Hanau (noble family)
The family of the Lords and Counts of Hanau were a noble family that ruled from the 13th century to 1736 in the rule and (since 1429) County of Hanau and its sub-counties of Hanau-Münzenberg and Hanau-Lichtenberg .
They ruled over a territory that was divided into two large agglomerations: The county of Hanau-Münzenberg stretched from the foot of the Taunus to the eastern Spessart and from (Bad) Nauheim to the northern edge of the Odenwald . The county of Hanau-Lichtenberg was mainly in northern Alsace .
The rule of Hanau was raised to a county in 1429 . Attempts in the 17th / 18th Century to become principality were soon abandoned. In 1736 the count's house died out. The Hanau-Munzenberg part of the state fell to Hessen-Kassel on the basis of an inheritance contract , the Hanau-Lichtenberg part of the state fell to Hessen-Darmstadt due to the marriage of the daughter of the last Hanau count .
In the 19th century the elector of Hessen-Kassel bestowed the title of princess and prince of Hanau on his wife and her descendants who were not in line with their status .
In documents of the Archbishop of Mainz , several "counts" appear as witnesses since 1122, who call themselves "von Buchen" after a castle . First a Dammo from Buchen , later also his brother Siegebodo . In the next 13 years, Dammo was handed down six times as a witness from Mainz documents, his brother even three times within one year. In connection with these notarizations, Hanau Castle is also mentioned as belonging to this family. After 1144 the previously used title of count disappears . After 1175 the family is no longer proven. Overall, there is very little knowledge about this family, which was the first to call itself “von Hanau”.
Around 1166/68 a change of rule seems to have taken place, because now new leading names appear under the Lords of Hanau, especially Reinhard and Ulrich. A noble family appears as heir, initially named after their ancestral castle, Dorfelden , but also with the name "Lords of Dorfelden-Hagenowe (Hanau)" and named after Hanau Castle from 1191 . The relationship between these and the oldest, genealogically certain, with the family of those Lords of Hanau, Reinhard I. , who are to be connected by Hanau , has not been fully clarified.
|Reinhard I.||approx. 1225-1281||≈1243-1281|
|Ulrich III.||1310-1369 / 70||1346-1369 / 70||Landvogt in the Wetterau|
|Ulrich IV.||≈1330-1380||1369 / 70-1380|
|Ulrich V.||1370-1419||1380-1404||under guardianship : 1380–1388; removed: 1404|
|Reinhard II.||1369-1451||1404-1451||1429: Elevation to the rank of count|
≈: year of birth unknown; stated is the first year in which the person concerned is first mentioned in a document.
County Hanau (1)
|Reinhard II.||1369-1451||1404-1451||1429: Elevation to the rank of count|
|Philip I, the younger||1449-1500||1452-1458||Under guardianship; In 1458 the county was divided: s. u.|
In order to be able to distinguish between the two Hanau counties in the period after the division of the country in 1458, the part that was ruled by Count Philip I (the elder) was named after the Lichtenberg inheritance in 1480 as the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg . Correctly, Philipp I (the elder) should actually be called von Hanau-Babenhausen by then . But that has never caught on in literature. For the part of the county that was ruled by Count Philipp I (the younger), the county of Hanau-Munzenberg has been officially spoken of since 1496 . In order to be able to differentiate between the two counties and their regents in the period between 1458 and these dates, from 1458 onwards, Hanau-Munzenberg and Hanau-Lichtenberg were used throughout .
County of Hanau-Munzenberg
|Philip I, the younger||1449-1500||1458-1500||under guardianship : 1458–1467|
|Reinhard IV.||1473-1512||1496-1512||as co-regent from 1496 to 1500|
|Philip II||1501-1529||1512-1529||under guardianship : 1512–1523|
|Philip III||1526-1561||1529-1561||under guardianship : 1529–1552|
|Philip Ludwig I.||1553-1580||1561-1580||under guardianship : 1561–1575|
|Philip Ludwig II.||1576-1612||1580-1612||under guardianship : 1580–1596|
|Philipp Moritz||1605-1638||1612-1638||under guardianship : 1612 to 6 August 1626|
|Philip Ludwig III.||1632-1641||1638-1641||under guardianship : 1638–1641|
|Johann Ernst||1613-1642||1641-1642||from the sidelines: Hanau-Munzenberg-Schwarzenfels|
|Friedrich Casimir||1623-1685||1642-1685||From the Hanau-Lichtenberg line|
|Philipp Reinhard||1664-1712||1685-1712||After the death of his predecessor, Friedrich Casimir , he inherits the county of Hanau-Münzenberg. Hanau-Lichtenberg falls to his brother, Count Johann Reinhard III.|
County of Hanau-Lichtenberg
|Philip I, the elder||1417-1480||1458-1480||Son of Reinhard II.|
|Johann Reinhard I.||1569-1625||1599-1625|
|Friedrich Casimir||1623-1685||1641-1680 / 85||under guardianship : 1641–1647. In 1642 he inherits the county of Hanau-Münzenberg; thus the two Hanau counties are reunited. From 1680 to 1685 he had to let agnates take part in the government.|
|Johann Reinhard III.||1665-1736||1685-1736||After the death of his predecessor, he first inherits the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg, his brother, Count Philipp Reinhard , inherits the Hanau-Munzenberg region. After his death in 1712 he also took office in the county of Hanau-Münzenberg.|
County Hanau (2)
|Friedrich Casimir||1623-1685||1642-1680 / 85||under guardianship : 1641–1647: Since 1641 regent in the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg. In 1642 he inherits the county of Hanau-Munzenberg; The two Hanau counties are thus reunited. From 1680 to 1685 he had to let agnates take part in the government.|
After the death of Count Friedrich Casimir, the county is again divided into Hanau-Münzenberg (falls to Count Philipp Reinhard ) and Hanau-Lichtenberg (falls to Count Johann Reinhard III ). See above.
County Hanau (3)
|Johann Reinhard III.||1665-1736||1712-1736||After the death of his predecessor, he first inherits the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg, his brother, Count Philipp Reinhard , inherits the Hanau-Munzenberg region. After his death in 1712 he also took office in the county of Hanau-Münzenberg.|
County of Hanau-Munzenberg under the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel
The Landgraves of Hessen-Kassel , as Counts of Hanau, have no independent census. Only their reigns for the county of Hanau (-Münzenberg) are given here.
|Friedrich||1676-1751||1736||King of Sweden; passes the Hanau inheritance immediately to his younger brother, Landgrave Wilhelm VIII .|
|William IX.||1743-1821||1760-1806, 1813-1821||1760–1764 under the tutelage of his mother, Landgravine Maria . Landgrave Friedrich II. , Son of William VIII. And father of William IX., Was because of his conversion to the Catholic faith by the Assekurationsakte excluded from the heritage of the county of Hanau
From 1803 Landgrave Wilhelm carried the title " Elector " and called himself Wilhelm I.
|French military administration||1806-1810|
|Karl Theodor von Dalberg||1744-1817||1810-1813||Grand Duke of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt , to which the County of Hanau (-Münzenberg) belongs during this period.|
|Wilhelm II.||1777-1847||1821-1831||After the revolutionary crisis of 1830, he effectively abdicated in favor of his son.|
|Friedrich Wilhelm I.||1802-1875||1831-1866||The electorate - and therefore Hanau - are after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 by Prussia annexed .|
County of Hanau-Lichtenberg under the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt
The Landgraves of Hessen-Darmstadt , as Counts of Hanau, do not have an independent count. Only the reigns for the county of Hanau (-Lichtenberg) are given here.
|Louis X.||1753-1830||since 1790||In the wars of the French Revolution, almost all areas of Hanau-Lichtenberg were lost to Hessen-Darmstadt as part of the subsequent “land consolidation” on the political map of Germany. Only the office of Babenhausen remained with the Grand Duchy of Hesse .|
Prince of Hanau
Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I of Hesse-Kassel married a commoner, Gertrude Lehmann , in a manner that was indecent . On June 2, 1853, he awarded her and her descendants from their marriage with him the title “Prince or Prince of Hanau” . The Austrian recognition as Princess of Hanau zu Hořowice followed on March 6, 1855. The electoral Hessian confirmation of the title and name of the descendants of his sons of June 10, 1862 made appropriate, ie at least count, descent of the spouse a prerequisite and was made by Austrian Page recognized on January 20, 1877. The family lived at Hořovice Castle in Bohemia until 1945 and at Meiselberg Castle in Carinthia to this day .
|Surname||Life dates||Bearer of the title||Remarks|
|Gertrude von Hanau||1803-1882||1853-1882||married and divorced Lehmann; Baroness , later Countess von Schaumburg ; Princess of Hanau zu Hořowice|
|Wilhelm||1836-1902||1889-1902||acquired the title on the death of his older brother|
|Karl||1840-1905||1902-1905||acquired the title on the death of his older brother|
|Heinrich||1842-1917||1905-1917||acquired the title on the death of his older brother|
Heads of the Hanau house after 1919
|Surname||Life dates||Head of the house||Remarks|
|Heinrich (II.) Of Hanau-Hořovice||1900-1971||1922-1971||Son of Friedrich August von Hanau|
|Heinrich (III.) Of Hanau-Hořovice||1923-1998||1971-1998|
|Philipp von Hanau-Hořovice||1959–||1998–|
Coat of arms of the princes of Hanau
The coat of arms of the princes of Hanau shows a quartered shield with a heart shield. The Hessian lion (without sword) appears in the heart shield.
The coat of arms of the Principality of Hanau appears in the first and fourth quarters: a square with a heart sign. The middle shield is divided from red to gold ( rule of Munzenberg ). The first and fourth quarters show three red rafters on top of each other in gold (County Hanau), the second and third quarters are eight times striped by red and gold ( County Rieneck ).
In the second and third quarters, the coat of arms of the Grafschaft Schaumburg appears : in red, a little shield divided by silver over red, surrounded by a silver jagged edge (nettle leaf).
The shield wears three helmets. The one in the middle with a blue-silver blanket on the right and a red-silver blanket on the left shows two silver buffalo horns growing out of the helmet crown, each with five green linden twigs on the outside (Hessen). The right-hand helmet with a red and gold cover bears a silver swan with a black beak, ready to fly, growing out of the helmet crown (Hanau, also Rieneck). The helmet on the left (Schaumburg) with a red and silver cover wears a golden crown of thorns, from which seven golden lances with red flags rise between two gold-stemmed peacock fronds. The flags show the coat of arms of Schaumburg.
Two (princely crowned), retrospective, golden lions serve as shield holders. The whole thing is attached under a purple cloak that falls from a prince's hat.
- Principality of Hanau
- County of Hanau
- County of Hanau-Lichtenberg
- County of Hanau-Munzenberg
- Hanau reign
- List of the lords and counts of Hanau
- Family list of the Hanau-Hořovice house
- Coat of arms of the county of Hanau
- List of coats of arms with Hanau rafters
- Peter Blänkle: Human skeletal remains from the Protestant town church Babenhausen . In: Klaus Lötzsch and Georg Witteberger: Contributions to the history of the County of Hanau-Lichtenberg = Babenhausen once and now 31 (2004), pp. 117–142. P. 127f: Explicitly on the family of the Counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg.
- Erhard Bus: Not only on the Main and Kinzig. An overview of the development of the territory of the Lords and Counts of Hanau from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. In: Stadtzeit 6. 700 years of city rights, 400 years of Jewish existence. Hanau 2003, ISBN 3-9806988-8-2 , pp. 20-29.
- Karl-Heinz Spieß: Dynasty and rule of the Counts of Hanau in the late Middle Ages. In: Allmuth Schuttwolf (Ed.): Seasons of feelings. The Gotha couple and love in the late Middle Ages. Gotha, Ostfildern-Ruit 1998, pp. 34-49.
- Reinhard Dietrich: The state constitution in the Hanauischen [sic] = Hanauer Geschichtsblätter 34. Hanau 1996. ISBN 3-9801933-6-5
- Hugo Gerhard Ströhl: German coat of arms roll . Reprint of the original edition from 1897. ISBN 3-89836-545-X
- Reinhard Suchier : Genealogy of the Hanauer count house . In: Festschrift of the Hanau History Association for its 50th anniversary celebration on August 27, 1894 . Hanau 1894.
- Ernst Julius Zimmermann: Hanau city and country . 3. Edition. Hanau 1919. ND 1978.
- ^ Günter Rauch: History of Hanau. Volume 1: From the beginnings to the death of Count Philipp Ludwig II of Hanau-Münzenberg (1612). Hanau 2016, ISBN 978-3-86314-320-6 , pp. 130f.
- ↑ See: Kurt Blaschek: Das Fürstlich Hanau'sche Realfideikommiss Horzowitz . In: New magazine for Hanau history (2011) = messages from the Hanauer Geschichtsverein 1844 eV, pp. 106–116.
- ↑ The title is a verbatim quote from the 18th century.