County of Oettingen
Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
|County of Oettingen|
|coat of arms|
|The county of Oettingen 1805|
|Alternative names||County of Öttingen, since 17./18. Century also the Principality of Oettingen|
|Form of rule||County , since 17/18 Century also principality|
|Ruler / government||Count , Prince|
|Today's region / s||
DE-BY , DE-BW
|Capitals / residences||Oettingen in Bavaria|
|Dynasties||Count of Oettingen|
|Denomination / Religions||Roman Catholic , briefly Protestant|
|Language / n||German|
|surface||around 850 km² (1806)|
Kingdom of Bavaria , Kingdom of Württemberg
The county of Oettingen (also Öttingen ), since the 17./18. Century also Principality of Oettingen , was a direct imperial rule of the Counts of Oettingen around the imperial city of Nördlingen , with the core area in Nördlinger Ries in today's Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg .
At the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the county comprised around 850 km² and 60,000 inhabitants.
In 1141 a noble noble family , who had held the title of count since 1147, named themselves after the town of Oettingen in the Nördlinger Ries . The "older Grafschaft Oettingen" did not have its center in the Ries, but in the adjoining southern Franconian area on the Wörnitz . It was a typical Staufer county, a bailiwick exercised in the name of the ruler . After the sinking of the Staufer in 13/14. Century a conversion to the "younger Grafschaft Oettingen" combined with a stately consolidation in the Nördlinger Ries by taking over the regional royal estate ( Harburg , Alerheim , Wallerstein , Katzenstein ) and a withdrawal from the Franconian possessions. Goods from the Hochstift Eichstätt and other aristocratic estates such as Hürnheim or Truhendingen were gradually taken over. Due to numerous confirmations of ownership and privileges of the emperors and kings, their high jurisdiction and customs rights , a clearly delimited shelf district has formed since the beginning of the 15th century .
In 1418, 1442 and 1485 partitions weakened the dominion.
In 1522 the area split into the Protestant line Oettingen-Oettingen , in 1674 raised to the rank of prince , which received seven twelfth of the possessions and died out in 1731, and the Catholic Oettingen-Wallerstein line , which received five twelfth of the possessions. The cities of Oettingen and Wemding were divided. Oettingen was a double seat of princes, divided by denominations according to street sides, the city institutions were occupied jointly or often alternately. The Julian and Gregorian calendars ran side by side. The frequent divisions of inheritance and denominational divisions prevented a successful territorial policy. The property has always remained too small for an independent policy. Despite the division that led the lines into hostile camps, the constitutional unity of the county remained intact until 1806, regardless of further inheritance divisions.
Imperial register from 1521
The right to coin coins existed from the end of the 14th to the middle of the 18th century. There were frequent conflicts over sovereign rights with the imperial city of Nördlingen, which became an enclave of the county. From the 16th to the beginning of the 18th century, Nördlingen filed 103 complaints in this regard before the Reich Chamber of Commerce .
Opposite the Wittelsbach possessions, the Electorate of Bavaria and Palatinate-Neuburg , a clear manorial boundary was formed by 1533. There was a wide conflict zone of overlapping regal claims against the Hohenzollern Principality of Ansbach , which were not finally clarified until 1796.
The Oettingen-Wallerstein line was divided into three lines in 1623/94:
- Oettingen-Baldern , it died out in 1798 and its possessions went to the Oettingen-Wallerstein line.
- Oettingen-Wallerstein , which was raised to the rank of prince in 1774, received two thirds of their possessions in 1731 when Oettingen-Oettingen died out. This line also owned the Dagstuhl rule , for which they were compensated in 1803 with church property in Bavaria and Württemberg . The family owned the Wallerstein, Baldern and Harburg estates .
- Oettingen-Spielberg , raised to the rank of prince in 1734, received a third of the possessions of Oettingen-Oettingen, including Oettingen Castle . The part of the name Spielberg comes from Spielberg Castle in Spielberg .
Despite these elevations to the imperial princes , the Oettinger regents in the Reichstag until 1803 only had a share in the curate vote of the count bank of the Swabian Reichskreis . In Article 24 of the Rhine Federation Act , the Principality of Oettingen was mediated by the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1806 . The western part, about a third of the former county, went to the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1810 .
- Dieter Kudorfer: The county of Oettingen: territorial inventory u. internal structure (around 1140 to 1806) (= Historical Atlas of Bavaria, part of Swabia . II, 3). Michael Laßleben, Kallmünz 1985, ISBN 978-3-7696-9936-4 ( digitized version ).
- L. Müller: The Jews in Ries in their relationship to the House of Öttingen, Kaiser and Reich 1400–1486, in: Journal of the Historisches Verein für Schwaben and Neuburg, Vol. 26 (1899), pp. 81–154.
- Gerhard Köbler : Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54986-1 , p. 490ff.
- Max Spindler , Andreas Kraus: History of Swabia up to the end of the 18th century. (= Handbook of Bavarian History. Volume 3: Franconia, Swabia, Upper Palatinate up to the end of the 18th century. ) Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-39452-3 , p. 368ff.
- Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus: History of Swabia up to the end of the 18th century. (= Handbook of Bavarian History. Volume 3: Franconia, Swabia, Upper Palatinate up to the end of the 18th century. ) Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-39452-3 , p. 373.
- Volker von Volckamer: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-00200-8 , pp. 472-474 ( version ). In:
- Imperial register of 1521
- Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus: History of Swabia up to the end of the 18th century. (= Handbook of Bavarian History. Volume 3: Franconia, Swabia, Upper Palatinate up to the end of the 18th century. ) Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-39452-3 , p. 375.