Calibr is a Russian guided missile family . The export name is club . In the URAW WMF index , the guided missiles are designated 3M54 , 3M14 and 91R , similar to the GRAU index . Individual guided missiles were given code names by the United States Department of Defense ( SS-N-27 and SS-N-30 ; see: NATO code names ). Calibr was developed in the Nowator design office in the 1980s and is manufactured by Almas-Antei . The guided missile system has a modular structure and can be deployed from various launch platforms.
The development ofkal began in the mid-1980s at the Nowator design office in Yekaterinburg . There they worked on the weapons complex P-900 Alfa with supersonic anti-ship missiles 3M51 . At the same time was based on the draft 3K10 garnet , the 3M14 - cruise missiles . From these two weapons, the 3M54 guided missile was developed, which uses a turbofan engine for cruising flight and has a supersonic warhead section. Further standardization measures resulted in the universally deployable range of calibrated guided missiles for combating sea and land targets. The guided missile family can be launched from ships, submarines, airplanes and trucks. In 1993 the first technology demonstrators were presented. The tense financial situation of the Russian armed forces at the time initially prevented procurement. From 1997 onwards, it was offered on the export market under the name Klub . From 2011, the first ships and submarines of the Russian naval fleet were equipped with calibrated guided weapons. In addition, an enlarged calibrated version is to be developed as part of the state armament program GPV 2018-27 . The aim is a range of up to 4500 km with a payload of 1000 kg.
- Calibr-NK: for use by surface vessels
- Calibr-PL: for use by submarines
- Klub-N / U: export version for use by surface vessels
- Klub-S: export version for use by submarines
- Klub-T / M: export version installed on a BAZ -6909 / MZKT-7930 truck
- Klub-K: Export version for use from a standard container
- Club-A: Export version for use by aircraft such as the Su-30 , -34 and Tu-22M and -95
The Kalib-NK version is used by surface vessels. The missiles can be installed on the ship in two ways. In the 3R14 launch complex , the missiles are housed in inclined launch canisters on the ship's deck. This can optionally contain two to eight launch tubes. The export designation for this complex is 3S14E . The overall system has the export designation Klub-U.
The 3R14K launch complex is a vertical take-off system for missiles and is installed below deck. The complex has a modular structure and can optionally contain two to eight vertical launch tubes. The export designation for this complex is 3S14PE . The overall system has the export designation Klub-N. The calibr-PL version is used by submarines. The guided missiles are launched from standard torpedo tubes with a diameter of 533 mm. The start can be made from a depth of up to 30-40 m. The Calibr-PL missiles are stored in sealed protective containers in the torpedo room of the submarine. For the start, the protective container with the guided weapon is pushed into a torpedo tube. After leaving the tube, the rocket booster ignites and drives the missile encapsulated in the protective container to the surface of the water. After piercing the surface of the water, the missile booster ignites and drives it out of the protective container. After that, the wings and unfold Turbofan - engine starts. With the Klub-K version, the guided weapons are transported in a standard container and started directly from there. The containers can be transported with any means of transport suitable for these containers or they can be parked on site. One container contains four starting containers. Klub-K can be laid quickly and is difficult to locate.
The air-to-ground guided missiles are transported and dropped in a container. After being dropped, the missile is ejected from the container and the engine ignites. With Calibr, five different types of guided missiles are used: two for fighting ships, a cruise missile for use against land targets and two types of guided weapons for fighting submarines. When designing the guided missiles, care was taken to ensure that as many common components as possible are used. A major difference is the design of the start booster . While the guided weapons use a booster with thrust vector control for take-off from ships , the guided weapons use a larger dual-pulse start booster without this control system for underwater starts. Calibrated missiles can be launched individually or in short series, regardless of the launch platform.
The guided missile type 3M54 (formerly Birjusa, Russian Бирюза ) is used to combat ships and is a fire-and-forget missile. Their range is over 220 km. 3M54 is a three-stage anti-ship missile, consisting of a start booster , a cruise flight engine and a separating, supersonic warhead section. After the start, the guided missile rises to a height of around 150 m with the help of the solid fuel booster. There it is thrown off and the cruise engine ignites. Four control wings also unfold at the stern and two wings in the middle fuselage section . The cruise engine is a type 50B (37-01E) turbofan engine from the manufacturer NPO Saturn . This accelerates the missile to a speed of Mach 0.6 to 0.8. The cruise flight takes place at an altitude of 10 to 15 m. A radar altimeter ensures the necessary safety distance to the sea surface. The navigation during the cruise is carried out by means of an inertial navigation platform . Updated target data can be sent from the launch platform to the missile via a data link . Around 30 to 40 km from the target, the guided missile rises to a height of around 400 m and the actively working ARGS-54 radar seeker is activated. The search sector is ± 45 ° in azimuth and + 10 / −20 ° in elevation. The ARGS-54 radar seeker can detect a cruiser up to 65 km. Once the target has been detected, the active radar seeker is switched off and the missile is guided to the target using the passive radar seeker. This is based on the electromagnetic emissions (radar, interference systems) that the target emits. If the missile loses its target, the active radar seeker is immediately reactivated. After the target has been captured, the missile sinks lower again and the third stage is separated. This consists of the main assemblies seeker head, warhead and solid rocket engine. The rocket engine accelerates the third stage to a speed of around Mach 2.9. The target approach takes place at an altitude of three to five meters (depending on the sea ). During the target approach, the missile performs abrupt evasive maneuvers at random . The impact at the target takes place at wave height in the ship's hull. The 200 kg penetration warhead ignites with a time delay inside the ship.
The guided weapon bears the designation 3M54 in the GRAU index . The export version is called 3M54E and has a reduced range of 220 km. The NATO code name is SS-N-27 Sizzler . There is also the export version 3M54E1 , which is based on the missile fuselage of the 3M14. Instead of the separating warhead section, this guided weapon is equipped with a 400 kg penetration warhead.
|Guided missile||3M54||3M54T||3M54E (export)||3M54E1 (export)||3M54TE (export)||3M54TE1 (export)|
|Launch platform||Submarine||Ship ( VLS )||Submarine||Ship (VLS)|
|length||8.22 m||8.92 m||8.22 m||6.20 m||8.92 m|
|Hull diameter||533 mm|
|span||2100 mm||3080 mm||2100 mm||3080 mm|
|Weight||unknown||2300 kg||1780 kg||3655 kg||3210 kg|
|Warhead||200 kg armor piercing||400 kg armor piercing||200 kg armor piercing||400 kg armor piercing|
|Operational range||over 530 km||220 km||275-300 km||220 km||275-300 km|
|Airspeed||Cruise flight : Mach 0.6-0.8; Target approach Mach 2.9||Mach 0.6-0.8||Cruising flight: Mach 0.6-0.8 Target
approach Mach 2.9
|Flight profile||Low altitude 5–20 m|
The guided missile type 3M14 is a cruise missile for combating stationary land targets. The US DoD code name for this missile is SS-N-30 . The cruise missile is launched with the help of a solid fuel booster that brings the guided missile to a height of around 150 m, where it is dropped and the cruise engine ignites. Likewise, four control wings unfold on the rear of the missile and two wings in the middle fuselage section . The cruise engine is a type 50B (37-01E) turbofan engine from the manufacturer NPO Saturn . This ensures a flight speed of Mach 0.6 to 0.8. The cruise flight takes place over the sea at a height of 20 m. 3M14 flies in contour flight over land at an altitude of between 50 and 150 m. A radar altimeter provides the necessary safety distance between the missile and the surface of the earth. The navigation during the cruise is carried out by means of a combined INS / GPS steering system. The system has a multi-channel receiver for the satellite navigation systems GLONASS and GPS . Depending on availability, the steering system automatically selects one of the two satellite signals. Up to 15 navigation waypoints can be determined for the flight path, the simplified signatures of which are saved in the on-board computer. When flying over the waypoints, the RWE type B navigation radar measures the previously stored elevation profiles of the overflown area and compares them with the stored terrain data of the target flight path. A course correction is then calculated using a comparison calculation between the target and measured position. A radar-based DSMAC seeker head ( terrain-contour comparison ) is used for the target approach and the missile sinks to an altitude of 20 m. In the target area, the ARGS-14 radar searches for the previously stored structures and measures their position in space. A course correction is then calculated by comparing the target position and the measured position, and the destination is approached. The target can also be approached using radar-reflecting reference points, the position of which is known in relation to the target point. The ARGS-14 radar search head has a detection range of around 20 km, with the search sector in azimuth +/- 45 ° and in elevation at + 10 / -20 °. According to the manufacturer, the accuracy is five to ten meters. The cruise missile can be equipped with a 500 kg fragment warhead, bomblets ( cluster munitions ) or a nuclear warhead . The detonator has different modes and can be adjusted depending on the nature of the target (impact or overflight).
The 3M14 submarine-based version has a range of 1500 to 2500 km. The 3M14T / S version for launching surface vessels has a range of 1,600 to 2,600 km.
|Guided missile||3M14||3M14T / S||3M14E (export)||3M14TE (export)||3M14EE (export)|
|Launch platform||Submarine||Ship ( VLS )||Submarine||Ship (VLS)|
|length||6.20 m||8.90 m||6.20 m||8.90 m|
|Hull diameter||533 mm|
|Weight||~ 2300 kg||unknown||1770 kg||1951 kg||unknown|
|Warhead||~ 500 kg fragmentation warhead,
cluster munitions ,
|450 kg fragmentation warhead||~ 500 kg fragmentation warhead,
|Operational range||1500-2500 km||1600-2600 km||275-300 km|
|Flight profile||Contour flight 20–150 m|
The guided weapon type 91R is used to combat submerged submarines. The missile is a combination of a rocket propellant and a U-hunting Torpedo APR 3ME or MPT 1ME . After firing, the 91R flies on a ballistic trajectory into a predefined area in which the enemy submarine is located. The rocket propellant is detonated at a pre-calculated position and the torpedo floats on a parachute on the water. When it hits the surface of the water, the parachute detaches from the torpedo, which then descends and independently begins to search for the submarine. The MPT-1ME torpedo is 3.05 m long, 324 mm in diameter and weighs 325 kg. He can fight submarines at a depth of 16 to 500 m. The maximum speed of the torpedo is 50 knots (around 93 km / h) and the maximum range is 13 km. The 91R guided missiles can be launched from a depth of 20 to 150 m at a maximum speed of 15 knots .
|Guided missile||91RE1 (export)||91RTE2 (export)|
|Launch platform||Submarine||Ship ( VLS )|
|length||7.65 m||6.20 m|
|Hull diameter||533 mm|
|Weight||2050 kg||1200 kg|
|payload||APR-3ME torpedo||MPT-1ME torpedo|
|Operational range||50 km||40 km|
|Airspeed||Do 2.5||Mach 2.0|
- Algeria - The Algerian Navy uses Club-S on their Kilo class submarines .
- People's Republic of China - The Navy of the People's Republic of China uses Club-S on the Kilo-class submarines and the Club-N version on surface vessels.
- India - The Indian Navy uses Club-S on Sindhughosh-class submarines . The execution Club-N comes on the frigates of the Talwar class used.
- Iran - The Iranian Navy uses Club-S on their Kilo class submarines.
- Russia - The following classes of ships in the Russian naval fleet are (or will be) equipped with calibrated missiles: the Bujan M-class corvettes (project 21631), Stereguschtschi-class (project 20380) and Gremyashchi-class (project 20385). The frigates of the Admiral Gorschkow class (Project 22350) and Admiral Grigorowitsch class (Project 11356M) frigate. The Lada class (Project 677) and Granay class (Project 885) submarines . In addition, the submarines of Project 949 A ( K-150 Tomsk ) and the cruisers of the Kirov class are to be equipped with calibrated guided missiles as part of their modernization. In addition, boats from Project 636.3 can be retrofitted with calibrated cruise missiles. The alleged stationing of land-based calibres was assessed by the USA in 2017 as a breach of the INF agreement to ban the production of medium-range missiles.
- Vietnam : The Vietnamese Navy uses Club-S on Kilo-class submarines.
The first combat use of the Kal-NK cruise missile took place as part of the Russian military operation in the civil war in Syria . On October 7, 2015, ships of the Caspian Flotilla launched 26 3M14T cruise missiles from the Caspian Sea against targets in Syria. The distance to the targets was around 1500 kilometers.
The first combat use of the submarine-supported version Kal-PL took place on December 8th, 2015 by the project 636 submarine "Rostov-na-Donu". The submarine launched several calibration cruise missiles from the Mediterranean Sea against IS targets in Syria.
On August 19, 2016, as part of the military operation in Syria, the Corvettes Seljony Dol and Serpuchow used calibrate cruise missiles against command posts, ammunition depots and arms factories on the Al-Nusra Front near Dar Taaza .
By the end of 2018, the Russian Russian Armed Forces had deployed around 90 calibr cruise missiles against targets in Syria. Western intelligence services see no tactical value in these missions . According to their observations, these missions were used for weapon tests and weapon demonstrations.
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- www.concern-agat.ru Manufacturer and producer of the rocket complexes Club-M, Club-K, Club-U
- Commercial for Club-K
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