Industrial park

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An industrial park is a demarcated industrial site on which several independent companies from one or more sectors operate. The local companies are linked to one another by common value chains and share the local infrastructure and services that are often provided by a public or private operating company . The term chemical park is often used in the chemical industry .


The creation of industrial parks is a special form of outsourcing , so that the companies involved gain a competitive advantage by concentrating on their core competencies , e.g. B. through synergies and economies of scale in the operation of a capital-intensive infrastructure, or by reducing the capacity commitment for services. The operator of an industrial park aims to improve the attractiveness of the industrial park by exploiting location factors and to lower its opportunity costs (e.g. by relocating ) .

The term industrial park has been used since the 1960s. The majority of industrial parks have been built since the 1990s, especially in the automotive and chemical industries , whose industrial parks are often also referred to as chemical parks . Most industrial parks were not created through the targeted settlement of companies at a new location, but rather through the outsourcing or sale of parts of the company at existing locations, in the new federal states also through the dissolution of the former chemical combines . Since there is usually no operator with overall responsibility, the legal status of industrial parks must be considered on a case-by-case basis. However, there are efforts to regulate the legal and enforcement issues in connection with industrial parks uniformly, z. B. from the point of view of accident law as well as water law , dangerous goods law and chemicals law .

The industrial parks that exist today can essentially be categorized into three operator models:

  1. Most industrial parks have an infrastructure company that not only provides the local companies with space, but also infrastructure and services. These services are collectively referred to as industrial park management. The infrastructure company can also be the owner of the industrial park. It can be a company outside the industry (e.g. subsidiary of an energy company). However, it is often a subsidiary or a joint venture with other local companies. In general, your services are free to compete , unless a framework agreement provides for other regulations (e.g. purchase obligations for certain services, last call ).
  2. Individual, mostly smaller, industrial parks do not have an infrastructure company, but the local companies provide all the necessary services themselves or procure them from companies specializing in them.
  3. In some industrial parks, one of the site companies also takes on the role of the infrastructure company as a major user .

Industrial park management

The individual services of industrial park management can differ from location to location. Typical services are in any case:

power supply

When energy in general, not only is primary energy (. Eg natural gas ) and electricity understood but other than cable - and pipe networks distributed media. These include B. Technical gases (e.g. compressed air , oxygen , nitrogen , hydrogen ), water ( drinking water , fully demineralized water , cooling water and special water qualities for production) and refrigerants (e.g. cooling brine , ammonia ). Steam generation plays a special role , as steam in the industrial park is not only required to generate electricity in power plants, but also to transfer heat for production. A relatively high degree of efficiency can be achieved through combined heat and power . In addition to natural gas and coal , biogas and substitute fuels are increasingly being used as fuels in industrial power plants.


An important task in industrial park management is the proper disposal of the waste generated on site . In addition to household and commercial waste , this generally also includes toxic waste , which is usually disposed of in special incineration plants. Wastewater generated at production and research sites is mostly disposed of in our own biological sewage treatment plants .

Facility management

The administration and management of buildings, systems and facilities at a location is called facility management . The special character of a closed industrial site usually results in requirements that go beyond the conventional definition of commercial, technical and infrastructural facility management. Large locations have e.g. B. usually through its own plant fire brigade and plant security . Facility management in the broadest sense can also include the operation of an infrastructure for information technology and telecommunications .

Location logistics

The location logistics includes the storage of raw materials , consumables and supplies as well as preliminary and finished products . Incoming and outgoing goods at an industrial park require special facilities at the factory gate, e.g. B. for handling dangerous goods or for weighing vehicles.

Many locations have a rail connection and port operations . In-plant transports are carried out with road vehicles or a works train .

public relation

An important part of industrial park management, especially in the chemical industry, is the organization of effective emergency management and public relations , especially in the form of crisis communication .

List of industrial parks

In the German chemical industry, there are so far 37 industrial and chemical parks in the professional association chemical parks of the VCI have joined, including

Name of the industrial park Companies Employees (approx.) Established as an industrial park surface
Black Pump Industrial Park 125 5,000 1990 720 ha ASG Spremberg GmbH
Behringwerke Marburg 19th 4500 1997 Pharmaserv GmbH & Co. KG
Chempark Dormagen (without Ineos Cologne) 60 9700 2004 360 hectares Currenta GmbH & Co. OHG
Knapsack Chemical Park 15th 2500 1997 YNCORIS GmbH & Co. KG (until June 2019 InfraServ GmbH & Co. Knapsack KG)
Chempark Krefeld-Uerdingen ( Chempark ) 40 8000 2004 260 hectares Currenta GmbH & Co. OHG
Chempark Leverkusen ( Chempark ) 200 32650 2004 480 ha Currenta GmbH & Co. OHG
Marl Chemical Park 30th 10500 1998 Evonik Industries AG
Zeitz Chemical and Industrial Park 50 1100 1996 Infra-Zeitz Servicegesellschaft mbH
Münchsmünster industrial park 3 750 2001 Industrial Park Münchsmünster GmbH & Co. KG
Chemical site Leuna 40 9000 1996 InfraLeuna GmbH
Bobingen industrial park 17th 1650 1998 Industrial park Werk Bobingen GmbH
Düren-Niederau industrial park 7th 400 2004 Veolia Industriepark Deutschland GmbH ( Veolia )
Gendorf Chemical Park 20th 4000 1997 InfraServ GmbH & Co. Gendorf KG
Gersthofen industrial park 12 1600 2002 MVV Industriepark Gersthofen Servicegesellschaft mbH ( MVV Energie )
Griesheim industrial park 30th 750 2003 Infrasite Griesheim GmbH ( Infraserv Höchst )
Höchst industrial park 90 22000 1997 Infraserv GmbH & Co. Höchst KG
Kalle-Albert industrial park 80 5400 1997 InfraServ GmbH & Co. Wiesbaden KG
Oberbruch industrial park 20th 2000 2000 Veolia Industriepark Deutschland GmbH
Industry Center Obernburg 30th 3000 2003 Mainsite GmbH & Co. KG
Seelze industrial park 5 800 1997 Honeywell Specialty Chemicals Seelze , Sigma-Aldrich Laborchemischem GmbH, Troy Chemicals Inc, Pfaudler Werke Schwetzingen
Walsrode industrial park 21st 2600 2001 Dow Wolff Cellulosics , Probis GmbH
Industrial Park Wolfgang 11 4500 2000 Evonik Industries AG
Bitterfeld-Wolfen Chemical Park 360 11000 2001 Chemical Park Bitterfeld-Wolfen GmbH ( Gelsenwasser )

See also


  • Hans-Jürgen Müggenborg: Environmental requirements for chemical and industrial parks . 1st edition. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-503-10659-2 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Müggenborg: Chemical parks under the microscope . Continuation series in the magazine Chemie-Technik , Hüthig Verlag, Heidelberg. Part 1: Chemietechnik 1–2 / 2003, p. 10 ff., Last: Part 59, in: Chemie-Technik , 7/2015 p. 58 ff.
  • Thomas Bergmann, Matthias Bode, Gunter Festel, Hermann G. Hauthal (eds.): Industrial parks: challenges and trends in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries . Festel Capital, 2004, ISBN 3-00-014280-0
  • Compendium of industrial parks . In: Chemie-Technik , 12S / 2007. Hüthig-Verlag, Heidelberg 2007
  • Jan Schipper: Co-determination in the industrial park . Nomos Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-8329-3942-7

Web links

Commons : industrial parks  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Production in industrial parks .
  2. Industrial park and accident law (PDF; 1.7 MB), research report of the Federal Environment Agency 2002, ISSN  0722-186X .
  3. ^ Association of Chemical Parks in the VCI .
  4. Münchsmünster .