Josef Edmund Jörg

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Josef Edmund Jörg (born December 23, 1819 in Immenstadt ; † November 18, 1901 at Trausnitz Castle in Landshut ) was a Bavarian historian , publicist , archivist and politician. He was a member of the Chamber of Deputies of the Bavarian State Parliament (1865–1881), the Customs Parliament (1868–1870) and the Reichstag (1874–1878) and was instrumental in founding the Bavarian Patriot Party. From 1852 to 1901 he was editor of the historical-political papers for Catholic Germany .

Live and act

Jörg came as the son of the glazier and court clerk Franz Joseph Jörg (1788–1841) and his wife Balbina, nee. Hauber (1798–1834) to the world. He spent the first years of his life in his hometown Immenstadt before he attended the high schools in Füssen and Kempten with great success. With the aim of becoming a priest, Jörg began studying at the University of Munich in 1838 . He first completed two philosophical years and then switched to studying theology , which he completed in 1843. Jörg had already received the minor orders when he met Walburga Berner and fell in love with her. He gave up his spiritual career and married Walburga in 1847. The couple had six children. After the death of his first wife in 1866, Jörg married Ida Prand († 1901) in 1867, with whom he had seven more children.

Through his teacher in church history, Ignaz von Döllinger , Jörg gained access to the circle around Joseph Görres , which included scholars such as Georg Phillips and Ernst von Lasaulx , as a student . This circle of Catholic renewal also made it possible for Jörg to deal with the family of Minister Karl von Abel , with whose son Ludwig Jörg was supposed to be lifelong friends. Döllinger supported the penniless Jörg after he had given up the priestly career by hiring him as an employee in 1844. His task consisted in collecting sources on the history of the Reformation, on the basis of which Döllinger developed his work, directed against Ranke and published in three volumes from 1846 to 1848, The Reformation, Its Developments and Effects in the Extent of the Lutheran Confession . Jörg remained connected to the topic and in 1851 published his first book Germany in the Revolutionary Period from 1522 to 1526 , which focused on the Peasants' War , which Jörg interpreted as a revolution.

Again on Döllinger's recommendation, Jörg was accepted as an intern at the Bavarian Reichsarchiv in Munich in 1846 . He was trained as an archivist and in November 1852 got a job as a second clerk in the Munich Reichsarchiv. At that time Jörg had already appeared as a political publicist. A text from 1857, which dealt critically with the Bavarian bureaucracy, led to a conflict with Interior Minister August Lothar von Reigersberg , who ensured that Jörg was transferred to a subordinate position at the archive in Neuburg an der Donau . All efforts to transfer were unsuccessful in the era of Maximilian II and only after Ludwig II had ascended the throne , Jörg was appointed director of the archive conservatory (State Archive Lower Bavaria) and castle administrator of Trausnitz Castle on October 1, 1866 . Jörg held this position until his death.

After the departure of Georg Phillips in 1851 and the death of Guido Görres in 1852, who had headed the editorial department of the historical-political papers for Catholic Germany founded in 1838 , Jörg was entrusted with the editing of the papers by the owner family Görres, for which in addition to his professional qualifications the good Networking in the Görres district was crucial. Jörg directed the "most influential magazine of German Catholicism" until 1901, since 1857 together with Franz Binder , who was particularly responsible for the literary part of the magazine. Jörg always acted as the main editor of the papers, whose profile he also shaped through numerous contributions of his own. It is important to emphasize the chronology that preceded every issue from 1852 to 1901 and in which Jörg discussed current political issues. They also formed the basis of the books that Jörg published.

In the state elections in April 1863 Jörg ran in the constituency of Neumarkt in the Upper Palatinate , where he was elected as a substitute. On April 24, 1865 he moved into the Chamber of Deputies for the resigned MP Joseph Ernst . He belonged to the state parliament until 1881: in May 1869 he was re-elected in the Neumarkt constituency, in the new elections in November 1869 in the Kempten constituency , and in his last state election in 1875 in the Landshut constituency. In the Customs Parliament election in 1868 , Jörg was elected in the Neumarkt constituency, joined the South German parliamentary group in Berlin and took part in the three sessions of the parliament until spring 1870, without appearing as a speaker in the plenary. Jörg did not participate in the first Reichstag election in 1871 . In the election in 1874 he was elected in the constituency of Augsburg and confirmed there in the election in 1877 . After the Reichstag was dissolved in 1878, Jörg did not stand again.

For the convinced Greater German Jörg, the outcome of the German War in 1866 was a bitter disappointment. From then on he campaigned for the preservation of Bavarian sovereignty. He rejected the alliance treaty between Prussia and Bavaria, concluded in August 1866 and published in March 1867, as well as the revised Customs Union Treaty of July 1867. Jörg developed into a leading figure in the Catholic-conservative forces who opposed the small-German unification policy, the liberal economic and social policy and the anti-clerical cultural policy of the Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst government . After the state elections in May 1869, Jörg was one of the customs parliamentarians with a state mandate who agreed at a meeting in Berlin on June 11, 1869 to form a patriotic parliamentary group in the Chamber of Deputies . So it happened in September 1869, in which the founding act of the Bavarian Patriot Party can be seen, whose programmatic leader Jörg became. During the time of the Customs Parliament, Jörg's campaign against the dogmatization of papal infallibility fell , for which he co-initiated the Berlin lay address .

With the crisis that led to the Franco-Prussian War in the summer of 1870 , the German question came back on the agenda. King Ludwig II mobilized the Bavarian army on July 16, and on July 18 the government presented the Chamber of Deputies with an extraordinary credit claim for the maintenance of the army. Jörg was a member of the special committee that was set up on the same day to prepare the decision and acted as speaker for the political part of the demand. With a patriotic majority, he pushed through a vote in the committee that approved the required loan amount, but obliged Bavaria to “armed neutrality”. Jörg also took this line in the decisive plenary session on July 19, 1870, where he argued with the banality of the reason for war, with the restriction of royal sovereignty by subordinating the Bavarian army to Prussian command in the event of war and with the threat to the Bavarian Rhine Palatinate from France . But members of the parliamentary group such as Max Huttler and Johann Nepomuk Sepp opposed Jörg. This did not succeed in keeping the majority parliamentary group (80 of 154 MPs) closed: In the final vote, the loans were approved with 101 to 47 votes.

A similar parliamentary constellation arose in the winter of 1870/71, when the Chamber of Deputies was confronted with the November Treaties, which required a two-thirds majority because of their constitutional character. The patriotic faction split in December 1870 into a negative majority, led by Jörg, and an approving minority around the MPs Ludwig von Weis and Max Huttler. Jörg was re-elected as speaker of a special committee and was able to set the committee vote to rejection in his spirit. Although the split in the parliamentary group was evident in the debate between January 11 and 21, 1871, Jörg believed until the end that the negative votes would be sufficient to prevent a two-thirds majority. But in the final vote on January 21, 1871, the agreement was approved with 102 to 48 votes (only two votes above the qualified majority). Jörg spoke of a feeling of "complete resignation" and temporarily considered "to withdraw from parliamentary life soon."

Jörg stayed as party and faction leader in the Chamber of Deputies and was thus in charge of a political entity, the character and problems of which he himself described: "The Patriotic Party has no doctrine, it does not want to impose a system on anyone and it would be very embarrassed. if it should draw up a program that goes into the details of constitutional law. She only knows very well what she doesn't want. ”In his role until 1881, Jörg was permanently occupied with keeping the heterogeneous faction together, which tended to develop into wings and split off. In the first few years he had to do with the national split of the Huttler group in the wake of the decisions of 1870/71. This had organized itself under the name Centrum (approx. 30 members of parliament), but in view of the intensifying culture war, it mostly returned to Jörg's majority faction. After the elections of 1875, the tendency to split came from the reactionary minority in the parliamentary group, which rejected Jörg's middle position in principle and tactically and strategically: They saw in the party not a political, but a denominational-Catholic community, which is about the creation of a " Catholic State ”to go; In return, this group advocated a tough opposition strategy against the Lutz government , including denial of the budget and collective resignation of the MPs. These parliamentarians found their exponent in Alois Rittler , who gathered the extremes as a Free Association (only 8 MPs). Although Jörg was always able to unite the large majority of the parliamentary group behind him and enjoyed great respect as a person even among those who deviated from it, the clout of the party was permanently weakened, which led Jörg to growing resignation. As early as 1878 he described the dissolution of the Reichstag as a “beneficent providence” which enabled him “to get away with honors”. Jörg's reasoning, why he no longer wanted to run for the state parliament in 1881, confirms the impression of resignation: “Everything survives in the world. In any case, I survived as a parliamentarian and I am very doubtful whether I would not have done better not to accept a mandate six years ago. "

Jörg was "one of the most distinctive figures in German Catholicism of the 19th century." As a publicist, he analyzed the big questions of the time with a keen eye for the "tremendous upheavals in state and society due to revolution and industrialization from a" Catholic-conservative-Greater German outlook " ", With a clear positioning" against the nation state, against liberalism in religion, state, society and economy, against the Prussian-Kleindeutsch solution of the German question "and with the" awareness of the importance of the social question and with a strong socio-political commitment. " . As a politician, Jörg was the “intellectual head” of the Patriot Party for over a decade, comparable to the position of Ludwig Windthorst in the Reichstag and in the Prussian House of Representatives, but without his leadership authority and tactical skill. As a "more pessimistic character (...) he was often plagued by doubts about the meaning of his actions" and ultimately felt that leaving practical politics was a relief. Jörg's interpretation of the world also contains anti-Jewish and anti-Semitic stereotypes - another difference to Windthorst : he polemicized against the " emancipation swindle" and described the work of Jews as " corrosive poison". Jörg suspected that the Kulturkampf had been carried out in the interests of the stock exchange: "This bloodless religious war was very useful to secure the majority and influence of the Mamelukes of the money power in the parliamentary bodies (...)"; Jörg also spoke of the "Jewish liberalism in Germany".

Publications (selection)

  • Germany in the revolutionary period from 1522 to 1526. Represented from diplomatic correspondence and original files in Bavarian archives . Herder, Freiburg / Br. 1851
  • Glosses on the history of the day , aphoristic timelines , timelines and various series of articles in the Historisch-Politische Blätter from 1852–1901
  • Irvingianism . Depressed from the Historisch-Politische Blätter, Munich 1856
  • History of Protestantism in its most recent development. 2 volumes, Freiburg / Br. 1858
  • The new era in Prussia. Regensburg 1860
  • History of the social political parties in Germany. Herder, Freiburg / Br. 1867


  • Franz Binder : Josef Edmund Jörg. In: Historisch-Politische Blätter. Volume 128, 1901, pp. 773-792.
  • Albert Maria Weiss : A chapter of memories from the great times. In: Historisch-Politische Blätter. Volume 141, 1908, pp. 293-312.
  • Martin Spahn : Edmund Jörg. In: highlands. Volume 17, 1, 1919/29, pp. 273-283, 434-443.
  • Heinrich Reinarz: From Josef Edmund Jörg's socio-political thoughts. Dissertation Cologne 1923.
  • Rainer Witt:  Jörg, Joseph Edmund. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 3, Bautz, Herzberg 1992, ISBN 3-88309-035-2 , Sp. 132-138.
  • Heinz Gollwitzer : Josef Edmund Jörg. In: Journal for Bavarian State History. Volume 15/1, 1949, pp. 125-148 ( digitized version ).
  • Bernhard Zittel: Josef Edmund Jörg (1819–1901). In: Götz von Pönitz (Hrsg.): Life pictures from Bavarian Swabia. Volume 4. Munich 1955, pp. 395-429, ISBN 978-3-87437-068-4 .
  • Viktor Conzemius : Ignaz von Döllinger and Edmund Jörg. In: Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Festschrift for Max Spindler. Munich 1969, pp. 734-765.
  • Karl-Hermann Lucas: Joseph Edmund Jörg. Conservative journalism between the revolution and the founding of an empire (1852–1871). Cologne 1969.
  • Karl Friedrich Roth: The lonely seer and prophet from the Allgäu; In the footsteps of the historian, publicist and politician Dr. Joseph Edmund Jörg (1819-1901) Immenstadt 1971.
  • Bernhard Zittel:  Jörg, Edmund. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5 , p. 461 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Winfried Becker : Josef Edmund Jörg. In: Jürgen Aretz u. a. (Ed.): Contemporary history in life pictures. Volume 3. From German Catholicism of the 19th and 20th centuries. Münster 1979, pp. 75-90.
  • Heribert Raab : The hermit of Trausnitz. A contribution to a biography of Josef Edmund Jörg with unpublished letters. In: Journal for Bavarian State History. Volume 45, 1982, pp. 575-587 ( digitized version ).
  • Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846–1901 (= publications of the Commission for Contemporary History. Series A: Sources, Volume 41). Grünewald, Mainz 1988.
  • Franz Herre : Josef Edmund Jörg. A classic of federalism. Munich 1994.
  • Dieter Albrecht: Joseph Edmund Jörg. Archivist and politician. In: Rudolf Vogel (Ed.): Immenstadt im Allgäu. Immenstadt 1996, pp. 575-578.
  • Winfried Becker: Central European presentations of German publicists. Joseph Edmund Jörg and Friedrich Naumann. In: Heinrich Oberreuter (Ed.): World politics in the 21st century. Wiesbaden 2004, pp. 281-294.
  • Gerhard Tausche : Jörg, Joseph Edmund. Archivist, historian, publicist, politician. In: Large Bavarian biographical encyclopedia. Volume 2, 2005, p. 956.
  • Ferdinand Wagner: Joseph Edmund Jörg. Archivist, politician and publicist (1819-1901). An exhibition by the Bavarian Archive School, ed. from the Bavarian Main State Archives, Munich 2014.

Web links


  1. Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846-1901. Mainz 1988, (introduction) pp. XXIV ff. And p. XXIX.
  2. Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846-1901. Mainz 1988, (introduction) p. XXV f.
  3. Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846-1901. Mainz 1988, (introduction) pp. XXVIII f.
  4. Historical Lexicon of Bavaria: Historical-political sheets for Catholic Germany
  5. Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846-1901. Mainz 1988, (introduction) S. XXVII, S. XXXI and S. XXXIII.
  6. Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846-1901. Mainz 1988, p. 225 with note 5 to no.154.
  7. ^ Friedrich Hartmannsgruber: The Bavarian Patriot Party 1868-1887. Munich 1986, p. 46; Dieter Albrecht (Ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846-1901. Mainz 1988, p. 304 with notes 3 and 5 to no.209.
  8. ^ Fritz Specht, Paul Schwabe: The Reichstag elections from 1867 to 1903. Statistics of the Reichstag elections together with the programs of the parties and a list of the elected representatives. 2nd Edition. Carl Heymann Verlag, Berlin 1904, p. 214.
  9. ^ Wilhelm Volkert: The political development from 1848 to the founding of the empire in 1871. In: Alois Schmid (Hrsg.): Handbook of Bavarian history. Volume 4.1. Munich 2003, pp. 235-317, here: p. 299 and p. 307.
  10. ^ Friedrich Hartmannsgruber: The Bavarian Patriot Party 1868-1887. Munich 1986, p. 102 f.
  11. Jörg's speech in the Chamber of Deputies on July 19, 1870.
  12. ^ Friedrich Hartmannsgruber: The Bavarian Patriot Party 1868-1887. Munich 1986, pp. 362-364.
  13. Quotation from Friedrich Hartmannsgruber: Die Bavarian Patriotenpartei 1868–1887. Munich 1986, p. 72.
  14. Quoted from Dieter Albrecht (ed.): Joseph Edmund Jörg. Correspondence. 1846-1901. Mainz 1988, p. 365 (Jörg's letter to Onno Klopp of January 31, 1871).
  15. Quotation from Dieter Albrecht: From the founding of the empire to the end of the First World War. In: Alois Schmid (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. Volume 4.1. Munich 2003, pp. 318–438, citations: p. 338.
  16. ^ Friedrich Hartmannsgruber: The Bavarian Patriot Party 1868-1887. Munich 1986, p. 121 f., P. 133 f. and p. 313 f.
  17. Quotation from Friedrich Hartmannsgruber: Die Bavarian Patriotenpartei 1868–1887. Munich 1986, p. 320, notes 85 and 86.
  18. Dieter Albrecht: From the foundation of the empire to the end of the First World War. In: Alois Schmid (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. Volume 4.1. Munich 2003, pp. 318–438, citations: p. 338.
  19. ^ Friedrich Hartmannsgruber: The Bavarian Patriot Party 1868-1887. Munich 1986, p. 319 f.
  20. ^ Olaf Blaschke : Catholicism and anti-Semitism in the German Empire. 2nd Edition. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999, p. 44.
  21. ^ Heinrich August Winkler : The long way to the west. First volume: German history from the end of the Old Reich to the fall of the Weimar Republic. Munich 2000, p. 228 f. with p. 594 note 9.