Dog rose

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Dog rose
Dog rose (Rosa canina)

Dog rose ( Rosa canina )

Family : Rose family (Rosaceae)
Subfamily : Rosoideae
Genre : Roses ( pink )
Subgenus : pink
Section : Dog roses ( Caninae )
Type : Dog rose
Scientific name
Rosa canina

The dog rose ( Rosa canina ), according to Duden Hundsrose written and Hagrose , dog rose or Heather Rose called, is a flowering plant in the family of the rose family (Rosaceae). It is by far the most common wild-growing species of the genus roses ( Rosa ) in Central Europe.


The specific epithet canina is derived from the Latin canis: dog., The German name Hundsrose is a translation of it. There are several derivatives for the common name "dog rose". On the one hand, compound words (compound words) with dog are used as an attribution to express something low, possibly despicable. The dog rose would therefore be the “common” or “common” rose. On the other hand, the dog rose was given as a remedy against rabies , also known as "dog fury" , which was often transmitted through dog bites.


Dog rose illustration ( Rosa canina )
Pinnate foliage with stipules

Vegetative characteristics

The Hunds-Rose grows as a deciduous, upright, loose shrub and forms long, arching branches and twigs. Usually it is 2 to 3 meters high, rarely four; in the shade it can also become higher as a spreading climber . It is fast-growing and usually wider than it is tall. The spines are similar: they have a broad, sloping base, are strong and hooked, only rarely sickle.

The alternate leaves are arranged in a petiole and a leaf blade. The petiole and leaf hachis are usually glabrous, rarely with individual hairs, without glands or with individual petiole glands, more rarely with more glands. The imparipinnate leaf blade is depending on the variety of very different five or seven pinna leaflet . The coarse and rigid pinnate leaves are fresh green in color, rarely covered with pale blue, glossy or frosted. The leaflets are usually 1.5 times as long as they are wide and elliptical to ovoid. The base of the leaflets is rounded and that at the top has a short, not clearly separated point. The edge of the leaflets is seldom regularly serrated, more often serrated once or twice. The leaflet teeth, which are usually narrow, pointed and protruding forward, carry cartilage tips, gland rudiments or individual glands. The upper and lower surfaces of the leaves are glabrous, the upper side is glandless, the underside can be glandular. The bare stipules have a bare or more often glandular ciliate margin. The dog rose glands do not have a noticeable scent. The autumn color of the leaves is pale yellow.


Radially symmetrical flower with five petals and many stamens

There are usually many flowers on the bushes, which are individually or up to ten (rarely more numerous) together. The individual flowers are only open for a few days. The usually glandless peduncle is 1 to 2, rarely up to 3 centimeters long. Bracts are hardly to well developed, mostly glandless, but ciliate on the edge.

The hermaphroditic flowers are radial symmetry and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The five bald and glandular to glandular ciliate sepals are knocked back after the anthesis and fall off prematurely, so that they are no longer available when the fruit is ripe. The diameter of the corolla is usually 3.5 to 4.5 cm, more rarely between 2.5 and 5 cm. The five petals are mostly light pink, rarely white or bright pink.

The number of stamens varies, but is between 20 and 100. The styles are bald, stiff-haired or woolly hairy. The scar head is of the hat type, rarely of the bouquet type. It blooms in June, it blooms once.

The ripe fruits do not have sepals


The fruits , the so-called rose hips , are very variable in shape, with the Hunds-Rose practically all known rose hip forms occur. On a shrub, the shape - with the exception of the terminal central butt - is always the same: most often they are elongated-ellipsoidal or ovoid. They are usually glandless, only with glandular forms the base of the rose hips can be covered with glands. The stem of the rose hip is usually one to twice as long as the rose hip, often shorter, only rarely longer. When ripe, the rose hips are red and hard, and they are often still on the bush in spring. The stylus canal is narrow, the disc ring is wide. The disc is weakly to strongly convex and has a diameter of 3.2 to 5, rarely 6 millimeters. Compared to other roses, they ripen very late in October and November, rarely in September.


The number of chromosomes is 2n = 35. Like all species of the Caninae section , the Hunds-Rose has a special form of meiosis , the balanced heterogamy .


Vitamins (especially vitamin C in the fleshy fruit peel), coloring agents ( carotenoids ), sugar, tannins, organic acids, pectin , essential oil and other substances.


The Hunds-Rose is a winter-bare thorn bush with mostly green, photosynthesis- promoting branches. As a spreading climber , it can reach heights of over 5 m in the shade; it is a maximum of 300 years old. In the 1st year, simple saplings grow to over 2 m long. In the 2nd year, short side shoots develop from the axils of the previous year's leaves, which often end in flowers. The proverbial " thorns " of the rose are actually spines ; they serve as climbing organs, protection from eating and possibly also as condensation points for dew . The root of the Hunds rose forms a VA mycorrhiza . It is a light to partial shade plant.

The flowers are homogamous "pollen disk flowers", i. i.e., they have no nectar . The color contrast between the yellow anthers and the pink petals is responsible for the visual effect of the flower. The flower color is caused by anthocyanins , especially cyanidin . The pollen is only available to the flower visitors in the morning. Pollinators are all kinds of insects except butterflies . They sit in the middle of the flower and thus cause cross- pollination . The self-pollination is partially successful. It is unclear whether seeds can also be produced by apomixis . Most of the chromosomes come from the mother plant.

Numerous carpels form an apocarpes gynoeceum . The sepals are spirally twisted to form a 2/5 screw, the lowest are largely foliage (divided), towards the top they are progressively simplified.

For this there is the riddle verse: "There are five brothers / born at the same time, / two have a full beard, / the cheek of the third is shaved, / the last two remain hairless".

The fruits, called rose hips , are collective nuts . They arise from the fact that the free-standing ovaries grow into nuts, called "kernels", and are enclosed by the fruit cup, which is fleshy when ripe. The red color of the fruit cup is caused by carotenoids , especially lycopene . There is hiding and digestive expansion. Fruit ripens from September to October.

The vegetative reproduction occurs through root shoots, underground runners and through lowered, rooting branches.


It is not uncommon to find gall formations several centimeters wide on roses, called "rose apples" or "sleeping apples", these are tissue growths that arise after the rose gall wasp, common rose gall wasp , and which house their larvae in several small chambers. Occasionally you will find individual garden beetles in the flowers of the dog rose , which leave small traces of feeding on the petals. The shiny gold rose beetle , which has become rare, can also be found on dog rose blossoms.


The Hunds-Rose occurs all over Europe with the exception of the northernmost areas: it is absent in Finland and Iceland, in the coastal regions of Norway it occurs up to the 62nd parallel. In the east the boundary runs from Lake Ladoga in the north to the Volga. To the east of it there are isolated deposits up to the Urals. In addition, it occurs in northwest Africa and in the Middle East, although it is rare in Jordan and Israel and absent in Iraq. In the Pamir there is an isolated part area. In North America the dog rose is a neophyte .

The Hunds-Rose is common, only rare in mountainous and sandy areas. It prefers moderately dry to fresh soils that are rich in bases and moderately acidic to mild. Often the soils are humus and deep, but it also grows on stony, loamy and sandy soils, as well as on aubo soils.

It grows on roadsides and roadsides, on pastures, in sunken paths, in bushes, forest fringes, sparse forests and on beach ridges. It is a pioneering wood and, in terms of plant sociology, a species of character of the Prunetalia.

The Hunds-Rose occurs in Central Europe from the lowlands to the mountains, so it occurs from the planar to the montane elevation , rarely to the subalpine. In the Alps, it rises to altitudes of 1680 meters. In the Allgäu Alps, it rises to an altitude of 1200 meters on the Kessel-Alpe near Immenstädter Horn above Bühl am Alpsee .


The first publication of Rosa canina was in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum , 1, p. 491. Synonyms of Rosa canina L. are: Rosa ciliatosepala Blocki , Rosa corymbifera Borkh. , Rosa dumetorum Thuill.

Rosa canina belongs to the subsection Caninae in the section Caninae ( dog roses ) within the genus Rosa .

Rosa canina is very diverse in shape, which is why several hundred species of this clan have been described in the past . They are no longer recognized today. Even the small species established by I. Klášterský in 1968 as part of the Flora Europaea are mostly no longer accepted as independent species. Regional clans are often well demarcated morphologically, but their taxonomic status is unclear.

In the flora of Central Europe, Henker lists the following clans within the Rosa canina , which he provisionally classifies as varieties:

  • Rosa canina var. Glandulosa Rau : the most common clan in Central Europe
  • Rosa canina var. Andegavensis (Bastard) Arechav. : seldom to absent-minded
  • Rosa canina var. Scabrata Crépin ex Scheutz : rare.
  • Rosa canina var. Blondaeana Rip. ex Crépin : rare.

The clan as presented here is not listed in the species rank by all authors. Some carry them as a subspecies of a broader species Rosa canina together with Rosa corymbifera , sometimes also with Rosa tomentella . The species group Rosa canina agg. in the sense of the list of vascular plants of Central Europe (Ehrendorfer, 1973) included the clans Rosa andegavensis , Rosa blondaeana , Rosa canina s classified as separate species . st. and pink squarrosa .

The Dog-Rose is with most European wild roses bastards , very rich in forms are the bastards with Rosa gallica , Rosa pendulina and Rosa spinosissima . The best-known hybrid is the one with Rosa tomentosa , Rosa × scabriuscula , which has long been listed as a separate species.


The millennial rose bush at Hildesheim Cathedral

The Hunds-Rose is used as a pioneer wood for mixed and protective plantings , as a soil stabilizer on slopes, embankments and heaps , for the re-greening of clay and sand pits . As an ornamental shrub it has no meaning. For Rose schools it is however the most important Rose pad for finishing of Rose varieties. The rose hips are used in a variety of ways, for example for teas and for the production of rose hip wine and rose hip oil .

A famous and very old specimen of the dog rose is the so-called millennial rose bush in Hildesheim .


  • Heinz executioner: Rosa canina. In: Hans. J. Conert et al. a. (Ed.): Gustav Hegi. Illustrated flora of Central Europe. Volume IV, Part 2C. Spermatophyta: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones 2 (4). Rosaceae (rose family). 2nd edition, Parey, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-8263-3065-X , pp. 84-87.
  • Ruprecht Düll , Herfried Kutzelnigg : Pocket dictionary of plants in Germany and neighboring countries. The most common Central European species in portrait. 7th, corrected and enlarged edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01424-1 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Entry caninus. In: Helmut Genaust: Etymological dictionary of botanical plant names. 2nd, improved edition. Birkhäuser, Basel / Boston / Berlin 1983, ISBN 3-7643-1399-4 , pp. 91-92.
  2. ^ Hund, in the DWB German dictionary, by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. 16 volumes in 32 sub-volumes. Leipzig 1854–1961. digitally edited in the competence center for electronic cataloging and publication processes in the humanities at the University of Trier,
  3. ^ Gerhard Madaus: Textbook of biological remedies. Volume 3. New edition, Georg Olms Verlag, 1976. ISBN 978-3-487-05892-4 . on pages 2334–2335.
  4. ^ Rolf Giebelmann (2004): Cultural history on rose plants. T + K Toxichem Krimtech (Bulletin of the Society for Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry) 71 (2): 54-63.
  5. L. Thurzová and community of authors: Lexicon of Medicinal Plants with 112 color tables , Lingen Verlag, p. 196, ISBN 978-3-231-62457-3
  6. Erhard Dörr, Wolfgang Lippert : Flora of the Allgäu and its surroundings. Volume 2, IHW, Eching 2004, ISBN 3-930167-61-1 , p. 55.
  7. First publication scanned at .
  8. Rosa canina at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis

Web links

Commons : Hunds-Rose ( Rosa canina )  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Hunds-Rose  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations