Little Bibernelle ( Pimpinella saxifraga ), illustration
The lesser saxifrage ( Pimpinella saxifraga ), also Common burnet , stone burnet , saxifrage Wurz , stone parsley , Bock Wurz , savory or Bumbernell , even outdated Bibenelle called, is a plant type from the genus of Pimpinella ( Pimpinella ).
The Kleine Bibernelle is a perennial herbaceous plant and a hemicryptophyte that rarely reaches heights of between 10 and mostly 40 and 60 centimeters. The stem is round, grooved in cross section and is almost full, glabrous or hairy in close contact with it and has only leaf sheaths without spreader in the upper area. The root does not discolor when cut.
The leaves are basal and arranged alternately on the stem. The simply pinnate basal leaves have rounded, egg-shaped blunt pinnate sections with a roughly serrated leaf margin and bare leaf top and loosely hairy leaf underside. The stem leaves, elongated in outline and bald or hairy on the underside, are very variable. In some cases they have linear, whole-margined pinnate sections, in some cases the stem leaves are incised twice.
The Kleine Bibernelle flowers from June to October in large, conspicuous, multi-rayed (8 to 15-rayed) double-gold inflorescences . The lack of bracts, bracts and sepals is characteristic of the Bibernelle. The flowers are five-fold. The white petals are about 1 mm long. After the petals have fallen off, the stylus is clearly visible, it is up to 1 mm long and shorter than the fruit and stylus pads combined.
The 2 to 2.5 mm long, with indistinct ribs, bare fruits are weakly heart-shaped at the base and longer than the style even after withering.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 40.
The little Bibernelle is the forage plant of the caterpillars of the Bibernell ram and the caterpillars of the West Asian-Mediterranean mountain meadow owl ( Sideridis lampra ), which is extremely rare in Germany .
Furthermore, the small beaver is the host of the rust fungus Puccinia pimpinellae .
The little Bibernelle is native to Europe , Central Asia , Asia Minor and the Caucasus . In Europe, the distribution area extends from southern Europe to northern Europe , occasionally up to latitude 70 ° north. In the Allgäu Alps, it rises to an altitude of 2200 meters.
The Kleine Bibernelle is found in individual plant specimens in light-rich to sunny, moderately dry, nutrient-poor, chalky places . It likes to grow on raw soil , in dry grass and in dwarf shrub heaths , preferably in association with gorse ( Genista sagittalis ). The Kleine Bibernelle is considered a skinny pointer . It is a character species of the Festuco-Brometea class in Central Europe, but also occurs in societies of the Violion or Erico-Pinion associations.
The seeds and roots ("root stock") of the small Bibernelle (via Middle High German bibenelle from Old High German bibinell from Latin pimpinella from piperinella and, in terms of taste or aftertaste, possibly as pepper herb derived from piper , " pepper ") are collected and used as a drug Pimpinellae radix used. The root, in particular, contains 0.4% essential oil and various coumarin derivatives , especially pimpillin . The drug has a spicy smell, spicy taste, and a pungent, pungent aftertaste.
The following medicinal effects are mentioned: The beaver's shaft has an expectorant effect and a brew can be gargled in the case of diseases of the throat. When drunk, the brew acts as a stomach aid, but also has a diuretic and menstrual effect. In the liqueur industry, the root is also used to flavor bitters .
- Little Bibernelle. In: FloraWeb.de. (Section description)
- Gustav Hegi : Illustrated Flora of Central Europe , Volume V / 2, 2nd edition. Paul Parey Publishing House, Berlin-Hamburg 1975. ISBN 3-489-74021-1 .
- Oskar Sebald, Siegmund Seybold (Hrsg.) & Georg Philippi (Hrsg.): The fern and flowering plants of Baden-Württemberg Volume 4: Special part (Spermatophyta, subclass Rosidae) Haloragaceae to Apiaceae. Ulmer, Stuttgart 1992. ISBN 3-8001-3315-6
- Little Bibernelle in Flora Nordica .
- Walter Forster , Theodor A. Wohlfahrt : The butterflies of Central Europe. Volume 4: Owls. (Noctuidae). Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart 1971, ISBN 3-440-03752-5 .
- R. Hand (2011): Apiaceae. - In: Euro + Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Data sheet Pimpinella
- Erhard Dörr, Wolfgang Lippert : Flora of the Allgäu and its surroundings. Volume 2, IHW, Eching 2004, ISBN 3-930167-61-1 , p. 272.
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 711 .
- Friedrich Kluge , Alfred Götze : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 20th edition. Edited by Walther Mitzka . De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Reprint (“21st unchanged edition”) ibid 1975, ISBN 3-11-005709-3 , p. 550.
- Helmut Genaust: Etymological dictionary of botanical plant names. Birkhäuser, Basel / Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-7643-0755-2 , p. 293.
- Rudolf Hänsel: Hager's Handbook of Pharmaceutical Practice : Volume 6: Drugs PZ, Volume 6 by Rudolf Hänsel, Konstantin Keller, Horst Rimpler (editor): Hager's Handbook of Pharmaceutical Practice Series , 5th Edition, Springer-Verlag, 1994, ISBN 9783540526391 : Google Book Online. : Pimpinella saxifraga on pp. 153-154.