Execution H in a museum
|Unit price||96,183 Reichsmarks|
|Armor and armament|
|Armor||10–30 mm (+30 mm additional armor)|
|Main armament||5 cm KwK 38 L / 42|
|Secondary armament||2 x 7.92 mm MG 34|
|drive||Maybach 12-cylinder petrol engine
300 PS (221 kW)
|Top speed||40/20 km / h (road / terrain)|
|Power / weight||13.9 hp / t|
|Range||175/100 km (road / terrain)|
The Panzerkampfwagen III (also PzKpfw III or Panzer III ) was a medium German tank in World War II . Intended as a standard model for the future armored divisions , it was equipped with an armor-piercing cannon for anti-tank combat, while the similar Panzer IV was to serve as a support vehicle. The Panzer III developed by Daimler-Benz , which was the most important German armored fighting vehicle in 1941 and 1942, did well in the first half of the war, but after that, with the appearance of more powerful enemy tanks, its combat value quickly decreased due to the limited expandability. From 1936 to 1943 5,700 copies were produced, with the chassis being produced as the basis for the much more successful Sturmgeschütz III until the end of the war.
The future Colonel General Heinz Guderian , who later developed the armored weapon into an independent branch of the army, planned to equip the future armored units with two armored vehicles . A car that was supposed to take out the enemy tanks with its armor-piercing cannon, as well as a support vehicle equipped with a larger caliber. Based on these considerations, the Panzerkampfwagen III and the Panzerkampfwagen IV emerged , with the Panzer III intended for the three light companies and the Panzer IV for the fourth company of a tank battalion .
There were fundamental differences of opinion about the armament of the planned Panzer III. Guderian and the inspection of the motor vehicle troops demanded a powerful 5-cm-Kampfwagenkanon (KwK), while the Heereswaffenamt and the inspection of the artillery considered the 3.7-cm-cannon already used by the infantry to be sufficient for reasons of standardization, and finally they too could enforce. At least Guderian was able to ensure that the turret ring was dimensioned large enough to enable the subsequent installation of a stronger cannon; a circumstance that later turned out to be necessary.
The other requirements for the combat vehicle were a maximum weight of 24 tons, taking into account the load-bearing capacity of the road bridges, a crew of five and the installation of a radio system that should enable internal understanding and communication with other tanks and the management level.
For reasons of secrecy - the Versailles Treaty was still a Reich law and prohibited heavy weapons such as tanks - the project was given the camouflage designation "Zugführerwagen" (ZW). In 1935 the Heereswaffenamt awarded development contracts to Krupp , MAN , Rheinmetall and Daimler-Benz . Because of their US parent companies, Ford and Opel were not included in the program, even though they were the two largest automobile companies at the time and had the greatest experience in large-scale production, suggesting that no mass production of the tank was planned at the time . After a detailed examination of the prototypes at the test center for motor vehicles , Daimler-Benz was commissioned with further development and manufacture in 1936.
At the end of 1936, Daimler-Benz delivered the first ten "Version A" tanks under the camouflage designation 1 / ZW, which were tested in 1937. With an all-round armor of 15 mm, the vehicle had a total weight of 15.4 t and was powered by a Maybach twelve-cylinder gasoline engine with 250 hp and a five-speed gearbox. In addition to the main armament with a 3.7 cm cannon, two axially parallel machine guns were attached; a third MG was operated by the radio operator. A big difference to the later versions was the drive, which consisted of five large double wheels suspended from coil springs.
The ten vehicles of the "Version B" (Type 2 / ZW) delivered in 1937/38 had a modified running gear, which consisted of eight small rollers, each grouped in two pairs in a double swing arm, with four rollers being dampened by a leaf spring. Furthermore, the number of support rollers was increased from two to three, which was retained until the end of production. Of the fifteen Ausf. B ordered, only ten were completed as complete tanks, the other five chassis were handed in for the development of the Sturmgeschütz III . To compensate for this, five more Ausf. D models were produced in 1940.
In the 15 tanks of the "Execution C" (Type 3a / ZW) also manufactured in 1937/38, there was only one drive change. The front and rear double swing arm with its two rollers was dampened by a leaf spring and the four central rollers by a larger leaf spring.
The 25 copies of the "Version D" (Type 3b / ZW) delivered in 1938 marked the end of the pre-series production. The change in the drive consisted only in the now inclined outer leaf springs. The engine remained unchanged, but a new 6-speed gearbox was used. By strengthening the all-round armor to 30 mm, the total weight increased to 19.8 tons. In 1940 five more chassis of the Ausf. D were built and completed with the five stored superstructures and towers of the Ausf. B.
All pre-series vehicles were delivered to the tank units and were used in the raid on Poland . After this campaign they were - with the exception of a few D models that were used in Norway - withdrawn from circulation.
After the now officially designated "Panzerkampfwagen III (3.7 cm) (Sd.Kfz. 141)" was declared ready for introduction and procurement on September 27, 1939, series production began. At that time, the poor performance of the German mechanical engineering industry , which was not able to produce large numbers of individual series , was still noticeable. Among other things, this was due to the fact that, in the manufacture of high-quality handicrafts, priority was given to rational mass production. There was never a well-structured assembly line with main and secondary cycle lines in the manufacture of the Panzer III. The following companies were involved in the manufacture of the tank:
- Daimler-Benz (Berlin-Marienfelde plant)
- MAN (Nuremberg plant)
- Henschel (Kassel)
- Famo (Wroclaw)
- MIAG (Braunschweig plant)
- Wegmann (Kassel)
- MNH (Hanover)
- Alkett (Berlin-Spandau plant)
Of the companies listed, Alkett produced the most vehicles at over 50 percent, although other of these companies were significantly larger arms manufacturers. For many, however, tank production was only one of many, such as Daimler-Benz or Henschel. In 1940, for example, tank production at MIAG was only 22% or at MAN only 10% of the total production capacity. This aspect was characteristic of the still uncoordinated armaments organization, because as with almost all German armored vehicles, there was no concentration on only a few or even one manufacturer with the Panzer III. In addition to licensing problems, this resulted in the situation that for each of the frequent design changes, the Army Weapons Office had to send around 30 sets of drawings to the various assembly and supplier companies, whereby the different production processes often resulted in inconsistent standardization during acceptance. In order to bridge “production gaps” with some manufacturers, they received orders for the construction of the Panzer III, although they also had other armored vehicles in production, which subsequently led to a fragmentation of production capacities. In addition, the Heereswaffenamt claimed sole control over the development, construction, procurement and acceptance of the Panzer III, which naturally represented a serious interference in company matters for the manufacturers and led to mutual accusations between the HWA and the companies. A coordination of the Panzer III production took place - if at all - only via the bureaucratically cumbersome Army Weapons Office, whose claim to leadership went so far as to prohibit an exchange of experience between the companies involved in the case of hull production, for example.
The final assembly of a Panzer III took 1800 hours. The price of a tank without weapons was almost 100,000 Reichsmarks . The raw material requirement - excluding weapons, optics and radio - amounted to the following quantities:
- Iron: 39,000 kg
- Rubber: 125 kg
- Aluminum: 90 kg
- Weight: 72 kg
- Copper: 60 kg
- Zinc: 49 kg
- Tin: 1.4 kg
One of the most important suppliers was Deutsche Edelstahlwerke AG , which up until 1942 delivered 1900 tubs and towers to the assembly companies. In the course of the war, further production facilities were added for the Panzer III from July 1941. These were production plants from Krupp , Hanomag , Auto Union , NSU as well as the Vienna plant from Fross-Büssing , the plant Kolín from Tatra and the Hainich plant from Framo . In August 1943, production was finally stopped and the capacity for the construction of assault guns was released.
|Production figures of the Panzerkampfwagen III (new build)|
|Construction year||1937||1937||1937/38||1938, 1940||1939||1939-1941||1940/41||1940/41||1941/42||1941/42||1942/43||1942/43|
|number of pieces||10||10||15th||25 + 5||96||450||594||286||1521||1470||517||614|
Due to the extensive retrofitting campaigns, there was a large number of different vehicles, so that an unequivocal assignment to a specific version was not always possible. Due to the large number of versions, a description that applies equally to all models is not possible.
Turret and armament
The turret of Panzerkampfwagen III did not have a turret floor. The seat of the commander and the gunner was attached to the tower wall. The standing to the right of the main gun loader had to constantly follow the tower movement. To see the outside, it had an observation opening on the right side of the tower, protected by a glass block and an external flap. A similar viewing flap was on the left side of the turret for the gunner. The turret was swiveled by hand, the cannon being fired electrically via a trigger located on the slewing drive. The axially parallel machine gun was operated mechanically with a pedal. The gunner and loader each had a side exit opening with two flaps. The commander sat raised in the middle of the turret directly behind the main weapon. He had a dome accessible with two entry flaps, which had five viewing slits protected by glass blocks and steel sliders for all-round visibility. In order to support the gunner in pivoting the turret if necessary, the commander had an additional handle on the right side. These two crew members also had a tower position indicator. There was an emergency exit on both sides of the tank hull, which was partially omitted from the L version and completely from the M version.
|Ammunition and penetration performance of the KwK|
|Ammunition nomenclature||3.7 cm
(from 3.7 cm KwK 36 L / 45 )
(from 5 cm KwK 38 L / 42)
(from 5 cm KwK 39 L / 60)
(from 7.5 cm KwK 37 L / 24)
|0.685 kg (Pzgr. 39)
0.368 kg (Pzgr. 40)
|2.06 kg (Pzgr. 39)
0.90 kg (Pzgr. 40)
|2.06 kg (Pzgr. 39)
0.90 kg (Pzgr. 40)
|6.8 kg (Pzgr. 39)
4.5 kg ( hollow charge )
in m / s
|760 (Pzgr. 39)
1030 (Pzgr. 40)
|685 (Pzgr. 39)
1050 (Pzgr. 40)
|823 (Pzgr. 39)
1180 (Pzgr. 40)
|385 (Pzgr. 39)
|Penetration performance of the KwK in mm at a 30 ° angle of impact|
|100 meters; with Pzgr. 39
with Pzgr. 40:
100 ( HL )
|500 meters; with Pzgr. 39
with Pzgr. 40:
|1000 meters; with Pzgr. 39
with Pzgr. 40:
|The Panzerranate 40 was a hard-core bullet made of tungsten carbide, which, due to the lack of tungsten, was only available in small quantities or often not at all, and its production had to be abandoned in the summer of 1943. Successful trials with uranium ammunition in spring 1944 did not result in mass production due to a lack of material.|
Driver and radio station
The driver was seated in the front left, with the gearbox and the instrument panel above it being to his right. The viewing slit available to him was protected by a bulletproof glass block and an outer flap. With the flap closed, the driver looked through a periscope equipped with corner mirrors , for which two holes were drilled in the front above the visor. He had another observation opening on the left side, which was also protected by a glass block and an external flap. The radio operator sat in the front right, moving the machine-gun with a headrest, which was seated in a ball socket in the front of the tub . The radio system he operated consisted of two receivers installed to the left of him above the gearbox and a transmitter installed under a plate in front of him. The two-meter-long antenna was attached to the rear right of the command post and could be pulled inwards. Only the commander, the driver and the radio operator were equipped with headphones and a larynx microphone and thus connected to the radio system. Since only the radio operator could operate the radio system alone, it was possible that the commander and the radio operator were connected to two different lines, for example the commander on the internal intercom and the radio operator on the radio circuit of the commanding level. In order to still be able to draw attention to each other, both had a red and a green light bulb in their field of vision, which they could switch using a predefined signal sequence. The commander communicated directly with the gunner and loader, and from the L version the commander and gunner could communicate with an ear tube if there were particularly loud interior noises. There was also an observation opening on the right side of the radio station. The driver and radio operator had no separate access hatches and had to get in and out of the command post.
Engine and power transmission
The 300 hp Maybach 12-cylinder gasoline engine installed from version F was in the rear of the tank. A gas tank, a battery box and a water cooler were located to the left and right of the centrally installed engine. Behind the radiators were the fans, which took up the entire width of the engine compartment in terms of size and ensured sufficient cooling at temperatures of up to 30 °. The cooling air was sucked in through slits on the side and discharged to the rear from the stern. The power flow went from the engine to the main clutch via a cardan shaft and from there to the gearbox. From version H onwards, the hydraulically operated oil pressure clutch installed up to that point was replaced by a dry three-plate clutch. In the first three series models - E, F and G - a Maybach-Variorex preselector was used as the transmission, which contained ten forward gears and one reverse gear. To change gear, the driver only had to press the clutch pedal after selecting a gear using the gear lever to trigger the automatic gear change. This advanced but complicated transmission, which is difficult to maintain in the field, has been replaced by a synchronized six-speed transmission from version H onwards. The bevel drive with the steering gear was flanged to the gearbox , with two steering levers acting on the internal brake shoes with hydraulic assistance - from version J with mechanical steering linkage. Thereafter, the power flow passed over the external flange-mounted on the tub side counter to the chain driving wheels.
The tanks used in the Africa campaign were given special tropical equipment. For this purpose, the cooling capacity was increased by a modified cooling ratio and the air filter was supported by a felt bellows filter located under armor protection outside the engine compartment. Nevertheless, the piston performance was only 2000 to 3000 km. From 1943 onwards, all Panzerkampfwagen III newly manufactured or repaired at home were equipped with a smoke candle thrower . The front-mounted headlights were also removable. In the same year, the improved aviator gun 42 was used, which was attached to the commander's cupola by means of clamping screws and could accommodate both the MG 34 and the MG 42 . A protective coating of Zimmerit , for which around 100 kg of Zimmerit were required, should prevent the application of magnetic adhesive charges. These proceedings were discontinued in September 1944. From 1944, the tanks used on the Eastern Front received the so-called Eastern Chain, although this was only a makeshift, as the chain was only one-sided. From 1943, 5 mm thick plates, so-called armor aprons, were attached to the sides of the vehicle and around the turret to protect against anti- tank rifles and shaped charge projectiles .
- Execution E
The start of series production was the 96 tanks of the "Version E" manufactured in 1939/40, with which there were significant changes. The more powerful Maybach HL 120 engine with a capacity of almost 12 liters was used, which delivered a maximum of 320 hp. In addition, there was a modern Maybach Variorex preselector, which took some of the strain off the driver, but was less suitable for series production and maintenance in the field due to its complexity. The "Version E" had the final drive of the series, in which the six rollers were now suspended from a very modern torsion bar suspension. The rolling shutter for the tank gun was moved from this version to the outside and only a coaxial installed -Maschinengewehr. Instead of the simple side entry flaps in the tower, two-part flaps have now been installed. Furthermore, there were now also side emergency exit flaps in the armored hull.
- Execution F
For the first time larger numbers could be achieved with the "Version F" published in 1940, 450 of which were built. Since the first combat experience showed that the 3.7 cm cannon sometimes proved to be too weak to penetrate, the installation of a 5 cm cannon, which Guderian had required from the start, was approved. This cannon was based on an order given by the Army Weapons Office at the beginning of 1938 to further develop the armament of the tank. It was a short 5 cm cannon ( 5 cm KwK 38 ) with 42 caliber lengths . Since the production of the weapon took more time than expected, only the last quarter of the vehicle series could be equipped with it. The Maybach HL 120 served as the drive unit, but was throttled to 300 hp maximum and 265 hp continuous output to increase the stability. It was a robust and durable motor that was also used in all subsequent versions. From this version onwards, the tank was equipped with an appropriate luggage box behind the turret as standard.
- Execution G
Only minor changes were made to the "Version G" produced in 1940 and 1941, of which 594 were produced. The commander's cupola received five side covers instead of sliders. About two thirds of this series could be equipped with the short 5 cm cannon. The G version was used for the first time in the Balkan campaign in 1941. The German Africa Corps also had some versions F and G with them during the Africa campaign .
- Execution H
Also in 1940 and 1941 the 286 copies of the "Version H" were produced, this version was designed from the beginning for the armament with the short 5 cm cannon and was delivered as such. Based on an order from Adolf Hitler , the vehicle was to be reinforced with additional armor, although the disadvantages of increased weight were accepted. As a result, the part of the series delivered in 1941 received additional armor on the hull of another 30 mm in addition to the front armor of 30 mm. For reasons of weight distribution, the rear received the same additional armor. The aim of this additional armor, to reduce the effectiveness of the English weapons, was achieved because the reinforced armor could hardly be penetrated by the English guns at normal combat range. Because of the weight increase to 21.6 t - the chassis weighed 15.8 t - the torsion bars had to be reinforced and the chain width increased from 36 cm to 40 cm. At the same time, a modified chain drive wheel and a new spoked idler wheel were used. The complicated preselection gearbox was replaced by a normal six-speed synchronous gearbox, as was the hydraulic clutch by a dry three-plate clutch.
- Execution J
Of the "Version J" manufactured between March 1941 and May 1942, 1521 vehicles with the short 5 cm cannon were produced. The basic armor of both the turret front and the hull front was reinforced to 50 mm. The driver got a better visor and the bow machine gun was given an improved ball socket. The hydraulic transmission of the steering lever movements exerted by the driver to the steering brake, which had been practiced up until then, was now carried out via a mechanical steering linkage.
When it became apparent during the first combat missions on the Eastern Front that the penetration power of the short 5 cm cannon was only unsatisfactory and that this weapon had no power reserves, the long 5 cm KwK 39 with its 60 caliber lengths in "Version J" vehicles installed. Many of the Panzer III relocated to the Reich for a general overhaul were also converted to the new cannon. This relatively powerful weapon would already have been available at the time of the conversion to the short 5 cm cannon from version F, but the Army Weapons Office decided not to install it for tactical reasons, as the barrel protruded significantly beyond the side profile of the tank and therefore there were restrictions feared mobility in overgrown and built-up areas. Vehicles with the long 5 cm cannon could only carry 84 rounds of ammunition instead of 99 rounds. In 1941 only 40 new vehicles with the long 5 cm cannon could be delivered.
- Execution L
The vehicles with the long 5 cm cannon, initially produced as “Version J” from the end of December 1941, were renamed “Version L” in March / April 1942. By October 1942, 1470 vehicles were produced, including the "Version J" produced with a long cannon. The machine gun ammunition was almost doubled from 2000 rounds to 3750 rounds. The armor on the turret front was reinforced to 57 mm. For the purpose of further reinforcement, a 20 mm thick spacer armor was attached to the hull front and the gun mantlet, so that the turret front was now almost 80 mm thick. The emergency exits attached to the side of the bathtub were partly omitted. In a few models, a 5 cm cannon with a conical barrel was installed as an experiment. Due to the high wear on the barrel, this powerful weapon was not used any further.
- Execution M
The 517 copies of the “Version M” built between September 1942 and March 1943 differed only slightly from the previous model. To simplify production, the side viewing slits on the turret for gunner and loader and the side emergency exit hatches on the hull were removed. These had lost their function anyway due to the attachment of side skirts . By an additional equipment, this series was to a depth of 1.30 m m instead of the usual 0.8 fording .
- Execution N
The 617 vehicles of the "Version N", which were produced from July to October 1942 and from February to August 1943, marked the end of series production. By mid-1942 at the latest, it was evident that the Panzer III had reached the end of its capabilities and was no longer able to cope with the enemy tanks; the Panzer IV thus gained in importance. Both models swapped roles. Intended as a support vehicle for fighting infantry and soft targets, the N version received the short 7.5 cm KwK 37 , which were available in sufficient numbers after the conversion measures of the Panzer IV to the long 7.5 cm cannons. The long 7.5 cm cannon could not be installed in the Panzer III because of its size and its recoil . The short cannon developed only a slight armor-piercing effect, but if necessary you could fight enemy tanks with shaped charge projectiles . 64 rounds of ammunition were carried for the main weapon and 3450 rounds of ammunition for the two machine guns.
Due to the initially low production numbers, the planned equipping of the three light companies of a tank division could not even come close to the outbreak of war. In the course of the increase in the number of tank divisions and their restructuring in 1940/41, the divisions now had only one tank regiment, which consisted of two divisions - some were three - with two light and one medium companies each. For the light companies consisting of 22 tanks, 17 Panzer III and five Panzer II were planned. In 1942 a fourth company was created again, so that the Panzer III was intended for the three light companies with 17 vehicles each, as originally planned. A completely uniform structure and equipment did not succeed due to the course of the war. The Panzer III in version N was also part of the early structure of a heavy tank division , but was later outsourced there due to its weak armor.
Poland, Western Front and North Africa
At the beginning of the Second World War there were 200 Panzer III in the Wehrmacht's holdings , 98 of which took part in the attack on Poland . The rest of the vehicles were with the reserve army or as supplies in the army equipment offices. Given this small number, the tank played almost no role in this campaign. The pre-production vehicles were taken out of service again after this campaign - with the exception of a few version D used in the Norwegian campaign - due to their weak combat strength . The low armor of these early versions was only suitable for protection against rifle projectiles and shrapnel. 26 vehicles were lost during the fighting.
At the beginning of the campaign in the west , the Wehrmacht had 349 Panzerkampfwagen III at their disposal, both of which were E and F models. In addition, there were 39 tank command vehicles in the attack formations. During the course of the campaign, the first F version tanks were pushed in with the short 5 cm cannon. With around 2500 German tanks, the Panzer III only played a subordinate role here; In addition to the Czech captured tanks P 35 (t) and P 38 (t) , the most important tanks by far were the light PzKpfw I and Pzkpfw II .
The Western Allies had raised significantly more and sometimes better tanks. The French tanks Renault R-35 , Hotchkiss H-39 and Somua S-35 with over 40 mm and the Char B1 with up to 60 mm armor were better protected than the Panzerkampfwagen III. The situation was similar with the British Matilda tanks, which, however, were generally slow, had insufficient armament and were not represented in large numbers in France. The Char B1 can serve as an example of the superior armor, the front of which could not be penetrated by either the 3.7 cm cannon or the short 5 cm cannon even at 100 m. Only with the scarce tank shell 40, both weapons could fight the B1 from the front at 100 m. The German crews were forced to turn the enemy tanks in maneuvers that sometimes involved losses, and to put them out of action from the side or from behind. Otherwise the Panzer III performed well, although it was not the quality and quantity of the German tanks, but modern tactics and superior leadership that decided the campaign. In France, 135 vehicles had to be written off as a total loss.
During the African campaign , the Panzerkampfwagen III carried most of the brunt of the fighting. With the exception of the clumsy Matildas , it was initially superior to all British tanks. It turned out that the Allied guns, even with armor-piercing shells, were largely ineffective against the reinforced front armor of the Panzer III, whereas even the short 5 cm cannon inflicted large losses on the Allied tanks - with the exception of the Matildas. When later more powerful models such as the M3 Grant or M4 Sherman appeared in Africa, the Panzer III was pushed back on this scene and the Panzer IV became the backbone of the Africa Corps .
In June 1941 the actual stock of the entire army was 1560 Panzer III, including 350 tanks with the 3.7 cm cannon, 1090 tanks with the short 5 cm cannon and 120 tank command vehicles. With 965 units used on the Eastern Front, the Panzer III was the most important German tank at the start of the war against the Soviet Union . In the course of the fighting it became apparent that the side armor in particular was vulnerable to the Soviet anti-tank rifles . In addition, the short 5 cm cannon and especially the 3.7 cm cannon could not penetrate the front armor of the - still relatively rare and tactically unfavorable - Soviet tank models KW-1 and T-34 , so that the crews were forced were to curve out the enemy tanks in maneuvers with many losses and to put them out of action from the side or from behind. In contrast, the T-34 was able to deliver effective hits to the Panzer III from a distance of 1000 meters. The Russian T-34 was clearly superior to all German tanks in 1941. Only the long 5 cm cannon installed later in the J version was able to penetrate the front of a T-34 up to a combat range of less than 500 m. In April 1942, the total army stock was around 2000 Panzer III, including 130 models with the 3.7 cm cannon and 1900 models with the 5 cm cannon. In the run-up to the German summer offensive in 1942 , the Army Groups in the east owned around 600 Panzer III with the long 5 cm cannon, around 500 Panzer III with the short 5 cm cannon and around 75 Panzer Command Car III. With the increased appearance of the powerful Soviet tanks, the performance limit of the Panzer III was definitely reached. It was meanwhile inferior to most of the Allied tanks and was at the end of its upgradeability. With the N version, it had finally swapped its original anti-tank role for the support role of the Panzer IV.
The total losses suffered on all fronts in the further course of the war can be quantified as follows, whereby by far the greatest number of vehicles were destroyed on the eastern front:
- 1941: around 900 pieces
- 1942: around 1400 pieces
- 1943: around 2400 pieces
- 1944: around 120 pieces
Noticeably high losses occurred at the time of the end of the Battle of Stalingrad , as around 1200 Panzer III were reported as total losses in the first two months of 1943 alone. In the summer of 1944 the Panzer III was spun off from the tank units. The remaining copies were used for training or as reconnaissance and security vehicles.
Panzer III in the Red Army
As a result of the political and economic cooperation between the German Reich and the Soviet Union, two Panzerkampfwagen III were sold to the Soviet Union in 1940 to compensate for urgently needed raw materials. The vehicles were subjected to extensive research and a comparison test with one of the first T-34s. The Panzer III achieved a higher speed, had less noise, a more spacious fighting compartment, better workmanship and was easier to maintain. The advantage of the T-34 was its bevelled armor and better armament. Fire tests with the Russian 45-mm standard anti-tank gun showed that the armor on the side of the Panzerkampfwagen III could not be penetrated at 500 m. This later led to the development of an improved tank shell, which was available from 1942. In September 1940, the chief of the Red Army Main Armored Office, General Yakov Fedorenko , informed the chairman of the Defense Committee of the USSR Kliment Voroshilov that “after examining the last samples of foreign armored construction, the German medium tank“ Daimler-Benz T-3 ”as most successful foreign tank construction is considered and mass production can be assumed. "
After the attack on the Soviet Union and the great Soviet losses, the Red Army put some captured Panzer III under the designation T-3 into their service. As of July 20, 1945, the Red Army still had 31 operational and 67 in need of repair Panzer III in its inventory. When the Red Army captured a large number of Panzer III after the surrender of Stalingrad and did not want to use them as combat vehicles because of their weak armor and armament, new assault guns were manufactured based on the captured chassis. For this purpose, a rigid, up to 60 mm thick dome with a 76 mm cannon was mounted on the old Panzer III landing gear. In this way, 201 assault guns were manufactured in Plant No. 37 in Moscow in 1943 , which were given the designation SU-76i and took part in the battles against the Axis powers. The only known remaining original copy is today on a monument in the Ukrainian city of Sarny ; a replica made from original parts stands in front of a military museum in Moscow.
After the Panzerkampfwagen I and II, which were actually only intended as training vehicles, had proven to be too weak in combat and the Panzerkampfwagen IV, which was initially only produced in small numbers, was supposed to serve as a support tank, the Panzerkampfwagen III became the most important weapon of the German armored forces in 1941 and 1942. The status of the Panzer III in the deliberations of the military leadership was shown by the utopian plans of the Army Armed Forces Office in July 1941, when for the intended 36 armored divisions with their 15,440 armored vehicles, the Panzer III with 8,000 units made up the majority of this armored force. With the appearance of the powerful Soviet tanks in the course of the Russian campaign, however, the deficits of the weak armament became apparent. Although Hitler had already given the Army Weapons Office the instruction in 1940 to use the already constructed 5 cm KwK 39 with its 60 caliber lengths when converting to the new cannon , only the previous model with 42 caliber lengths was installed. For Hitler this arbitrariness meant a weakening of his demand for an increase in combat value and resulted in a serious dispute between Hitler and the HWA. In view of the surprising combat power of the new Russian tank models, Hitler now saw the Panzer III as an unsuccessful design, since in his eyes the weight and size of the vehicle was out of proportion to the insufficient armament. It is clear, however, that at the time of its commissioning, the Panzer III was an advanced combat vehicle that performed well on all fronts under the circumstances at the beginning of the war. The importance of this vehicle is further indicated by the fact that around 16,000 chassis were produced between 1936 and 1945. In retrospect, however, due to the significantly higher expansion potential of the Panzer IV, it would have been strategically better to only produce this one and to forego the similarly constructed Panzer III.
The significant increase in production came at a time when the Panzer III was already lagging behind the new Soviet and West-Allied tank models in terms of combat power and continued production was therefore questionable. Since the army command needed all the tanks they could get hold of due to the high losses on the Eastern Front and the industry was interested in continued production due to the high financial gains due to the mass emissions and the still full order books, the Panzer III was discontinued. Manufacturing not considered for the time being. In March 1942 Hitler ordered that the soon-to-be-launched " Panther " tank program be increased to the detriment of the Panzer III, but in May the production figures for the Panzer III were increased again. Production of the tank, which was now considered obsolete, continued, and the vehicles were subjected to an elaborate upgrade in combat value without being able to compensate for the superiority of the enemy models.
The best-known use of the Panzer III chassis was the Sturmgeschütz III, of which 10,500 units were made, almost twice as many vehicles as the actual Panzer III. It was a turretless vehicle that was equipped with a - initially short - 7.5 cm cannon. The StuG III were of great value for infantry support and later for anti-tank defense. They shot down significantly more enemy tanks than the original Panzer III.
Armored command vehicle
In accordance with the German Blitzkrieg theory of leading an independently operating tank unit "from the front", tank command vehicles received great attention from the start. The first model, 30 units built in 1938/39, "Panzerbefehlwagen III, Version D1", was based on the pre-series type D. The non-rotating turret was firmly bolted to the armored case, while the cannon was designed as a dummy. Only the radio operator MG was available as a close-range defense weapon . The vehicles intended for the commanders of the tank units with their five-man crew had extended radio equipment, consisting of two radios, two rod antennas (1.4 and 2 m long), a crank mast (9 m with star antenna) and a large frame antenna above the Engine compartment existed. All tank command vehicles were equipped with a course gyro . The 45 "PzBefWg III version E" manufactured in 1939/40 and the 175 "PzBefWg III version H" manufactured in 1940/41 were based on the respective basic models and hardly differed from the first version of the tank command vehicle.
As the German war doctrine meant that the tank command vehicles were often involved in combat behind enemy lines, the troops demanded a fully armed command vehicle. Based on the Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf. J, Daimler-Benz manufactured the "Panzerbefehlwagen III Ausf. J" in 1942. With the removal of the bow machine gun and part of the normal stock of ammunition, space was created for additional radio equipment. The loader acted as the second radio operator, although space in the tower was limited due to the additional radio equipment. With the same modifications, Daimler-Benz manufactured Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf. M in 1942/43 as "Panzerbefehlwagen III Ausf. K".
Of the J version with the 5 cm KwK L / 42, 81 pieces and of the K version with the 5 cm KwK L / 60 were made 50 pieces, with 104 additional conversions to the first version, those with troop funds emerged from normal battle tanks. The vehicles with the short 5 cm cannon could take 75 rounds and those with the long cannon 65 rounds of ammunition. The rigid loop antenna was replaced by a less noticeable star antenna. The price for this 23 ton vehicle without weapons was 110,000 Reichsmarks.
Tank observation vehicle
In order to ensure that the observers of the tank artillery could follow the tank units into action, the "Panzerbeobachtungswagen III (Sd.Kfz. 143)" was created, of which Alkett manufactured a total of 262 units in 1941 and 1942. Panzerbeobachtungswagen III had a crew of five, consisting of a tank observer, auxiliary observer, driver and two radio operators. The only armament of the vehicle was a MG 34 in a spherical screen in the rotating turret; a metal pipe as a dummy simulated the cannon armament. In addition to a periscope to be operated by the auxiliary observer, the vehicle had extensive radio equipment, which consisted of a FuG 8 (30 watt medium wave device), a FuG 4 (medium wave receiver), a normal two-way radio, a backpack radio and an on-board intercom. The transmission of the fire commands to the self-propelled howitzers such as the Waspe or Hummel was carried out via the radio communication device, the range of which was up to five kilometers under favorable conditions. Loudspeakers were installed in the self-propelled howitzers so that the gun operators could hear the radio messages from the tank observation vehicle without headphones. The Panzerbeobachtungswagen III, which was based on the Sd.Kfz. 253 - a variant of the Sd.Kfz. 250 - replaced, fully proved itself.
For the invasion of England , three special volunteer departments were set up in Putlos after the French campaign . In these departments, 168 tanks of the types F, G and H were made submersible by special precautions. For this purpose, all openings were sealed with masking tape or cable tar and the air inlet openings in the engine compartment were completely closed. An inflatable rubber tube was inserted between the tower and the tub. A rubber cover was placed over the roller cover, the commander's cupola and the radio operator's machine gun, which could be blown off after surfacing by means of integrated fuses. The air was supplied through an 18 m long hose, at the end of which was a buoy with a radio antenna. The exhaust pipes had pressure relief valves and the fan gear had to be disengaged. The maximum immersion depth was 15 m, with penetrating seepage water being removed using a bilge pump . If the measures were already prepared, the process, in which all five crew members were involved, took around 45 minutes. The entire crew should be equipped with diving rescuers . The use of the diving tanks equipped with course gyroscopes was planned as follows: barges were supposed to bring the tanks close to the English coast until the corresponding water depth was reached. Then the tanks were supposed to slide into the sea over a ramp lengthened with rails. The navigation should be done by radio from a command boat. Due to the buoyancy, the vehicles were very easy to steer. After the Seelöwe company was canceled, these vehicles were used to cross the Bug on the first day of the Russian campaign . Despite initial skepticism, all 80 tanks used reached the opposite bank.
In 1942 100 tanks of the M version without weapons were delivered by the MIAG company to the Wegmann wagon factory in Kassel, where they were converted to the Flammpanzer III . The designation of the vehicles is officially "Panzerkampfwagen III (Fl) (Sd.Kfz. 141/3)". Instead of the cannon, a 1.5 m long flame jet pipe with a 14 mm nozzle was used, which could be swiveled up 10 ° and down 20 °. The two machine guns were retained. The flame oil was pumped to the flame tube by a pump driven by a DKW two-stroke engine and ignited by high voltage. The oil supply of 1023 liters was carried in tanks that were located on both sides of the interior. As protection, the 50 mm thick vehicle front was reinforced with 30 mm and the tower front with 20 mm thick armor plates; the side armor remained the same. Up to 80 bursts of fire with a range of up to 60 m could be fired for two to three seconds each. The crew of the 23-ton vehicle, which was equipped with two radios, consisted of three men. The use of the flame tank took place for the first time in 1943 in special departments, which had a target inventory of two Panzer Command Cars III, twelve Panzer II, two Panzer III version N and ten Flammpanzer III.
Armored recovery vehicles
In the years 1939 to 1943 a total of 271 Bergepanzer III were manufactured, which were made from battle tanks in need of repair and returned for repair. Instead of the rotating turret, the armored recovery vehicle , which was used as a temporary measure, was given a wooden box structure in which recovery and repair material could be stored. In addition, a ground anchor and a 1 t auxiliary crane were installed.
The tractor III, which was only manufactured in small numbers and used for replenishment tasks, was the result of a conversion campaign. After the tower had been removed, a wooden loading platform was placed on the chassis. The Pionierpanzer III, which was also only available in small numbers, was handled in a similar way. In the same way, the rare ammunition tractor III was created, in which the turret was removed, storage space for ammunition was created in the interior and the open turntable was closed with a hatch. A mine clearance tank, which had considerable ground clearance due to an extension of the swing arms, and a railroad vehicle for combating partisans did not get beyond the prototype stage. Efforts to make the heavy infantry gun 33 movable on the chassis of the Panzer III led to the twelve pre-production models of the officially designated " Sturm-Infanteriegeschütz 33 " manufactured by Alkett in 1941 , which had an armored structure 80 mm at the front and 50 mm at the sides a Panzer III hull and weighed 21 t with a crew of five and 30 rounds of ammunition. A series production planned from spring 1942 did not come about because the task of the vehicle was taken over by the Sturmpanzer IV and the Sturmpanzer 38 (t) . Some vehicles of the 0 series were nevertheless used on the Eastern Front in the summer of 1943 with the 23rd Panzer Division . In order to make the Panzer III loadable for road transport, the "low loader trailer 22 t (Sd.Anh. 116)" was built. This trailer, which was manufactured up to 1943, had a dead weight of 13.8 t and cost 28,000 RM, in April 1942 there were 141 pieces in the army.
Successor to VK 2001
In May 1938, Daimler-Benz received an order to develop a successor to the Panzer III. The tank called “VK 2001 (DB)” was sold at Daimler-Benz under the internal name “ZW 40”. As always, the Heereswaffenamt suggested a gasoline engine from Maybach for the planned motorization with a 400 hp engine, while Daimler-Benz decided to redevelop its own diesel engine . The construction work on the "MB 809" engine was completed in June 1940; the test runs took place in the spring of 1941. It was a 12-cylinder diesel engine with a displacement of 25.5 liters and an output of 400 hp. In March 1941 this engine was installed in the VK 2001 prototype at the Berlin-Marienfelde plant. The vehicle reached a top speed of 50 km / h with a combat weight of 22 t. The power flow of the engine went through an eight-speed preselector and a superimposed steering gear to the front drive wheels. The second prototype still had a conventional clutch steering gear. The seven-roller drive was suspended from leaf springs. There are no documents about the planned armament. When the more powerful Russian tanks appeared shortly after the start of the Russian campaign, the project was discontinued.
Panzerkampfwagen III / IV
Since the Panzer III and Panzer IV had strong similarities in terms of their construction, in September 1941 consideration arose to create a completely uniform vehicle based on the two tanks. The Panzer III nA (new type) and Panzer IV nA called Panzerkampfwagen should only differ in their main armament. Due to the identical construction, large savings in production, replenishment, training and repair were expected. The vehicles should be equipped with an all-round armor of 50 mm. The most noticeable change was the use of a box drive with large running wheels. A hydraulic tower swivel device was also provided. Some prototypes with box drive and turret of the Panzer III with a short 5 cm cannon were built. Due to the experiences made on the Eastern Front, the "Panzerkampfwagen III / IV" project was discontinued, as the vehicles were not designed for the new requirements for higher armor protection and stronger armament.
|Technical data of the versions of the Panzerkampfwagen III|
|Versions A – D||Exec. E||Versions F, G||Ausf. H||Versions J, L, M||Exec. N|
|0 General characteristics|
|Weight||16 t (version A: 15 t)||19.5 t||20.3 t||21.6 t||22.3 t||23 t|
|length||5.69 m||5.41 m||5.41 m||5.52 m||6.41 m||5.52 m|
|width||2.81 m||2.91 m||2.92 m||2.95 m||=||=|
|height||2.54 m||2.44 m||2.44 m||2.50 m||2.51 m||2.51 m|
|Main armament||3.7 cm KwK 36||5 cm KwK 38||5 cm KwK 39||7.5 cm KwK 37|
|Secondary armament||3 × MG 34||=||2 × MG 34||=||=||=|
|Ammunition supply||KwK: 121
|=||KwK: 84 (J = 99)
|Caliber length (KwK)||45||=||42||=||60||24|
|Pipe length (KwK)||1717 mm||=||2100 mm||=||3000 mm||1766 mm|
|Combat range||1000 m||=||1200 m||=||1300 m||650 m|
|Weight (KwK)||195 kg||=||223 kg||=||255 kg||490 kg|
|Tube life||4000 shots||=||?||?||8000 rounds||13,000 rounds|
|Price (KwK)||4800 RM||=||?||?||5600 RM||8000 RM|
|Tub front||15 mm / 70-80 °||30 mm / 70-80 °||=||30 + 30 mm||50 mm / 70–80 °
(L / M: 50 + 20 mm)
|50 + 20 mm|
|Tub side||15 mm / 90 °||30 mm / 90 °||=||=||=||=|
|Tub rear||15 mm / 80 °||30 mm / 80 °||=||30 + 30 mm||50 mm / 80 °||=|
|Tub ceiling||18 mm||=||=||=||=||=|
|Tub bottom||15 mm||30 mm||=||=||=||=|
|Tower front||15 mm / 75 °||30 mm / 75 °||=||=||50 mm / 75 °
(L / M: 57 + 20 mm)
|57 + 20 mm|
|Tower side||15 mm / 65 °||30 mm / 65 °||=||=||=||=|
|Turret stern||15 mm / 78 °||30 mm / 78 °||=||=||=||=|
|Tower ceiling||10 mm||=||=||=||=||=|
|Gasoline Engine : Water-cooled twelve-cylinder - V engine|
HL 108 TR
HL 120 TR
HL 120 TRM
|Bore x stroke||100 mm × 115 mm||105 mm × 115 mm||=||=||=||=|
|Displacement||10.8 l||11.9 l||=||=||=|
|Power (maximum)||250 hp (184 kW)
at 2600 rpm
|300 PS (220 kW)
at 3000 rpm
|Aisles (F / R)||5/1||10/1||6/1||=||=||=|
|Weight related performance||15.3 hp / t||15.4 hp / t||14.8 hp / t||13.9 hp / t||13.5 hp / t||13 hp / t|
|Top speed||32 km / h||40 km / h||=||=||=||=|
|Fuel supply||300 l||320 l||=||=||=||=|
|Range||150 km (road)
|170 km (road)
|Chain width||36 cm||=||=||40 cm||=||=|
- Notes on the "Technical data" table
- With the "Version F" only the last 100 pieces received the 5 cm cannon.
- The "Version J" still had the short 5 cm KwK 38.
- The armor of the bezel was 50 mm.
- High-performance motor with dry sump lubrication
- High-performance motor with dry sump lubrication
- as above, but with magneto ignition
- List of tracked vehicles of the Wehrmacht
- Tanks (1933-1945)
- List of special vehicles of the Wehrmacht
- Wolfgang Fleischer: Panzerkampfwagen III. The tank of the Blitzkrieg. (= Das Waffen-Arsenal. Volume 187), Podzun-Pallas, Wölfersheim-Berstadt 2001, ISBN 3-7909-0732-4 .
- George Forty: The German tank weapon in World War II. Bechtermünz, Augsburg 1998, ISBN 3-8289-5327-1 .
- Horst Scheibert: Main battle tank III. (= The weapon arsenal. Volume 122), Podzun-Pallas, Friedberg / H. (Dorheim) 1990, ISBN 3-7909-0393-0 .
- Ferdinand Maria von Senger and Etterlin : The German tanks 1926–1945. Bernard & Graefe, Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-7637-5988-3 .
- Walter J. Spielberger: The Panzerkampfwagen III and its variants. Volume 3, 1st edition, Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-87943-336-4 .
- Walter J. Spielberger, Friedrich Wiener: The German Panzerkampfwagen III and IV with their variants 1935-1945. JF Lehmann, Munich 1968.
- Alexander Lüdeke: Wehrmacht tanks 1933-1945. 3rd edition, Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-613-02953-8 .
- Panzer III at Achtungpanzer.com (English; with pictures of the Ausf. A, the mine clearance tank and a prototype of the PzKpfw III / IV with box drive)
- Second World War Armor (English)
- WW2 Vehicles (English)
- PDF with Panzer III still existing today (English; size 4.13 MB; including with SU-76i; note some wrong names)
- W. Spielberger, F. Wiener: The German Panzerkampfwagen III and IV with their varieties 1935-1945. JF Lehmann, Munich 1968, p. 11 (a), p. 17 (b), p. 19 and 14 (c), p. 26 (d), p. 28 (e), p. 158 (f), p. 29 and 39 f. (G), p. 40 ff. (H).
- Ferdinand Maria von Senger and Etterlin: The German tanks 1926–1945. Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-7637-5988-3 , p. 40 (a), p. 45 (b), p. 44 (c), p. 48 (d), p. 42 (e), p. 45 (f).
- Thomas L. Jentz , Hillary L. Doyle: Panzer Tracts 3-1 - Panzerkampfwagen Ausf. A, B, C and D. 2006, ISBN 0-9771643-4-9 .
- G. Forty: The German tank weapon in World War II. Augsburg 1998, p. 62 (a, b and c), p. 67 (d), p. 71 (e), p. 66 (f).
- There was no such production anywhere in German armored car production - apart from the Nibelungen factory and a few suppliers - → Hartmut Knittel: Tank production in the Second World War. Mittler, Herford / Bonn 1988, ISBN 3-8132-0291-7 , p. 130 (manual production: p. 49).
- H. Knittel: Tank production in World War II. Herford / Bonn 1988, p. 38 (MAN), p. 41 (MIAG).
- H. Knittel: Tank production in World War II. Herford / Bonn 1988, pp. 22-27.
- H. Knittel: Tank production in World War II. Herford / Bonn 1988, p. 130 | However, this was mostly a theoretical value that was rarely achieved even in an ideal economic situation and could often have been twice as high or even higher → p. 90.
- Price of an edition M: 96.183 RM → FM von Senger and Etterlin: Die Deutschen Panzer 1926–1945. Bonn 1998, p. 45 | Raw material requirements: p. 60.
- Thomas L.Jentz, Hillary Louis Doyle: Panzer Tracts No.23 - Reinforced Production from 1933 to 1945th
- Description → G. Forty: The German tank weapon in World War II. Augsburg 1998, p. 67.
W. Fleischer: Panzerkampfwagen III. The tank of the Blitzkrieg. In: Weapons Arsenal. Volume 187 and
F. M. von Senger and Etterlin: The German tanks 1926–1945. Bonn 1998.
- MGFA , Bernhard R. Kroener: The German Empire and the Second World War. Volume 5/2, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt Munich 1999, ISBN 3-421-06499-7 , p. 646.
- Thomas L. Jentz , Hillary L. Doyle: Panzer Tracts 3-2: Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf. E, F, G and H.
- Wolfgang Fleischer: Panzerkampfwagen III. The tank of the Blitzkrieg. In: Weapons Arsenal. Volume 187, p. 7 (a and b), p. 30 (c).
- In 1942 it was 1900 including the following remarks → W. Spielberger, F. Wiener: The German Panzerkampfwagen III and IV with their variants 1935–1945. Munich 1968, p. 25.
- Thomas L. Jentz , Hillary L. Doyle: Panzer Tracts 3-3: Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf. J, L, M and N.
- FM von Senger and Etterlin: The German tanks 1926–1945. Bonn 1998, p. 45.
- Ausf. E to N → W. Spielberger, F. Wiener: The German Panzerkampfwagen III and IV with their variants 1935–1945. Munich 1968, pp. 16-29.
G. Forty: The German tank weapon in World War II. Augsburg 1998, p. 19 ff.
Different structure → W. Spielberger, F. Wiener: The German Panzerkampfwagen III and IV with their variants 1935–1945. Munich 1968, pp. 153–158.
98 pieces Polish campaign → G. Forty: The German tank weapon in World War II. Augsburg 1998, p. 66
200 pieces at the beginning of the war and 26 total losses → MGFA: The German Reich and the Second World War . Volume 5/1, ISBN 3-421-06232-3 , p. 636.
- The Blitzkrieg was just a sleight of hand , article in der Welt from May 12, 2010.
- Losses → MGFA: The German Reich and the Second World War. Volume 5/1, ISBN 3-421-06232-3 , p. 636.
- Table (without PzBefWg) in Senger and Etterlin: The German tanks 1926–1945. Bonn 1998, p. 346.
- The misery of the German tanks was their quality - with the "Tiger" against the T-34 , WeltN24 GmbH. 07/29/12. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
Superiority T-34 → Fleischer: Panzerkampfwagen III. In: Weapons Arsenal. Volume 187, p. 14.
Long 5 cm cannon → Steven Zaloga : T-34/76 medium tank 1941–1945. Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-85532-382-6 , p. 36 (English).
- In terms of numbers, no distinction is made between the long and short 5 cm cannon → Senger and Etterlin: Die Deutschen Panzer 1926–1945. Bonn 1998, p. 45.
- All loss figures → MGFA: The German Reich and the Second World War. Volume 5/1, p. 636 and Volume 5/2, p. 571 | Note: So far, the numbers cannot be specified precisely to the number of pieces, as from 1942 they are only shown in a bar chart without exact numbers
- Michail Swirin: The armored shield of Stalin. The history of the Soviet tanks 1937–1943. [Original title: М. Н. Свирин: Броневой щит Сталина. История советского танка 1937–1943 (= Soviet tanki. ). Эксмо, Москва 2006] Ėksmo, Moscow 2006, ISBN 978-5-699-14628-4 , pp. 179, 350 (Russian).
- Mikhail N. Swirin: The armored shield of Stalin. The history of the Soviet tanks 1937–1943. Moscow 2006, pp. 181, 350 (Russian).
- Article with pictures of the Pz III in the service of the Red Army on armor.kiev.ua (Russian).
- Maxim W. Kolomijez: The captured tanks of the Red Army. (Original title: Максим Коломиец: . Трофейные танки Красной Армии / Максим Коломиец Эксмо, Москва 2010) Eksmo, Moscow 2010, ISBN 978-5-699-40230-4 , page 71 (in Russian).
- Planning of the HWA: 4600 Panzer II, 8000 Panzer III, 2160 Panzer IV and 680 PzBefWg → H. Knittel: tank production in the Second World War. Herford / Bonn 1988, p. 49.
- Heinz Guderian: memories of a soldier. 4th edition, Vowinckel, Neckargemünd 1960, p. 129 f.
- Sum of Pz III and Stug III in → von Sanger and Etterlin: Die Deutschen Panzer 1926–1945. Bonn 1998, p. 343 u. 345.
- Conclusion in → Horst Scheibert: Die Deutsche Kampfpanzer 1935–1945. Waffen-Arsenal, Special Volume 7, ISBN 3-7909-0483-X , p. 16.
- MGFA: The German Empire and the Second World War. Volume 5/2, ISBN 3-421-06499-7 , p. 566.
- 1939: 32, 1940: 43, 1941: 132, 1942: 50 and 1943: 14 pieces → W. Spielberger, F. Wiener: The German Panzerkampfwagen III and IV with their variants 1935–1945. Munich 1968, p. 39.
by Senger and Etterlin: The German tanks 1926-1945. Bonn 1998, p. 298 ff. And
W. Spielberger, F. Wiener: The German Panzerkampfwagen III and IV with their variants 1935–1945. Munich 1968
data armament → Wolfgang Fleischer: Panzerkampfwagen III. In: Weapons Arsenal. Volume 187.