but still have two consecutive days off due to the fact that they are closed. Today, many, but not all, salons are open six working days a week.
If a salon is open every working day of the week (Monday to Saturday) and employees only work five working days a week, then the employer may regulate the working days within the scope of his authority. According to § 106 GeWO, the employer can determine the place and time of work at its own discretion, i.e. H. taking legal requirements into account. If an employee works on certain days of the week as agreed and a public holiday falls on one of these days, then the employer may not specify a different working day for the employee because of the public holiday. Such an instruction violates the Continued Payment Act. According to this, the employee is entitled to continued pay if his working hours are canceled due to a public holiday (Section 2 Continued Pay Act). Circumventing the obligation to pay wages is prohibited under Section 12 of the Continued Remuneration Act.
- The Frenchman Marcel Grateau 1872 developed the undulation (German: ripple, wave ), which was used until the 1960s.
- The court hairdresser of Kaiser Wilhelm II , François Haby , propagated mustache fashion that was successful throughout Germany .
- The hairdresser Karl Ludwig Nessler invented the permanent wave in 1906 .
- Vidal Sassoon revolutionized cutting techniques in the 1960s.
- Well-known German hairdresser (including) Udo Walz .
- Until the introduction of the statutory minimum wage, for example, as in 2007 in Saxony , the collective wage was between 4 and 6 euros per hour, which resulted in a gross monthly wage of around 600 to 900 euros. In other federal states , it was significantly higher in 2011, for example in Hesse or North Rhine-Westphalia, depending on qualifications, at 8 to 13 euros (1,300 to 2,100 euros monthly gross wage). The minimum wage for hairdressers was not introduced until August 1, 2015; previously, since the law came into force on January 1 of the year, instead of 8.50 euros, 7.50 euros (east) and 8 euros (west) were binding for hairdressers.
- The annual trade fair Top Hair International Trend & Fashion Days , which takes place in March on the grounds of Messe Düsseldorf, is considered to be the leading European trade fair for this sector.
- The saint and disciple of Jesus Maria Magdalena is considered the patron saint of hairdressers . Further patron saints are the saints Cosmas and Damian , probably due to their medical profession and its historical proximity to the bathing trade , from which the hairdressing trade emerged, but also Saint Catherine of Alexandria and Padre Pio .
- There are over 59,600 hairdressers in Germany (as of 2018).
- Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, all hairdressers were closed for weeks. On May 4, 2020, the companies in Germany were allowed to reopen under strict conditions. Both customers and employees had to wear mouth and nose protection. Work materials such as scissors and combs had to be disinfected before each use. Trimming a beard or mustache and tinting eyelashes and eyebrows were prohibited.
- Ferdinand Müller, Carl Hermann Theodor Müller: The modern hairdresser and hair shaper in words and pictures. Killinger Verlagsgesellschaft, Nordhausen am Harz 1925, as a reprint: Salzwasser-Verlag, Berlin 2012.
- Georg Wolf Brussels: History of the hairstyle in all times. Comments from Prof. Dr. WE Peuckert. Wella AG, Darmstadt 1952.
- Walter Domnick, Heinz Möller, Gaby Tinnemeier: Stylistics - Hairdressing - Professional history. Verlag Handwerk und Technik, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 3-582-03914-5 .
Photo books about barber shops, hairdressers and hairstyles:
- In 2005, Tally Abecassis published Barbershops, a book of photographs by Claudine Sauvi of barber shops for men in Montreal, Canada. These traditional barbershops are increasingly disappearing in Canada, the USA and England, and the author wanted to commemorate these shops with her book.
- The book Astor Place • Broadway • New York , published in 2013 by the Berlin photographer Nicolaus Schmidt , depicts a barber shop in New York in which up to 50 hairdressers, immigrated from all corners of the world, work in a basement. This hair salon, founded in 1947 by Italian immigrants, is threatened by rising rents in Manhattan and therefore had to move to the basement of a large commercial building on Broadway. In an essay, the American author Darnell L. Moore writes about the social function of a traditional hairdressing salon as a “marketplace” for people of different origins and professions as well as about immigration to the USA. The different expectations of men and women when visiting a hairdresser are highlighted in a text by Berlin hairdresser Udo Walz .
- In 2007 the photographer Herlinde Koelbl published a book on the subject of “hair”, a kind of photographic material study on the subject of hair.
- www.duden.de - Hairstylist
- www.fmfm.de according to 2016/2017 figures from the Central Association of the German Hairdressing Trade
- For the female designation hairdresser or hairdresser see Gerhard Müller: Friseurin , online: archive link ( Memento from October 21, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Ordinance of the Federal Minister for Science, Research and Economy on professional training in the teaching profession of hairdresser and wig maker (stylist) (hairdresser and wig maker (stylist) training regulations). Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy, Federal Law Gazette II No. 135/2014, accessed on March 10, 2015 .
- On the linguistic designation, among other things, Wolfgang Pfeifer: Etymological Dictionary of German. Berlin 1993, 2nd edition.
- Archive link ( Memento from October 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Every hairdresser is bound by the Infection Protection Act. (No longer available online.) Friseure & Maxime, archived from the original on November 8, 2011 ; Retrieved October 12, 2011 .
- jura-basic.de, basic legal knowledge: right of instruction and working hours
- 3.82 euros for the hairdresser - that's how low German hourly wages are. Spiegel-Online, March 2, 2007, accessed October 12, 2011 .
- How much do hairdressers earn? HairWeb.de, accessed on October 12, 2011 .
- Minimum wage: hairdressers receive 8.50 euros. In: Handelsblatt. August 1, 2015, accessed October 4, 2016 .
- Top Hair International - With almost 30,000 visitors it has blossomed into the leading trade fair for the hairdressing trade. duesseldorf.businesson.de, March 22, 2011, accessed on October 12, 2011 .
- Vierzehnheiligen accessed on January 26, 2016 ( Memento from January 26, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- welt.de, accessed on May 29, 2012
- Industry report hairdressing and cosmetic salons 2019. Stuttgart 2019. p. 5.
- Tally Abecassis: Barbershops. Black Dog Publishing, London 2005, p. 172.
- The American Dream at the hairdresser Rheinische Post, May 5, 2013, accessed on June 29, 2013, 10:45 am
- Nicolaus Schmidt: Astor Place • Broadway • New York. Bielefeld 2013, p. 162 ff.
- Nicolaus Schmidt: Astor Place • Broadway • New York. Bielefeld 2013, p. 178 ff.
- Herlinde Koelbel: Hair. Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2007.
- Book review , Goethe-Institut, accessed on June 29, 2013 3:45 p.m.