Panzerkampfwagen V Panther

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Panzerkampfwagen V "Panther"
Ready-to-drive Panther Ausf. G of the Defense Technology Study Collection Koblenz

Ready-to-drive Panther Ausf. G of the Defense Technology Study Collection Koblenz

General properties
crew 5 (commander, gunner, loader, driver, radio operator)
length 8.86 m (pipe ahead)
width 3.42 m
height 2.99 m
Dimensions 44.8 t
Armor and armament
Armor 16-100 mm
Main armament 7.5 cm KwK 42 L / 70
Secondary armament 2 x 7.92mm MG 34
drive Maybach twelve-cylinder
gasoline engine HL 230 P30 515 kW (700 PS)
suspension Torsion bar
Top speed 46-55 km / h
Power / weight 14.5-15.6 hp / t
Range 200 km (road)

The Panzerkampfwagen V "Panther" ( Sd.Kfz. 171 ) was a medium German tank in World War II . It was developed by MAN in response to the Soviet T-34 . The Panther was supposed to replace the other medium German tanks, but was then used together with the Panzer IV, which was still being produced . From 1943 to the end of the war, around 6000 vehicles in various designs were built by several manufacturers and used both on the Eastern Front and in the West.

The Panther was equipped with a powerful 7.5 cm cannon, which gave it an advantage over most opponents in terms of precision and penetration of the main weapon. The armor, up to 100 mm thick, was a novelty in German armor construction, and the protection was aimed at frontal threats, so that the armor on the sides and in the rear was significantly weaker. With a weight of around 45 t, the Panther was very heavy for a medium tank (some heavy tanks on the opposite side were lighter), but its chassis and powerful engine gave it very good mobility.

Since the development of the Panther was under time pressure, the vehicles initially had considerable technical defects and design weaknesses, some of which could never be completely eliminated and made it relatively maintenance-intensive and prone to failure. In retrospect, it is still considered a balanced, trend-setting design and perhaps the best medium tank of the Second World War.



With the " Operation Barbarossa ", the attack of the Wehrmacht on the Soviet Union , the German-Soviet war began on June 22, 1941 . The German armored forces were equipped with the medium tanks III and IV and the Panzer 38 (t) . The role of anti-tank combat was intended for the Panzer III and its 5 cm cannon, while the Panzer IV with the short 7.5 cm cannon was designed as a support tank.

During skirmishes with Soviet T-34s it turned out that the German tanks had a chance of defeating the armor of the T-34 at best at a dangerously short range. Until then, the German leadership had assumed that the Panzer III was superior to all light to medium Soviet tanks. The shock caused by the appearance of the previously unknown T-34 initiated the development of a new medium tank - the Panther. Until the introduction of the Panzerkampfwagen VI Tiger and the later introduction of the Panther, the German armored units could often only assert themselves through better tactical use.


After investigations of captured T-34s, development contracts for a vehicle of at least the same value were given to both Daimler-Benz and MAN. The designs were given the names Daimler Benz VK.30.01 (DB) and MAN VK.30.02 (MAN) . The proposal from Daimler-Benz was strongly reminiscent of the T-34, while the MAN design was a new, independent design based on German experience and requirements. A special commission for the selection of the model to be produced proposed the draft from MAN for the following reasons:

  • The turret for the Daimler-Benz tank would not have been ready for production before December 1942. Since the tower rim had a diameter 5 cm smaller than that of the already available Rheinmetall tower for the MAN model, this tower could not even have been used as a makeshift.
  • The MAN's drive was the better weapon platform.
  • Underwater trips were possible without lengthy preparations because the engine room was partitioned off accordingly.
  • Greater radius of action for the MAN Panther

The most striking external feature was the all-round sloping side surfaces for the first time on a German tank. However, these were not a result of the investigations of the T-34, but tests had already been carried out with inclined armor . However, it is only on the drawing of a direct Panther predecessor VK 20.02 (M) from November 25, 1941, which was made in response to reports from the Eastern Front about the successful Soviet tanks, that the armor angles and shapes of the later Panther can be recognized.

After the decision for the MAN model had been made, the first order of 200 vehicles from Daimler-Benz was canceled.

Series production of the panther

Series production

The prototypes were tested at the test center for motor vehicles (Verskraft) in Kummersdorf . After the decision in favor of the VK 30.02 from MAN as the future V Panther armored fighting vehicle had been made, representatives of the four plants that were intended for the final assembly of the vehicles met on June 4, 1942 in Nuremberg:

A small number of Ausf. A was produced by Demag on the outskirts of Berlin in the former RAW Falkensee ( Albrechtshof ) of the Deutsche Reichsbahn , which had been rented to the Army Administration ( Heereswaffenamt ) in 1939 . Henschel & Sohn retired as manufacturer after the Ausf. D ran out. In addition, a large number of suppliers and subcontractors were involved for partial orders. The cost of a Panther without weapons, optics and radio was around 120,000  Reichsmarks , which is around 469,000 euros in today's currency when adjusted for inflation.

Although the production plan called for series production to begin at the end of 1942, four vehicles could not be delivered until January 1943. In the following months, too, production was initially rather sluggish with 18 pieces in February, 59 in March and 78 in April. The vehicles produced in the first few months were so faulty that they had to be reworked on a large scale and therefore Panther units were actually only available from mid-1943. When the Daimler-Benz plant in Berlin-Marienfelde and the MAN in Nuremberg- Gibitzenhof were damaged by bombing in August 1943 , the monthly output fell again for a short time. Both plants were again attacked several times in August and September 1944. The MNH was not hit in the air raids on Hanover until March 1945. When the works were occupied in April 1945, production ended.

Until then, MAN had produced the most Panthers with 2030 units, just ahead of Daimler-Benz with 1929 units and MNH with 1856 units. Henschel & Sohn (130 pieces) and Demag (50 pieces) were only marginally involved. This resulted in 2953 Panthers of the G version, 2192 of the Ausf. A and 842 of the Ausf. D. These 6,000 vehicles in total represented almost half of the medium battle tanks produced on the German side during this period Allies reached, so were z. In the production period, for example, the T-34 and T-34/85 alone produced around six times as many vehicles as the Panther.

Production figures of the Panzerkampfwagen V Panther
year January February March April May June July August September October November December total
1943 004th 018th 059 078 165 160 202 120 197 257 209 299 1768
1944 279 256 270 311 345 370 380 350 335 278 318 285 3777
1945 211 126 102 not known - - - - - - - - 0439

technical description

Drive and drive

Repair work on the box drive of a Panther

. The drive of the Panther exemplary D was carried out by Maybach HL 210 P30 twelve-cylinder - V-engines with 21 liters of capacity . These developed 650 hp at a speed of 3000 min −1 . An automatic halon fire extinguishing system that worked with carbon-chlorine-bromine ( bromochlorodifluoromethane ) was installed in the engine compartment . The 7-speed AK7-200 gearbox from the Friedrichshafen gear factory transferred the power to the drive wheels at the front. This allowed a top speed of 55 km / h on the road. After 250 built copies the bigger engine came HL 230  P30 700 hp at 3000 min -1 for use. The engine with two liters more displacement did not allow higher speed, but better acceleration. From November 1943, to increase the service life of the engine, the maximum speed was limited to 2500 min −1 , which led to a lower top speed of around 45 km / h.

The Panther had 16 plate-shaped, rubber-bandaged running wheels with a diameter of 86 centimeters on each side, arranged as eight nested double running wheels, four in pairs with the "deep" sides facing outwards and four in pairs with the "deep" sides facing inwards at the ends the wheel hubs were attached. The inner rollers had a locking ring, which was designed as a stop ring against the chain guide teeth.

Due to the 66 centimeter wide crawler tracks, the Panther had a very low specific ground pressure of 0.85 kg / cm². Together with other factors, this resulted in a very good off-road mobility for its time and excellent running properties, even off-road . The box drive, combined with a special double torsion bar suspension with adapted damping, was optimized for high speeds in the field. The basic work was done by Ernst Lehr at MAN. He thus developed the prerequisites for the planned use of gyro-stabilized weapons systems and for the desired shooting from motion. Corresponding tests were carried out with the Panther, as were tests with the FG 1250 infrared target and commander optics in use.


All three versions of the Panthers were the tank gun 7.5 cm KwK 42 70 equipped L / as the main armament. For these, 79 (versions A and D) or 82 (version G) grenade cartridges 75 × 640 mm R were carried. The recommended charge consisted of 50 percent tank shells 39/42 and 50 percent HE shells . There were also a few 40/42 tank grenades with a tungsten core.

Aiming was done with the binocular turret telescopic sight 12 (TZF 12 or 12a), which was installed axially parallel to the cannon. The accuracy determined with the 39/42 tank grenade resulted in a hit probability of 100 percent at a distance of 500 meters from the target. These values ​​worsened at 1,500 meters (72 percent) and 3,000 meters (18 percent) away. Because they were achieved in practice shooting, the actual accuracy on the battlefield was usually poorer and depended on many factors.

The slewing speed of the tower depended on the engine speed from version A. When the speed was reduced to 2500 revolutions / min from November 1943, the tower could be swiveled 360 degrees in 18 seconds. If the drive failed, the tower could also be swiveled by hand.

Ammunition and penetration performance of the 7.5 cm KwK 42 L / 70
Name of the ammunition 39/42 tank shell 40/42 tank shell
Bullet weight 6.8 kg 4.75 kg
Muzzle velocity 935 m / s 1120 m / s
Penetration performance
100 meters 138 mm 194 mm
500 meters 124 mm 174 mm
1000 meters 111 mm 149 mm
1500 meters 99 mm 127 mm
2000 meters 89 mm 106 mm
The 40/42 tank grenade was a projectile with a sub-caliber hard core made of tungsten carbide with a tracer, which, due to the lack of tungsten, was only available in small quantities or often not at all. In contrast to the 39/42 tank shell, it had no explosive charge.


Brand new Panthers being loaded onto railroad cars, 1943

From January 1943, the Wehrmacht set up tank departments that were only equipped with the Panther. For later it was planned to incorporate a panther division into each tank regiment of the tank divisions of the army and the Waffen SS . The war strength certificate of January 10, 1943 provided for 96 panthers. Of these, three were on the intelligence train, five on the reconnaissance train and 22 each (four trains each with five Panthers plus two company commanders) in the four tank companies. In addition, there was a tank workshop train for the entire department, which was equipped with five heavy traction vehicles 18 t , two Bergepanthers for towing the heavy tanks and a Strabokran . On April 1, 1944, the planned equipment of the tank companies sank to 17 Panthers (three platoons each with five Panthers plus two company commanders). Since the reconnaissance platoon was canceled, one division only had 71 Panthers. On November 1, 1944, war strength certificates came into force, which each tank company only allowed 14 (three platoons of four Panthers plus two company commanders) or ten Panthers (three platoons of three Panthers plus one for the company commander), so that the entire department only half as strong as it was in 1943. As a training aid, the Panther Primer was published on July 1, 1944 by the General Inspector of Panzer Troops, Heinz Guderian . Like the tiger primer, it was provided with numerous comic-like illustrations and written in the fibula style in largely paired rhyming verses.

Eastern Front

Repair on a Panzer V, 1944

The panther was first used at the battle of the Kursk Arc in the south of the Eastern Front. Under the command of the 4th Panzer Army , Panzer Departments 51 and 52 were combined to form Panzer Regiment 39 with a total of 200 Panthers. Even when unloading before the attack began, two Panthers burned out completely due to engine fires. After the remaining Panthers started the offensive as part of the Panzergrenadier Division Greater Germany on July 5, 1943 , only ten Panthers were operational on July 10. There were 23 total failures after enemy hits, 56 were damaged by mines or hits and 44 had mechanical failures. By July 20, 56 panthers had been totally destroyed. By the end of July 1943 there was a total loss of 83 panthers. During the operation, it became apparent that the crews were poorly trained because they were sent to the front in a rush. Numerous technical deficiencies occurred. The side gear, which translated the speed of the gearbox to the drive wheels, worked poorly like the gasoline pump, the seals of the gasoline and oil lines were not tight, the attachment of the carburetor was insufficient and the engine cooling worked poorly. These problems led to the fact that the Panther had the highest failure rate of all German tank types used there on a large scale during the battle in the Kursk Arc.

In quick succession, departments equipped with panthers were relocated to the Eastern Front. Mostly it was departments experienced in combat who relocated to their home country for retraining on the new tank and returned to their main divisions a few weeks later. The number of existing Panthers on the Eastern Front increased from 173 on August 31, 1943 to 291 (November 30) to 328 (February 29, 1944). On May 31, 1944, a new high was reached with 728 panthers, which was only exceeded in March 1945 with 740. In the meantime the population has remained relatively constant at 600 to 700 panthers.

It turned out that the front armor of the Panther could only be penetrated with difficulty by the T-34/85 . The Panther itself could destroy any Soviet tank from the front. Its side and rear armor could be penetrated at distances of more than 3000 meters. It was only when IS 2 appeared at the front in 1944 that the Panther was also endangered from the front. The mechanical reliability soon reached the same level as the Panzerkampfwagen IV after the first improvements had been incorporated into series production.


The only unit that fought with Panthers in Italy was the 1st Division of Panzer Regiment 4, which arrived as an independent army in February 1944 with 76 units. In the fight against the Allied advance to the north, it suffered losses, but it was possible to maintain an average strength of 20 to 30 panthers until April 1945.

Western front

When the Allies landed in Normandy on June 6, 1944 , the Wehrmacht led six tank divisions with Panther divisions to the front by the end of July. As of July 27th, 131 panthers were lost. A British investigation of 82 captured panthers found that 36 were destroyed by armor-piercing ammunition, 7 by artillery, 8 by air strikes and 18 by self-destruction due to unknown causes. The main opponents on the British side were the Cromwell and the Churchill : Although they could not pose a threat to the Panther from the front, they could penetrate the side armor at 1,500 meters. It was the same with the US Sherman M4 . The Sherman Firefly with the more powerful 17pdr cannon (caliber 76.2 mm) could penetrate the front turret armor at distances of less than 700 meters. The Panther, on the other hand, was able to destroy all Allied tanks between 1000 and 2000 meters from the front. From the side, distances of up to 3500 meters were possible.

Due to the crisis that arose on the western front in August , another 9 Panther detachments were moved to the front. Of these, 7 were deployed in newly established tank brigades with only 36 Panthers each. Before the start of the Battle of the Bulge (December 16, 1944), the Wehrmacht again relocated strong armored units to the Western Front, including 400 Panthers. Even so, at no time were there more than 471 panthers on the Western Front. The low points were in August 1944 with under 50 and from January 1945, when the number of existing Panthers fell below 220.

On March 6, 1945 there was a battle in Cologne between a Panther, an M4 Sherman and one of the few M26 Pershing used . In the course of this, the Sherman was destroyed by the Panther and then the Pershing. The battle was filmed by the US war correspondent Jim Bates and gained outstanding media attention because of this. In the present, a controversy developed over the authenticity of the recordings.

After the war

The Panther in its version G was also rated by the Allies after the end of the war as the “best medium-sized combat vehicle” of all conflict parties. Immediately after the war, the French armed forces equipped two units with captured panthers ("503 e régiment de chars de combat" - 503rd Panzer Regiment and the "6 e régiment de cuirassiers" - 6th cuirassier regiment) until a suitable successor could be obtained . A modified version of the Panther's cannon continued to be produced in France for the AMX-13 light tank after the war .

At the beginning of June 1945 at the Daimler-Benz factory in Marienfelde in Berlin, “a handful” of panthers were made from existing parts for the Red Army .

In 1945/1946 the British had nine Panthers and twelve Jagdpanthers assembled from leftover stocks at the MNH company in Hanover for test purposes.


The later improved production series of the Panther (Ausf. A and G) were superior to the T-34, which had been the main factor in the development of the Panther, both technically and in terms of combat value . Even if some defects on the Panther could not be fixed by the end of production, the advantages outweighed the advantages.

Advantages of the Panther were its strong cannon, a high rate of fire and its strong frontal armor. The Panther was equipped with a superimposed steering gear, which allowed it very good maneuverability even at low speeds. In terms of suspension and damping, the Panther is considered to be the forerunner of later tanks after the Second World War. In doing so, he paved the way for today's natural fire fighting in and out of motion.

Weaknesses of the Panther were an inadequate performance of the hydrostatic turret slewing system (so the turret could only be turned with the manual drive when the tank was tilted more strongly) and its relatively weak side armor. Its complicated box drive also caused failures, especially in the Soviet Union - the viscous mud settled between the running wheels and could freeze if it was not used for a long time. Was also the pages countershaft (reduction gear behind the drive wheels forward) as a simple spur gear instead of a complex planetary gear carried too weak. It is reported that engines had a lifespan of 1,000 to 1,500 km, chains and drive units of 1,500 to 3,000 km, and the final drives only 150 to 1,500 km.

The repair of the special Panther high-performance torsion bar suspension with its three different torsion bar designs and box drive could be extremely time-consuming in the event of damage, since, in addition to the affected swing arms, those of the "neighboring" castors and internal built-in parts, for the exchange of a certain torsion bar version, opposing castors are also dismantled had to.

Variants / projects

Panzer V Panther Ausf. G with night vision device
  • Night combat variant: From September 1944, individual vehicles were upgraded for night combat and equipped with a 30 cm infrared drive and aiming device FG 1250 on the commander's cupola designed for all-round observation. For reasons of economy (a so-called image converter / Biwa cost 35,000 RM), the gunner and driver did not receive their own IR devices; they were instructed accordingly by the commander in accordance with the directional circle principle. In November 1944 the first 63 night fighting panthers joined the troops. Occasionally the gunner received leveling devices based on the model of the 8.8 cm flak. The installation of side straightening devices did not go beyond the planning. Because of its size, the IR device of the "Panther" was mounted outside the commanders dome. The commander, who was looking out of the hatch with his head - and thus unprotected against enemy fire - could use the aiming device to indicate the lateral direction for the gunner by tapping the left and right shoulder with his foot and the height direction for the cannon with a display mechanism. With the small headlights on the tower, visibility of 150 m was possible. Together with a 60 cm “Uhu” IR searchlight on the 251/20 armored personnel carrier, a range of 600 m should have been possible at night in fog-free weather. Despite short-term preparations for general equipment with the target device, there were only a few missions until the end of the war.

The following vehicles were built on the basis of the Panzerkampfwagen V:

The following versions or varieties of the panther were also planned:

Panther Ausf. F with narrow tower (model)
  • Tank observation vehicle Panther, only with MG armament, dummy cannon (only prototype)
  • Flakpanzer Coelian (panther hull with 3.7 cm or 5.5 cm twin gun in a new anti-aircraft turret)
  • Panther Ausf. F (Panther with a new type of " narrow tower " and 8.8 cm KwK 43. Several of these towers were captured by the Americans in 1945. Their optical rangefinders were considered revolutionary.)
  • Tank destroyer Panther (Panther hull with casemate structure, similar to that of the Jagdpanther, and 12.8 cm gun from the Jagdtiger )
  • Panther 2 (temporarily planned successor to the Panther)

In addition, during the Second World War, various manufacturers were looking for alternatives to the water-cooled gasoline engines ( Maybach HL 230) of the Panther; the Austrian Saurer Werke AG developed, for example, an air-cooled two-stroke diesel engine. The resulting increased temperature in the engine compartment required better heat dissipation.

Technical specifications

Tank scheme
Technical data of the versions of the Panzerkampfwagen V Panther
Execution D execution A Execution G
General properties
Construction year January to September 1943 August 1943 to June 1944 March 1944 to April 1945
Manufacturer MNH, Henschel & Sohn, Daimler-Benz, MAN MNH, Daimler-Benz, MAN, Demag MNH, Daimler-Benz, MAN
number of pieces 842 2192 2953
Chassis numbers 151000-160000, 210255-211000 210001-210254, 211001-214000 120301–?, 124301–?, 214001–?
crew 5 ( commander , gunner , loader , radio operator, driver) = =
Weight 44.8 t = =
Tower weight 7.5 t = =
length 8.86 m = =
Width (with aprons) 3.27 m (3.42 m) = =
height 2.99 m = =
Gauge 2.61 m = =
Chain width 66 cm = =
Chain support 3.92 m = =
Main armament 7.5 cm KwK 42 L / 70 = =
Secondary armament 2 x 7.92 mm MG 34 = =
Ammunition supply KwK: 79
MG: 4200
KwK: =
MG: =
KwK: 82
MG: =
Caliber length (KwK) L / 70 = =
Fire height 230 cm = =
Pipe overhang 198 cm = =
Tower cover (arched) 100 mm = =
Tower front (slope 78 °) 100 mm = =
Tower sides (65 °) 45 mm = =
Turret stern (62 °) 45 mm = =
Tower roof (2 to 7 °) 16 mm = =
Tub bend (35 °) 60 mm = 50 mm
Driver front (35 °) 80 mm = =
Tub side (bottom 90 °, top 50 °) 40 mm = below =, above 50 mm (inclination 60 °)
Tub rear (60 °) 40 mm = =
Tub bottom (0 °) 30-16 mm = 25-16 mm
engine Twelve cylinders - Otto engine type Maybach 230 P30 HL
water-cooled V-engine with a 60 ° bank angle
four carburetor , four double downdraft gasifiers realized
each cylinder bank a Bosch magneto , dry sump lubrication , oil content 28 liters
Displacement 23 l
power maximum 700 hp at 3000 min −1 , continuous output 600 hp at 2500 min −1
Power / weight 15.6 PS / t (14.5 PS / t with HL 210) 15.6 hp / t =
Speed ​​limit road 55 km / h (46 km / h with continuous power)
Top speed terrain 24 km / h
Fuel supply 730 liters
Driving range 200 km (road), 100 km (terrain)
Ground clearance 54 cm
Ground pressure 0.86 kg / cm²
Climbing ability 90 cm
Climbing ability up to 35 °
Fording depth 190 cm
trench width that can be traversed 245 cm

See also

Panzerkampfwagen V Ausf. G


  • FM von Senger and Etterlin : The German tanks 1926–1945. Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-7637-5988-3 .
  • Walter J. Spielberger: The Panzerkampfwagen Panther and its varieties. Volume 9, Motorbuch Verlag Stuttgart, ISBN 3-87943-527-8 .
  • Axel Turra: Panzerkampfwagen 5 Panther. In: Weapons Arsenal. Volume 30, Podzun-Pallas Verlag, ISBN 3-7909-0739-1 .
  • Horst Scheibert: Panthers in action 1943–1945. Waffen-Arsenal special volume 24, Podzun-Pallas Verlag, ISBN 3-7909-0439-2 .
  • Peter Chamberlain, Hilary Doyle, Thomas L. Jentz: Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two. ISBN 978-0-668-04565-0 .
  • Thomas L. Jentz , Hilary L. Doyle: The panther . Development, designs, varieties, rare variants, characteristic features, combat value. Podzun-Pallas , Wölfersheim 1997, ISBN 978-3-7909-0592-2 (English: Germanys Panther Tank: The Quest for Combat Supremacy . Translated by Heinrich Kaiser).
  • Frank Köhler: Panther - milestone in tank technology. Comments on a groundbreaking weapon system. Schneider Armor Research, Uelzen 2014, ISBN 978-3-935107-10-5 .

Web links

Commons : Panzerkampfwagen V Panther  - Collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. Jentz & Doyle (1997), pp. 16-17.
  2. Jentz & Doyle (1997), p. 12.
  3. Jentz & Doyle: Panzer Tracts No. 5-1, Panzerkampfwagen "Panther", version D. Boyds MD, 2003, p. 5–2.
  4. ^ Werner Oswald : Motor vehicles and tanks of the Reichswehr, Wehrmacht and Bundeswehr Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-87943-850-1 .
  5. This figure was based on the template: Inflation determined, has been rounded to a full 1000 euros and relates to last January.
  6. ^ Roger Ford: Panther-Panzer Dörfler-Verlag 2001, ISBN 978-3-89555-849-8 , p. 45 f.
  7. ^ Walter Spielberger: The Panzerkampfwagen IV and its varieties. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1975, ISBN 3-87943-402-6 , p. 86.
  8. ^ J. Rickard: T-34 Medium Tank Production. September 19, 2008, accessed January 7, 2014 .
  9. Евгений Болдырев: Средний танк Т-34. September 20, 2005, accessed January 7, 2014 (Russian).
  10. Евгений Болдырев: Средний танк Т-34-85. September 20, 2005, accessed January 7, 2014 (Russian).
  11. ^ Spielberger: The Panzerkampfwagen Panther and its varieties. Stuttgart 1977, 3rd edition 1991, see illustrations on p. 35 below, p. 140 below and 142 above.
  12. Richard M. Ogórkiewicz (translation from English by Franz Felbauer): Technology of the Panzer III. Troop service pocket book Volume 40c, Vienna 1999, pp. 316, 323.
  13. Frank Köhler: Panther - milestone in tank technology. Uelzen 2014, pp. 7–15.
  14. Jentz & Doyle (1997), p. 125.
  15. ^ Roman Töppel : Kursk 1943. The greatest battle of the Second World War. Schöningh, Paderborn 2017, ISBN 978-3-506-78867-2 , p. 46 ff
  16. "What you and the rest of the world don't know." Cologne 1945 - close-ups. The new documentation from Hermann Rheindorf. In: Retrieved August 18, 2016 .
  17. Matthias Pesch: War images exposed as forgery. In: Kölner Stadtanzeiger, April 11, 2008, accessed on August 18, 2016 .
  18. ^ Sven Felix Kellerhoff: When two tanks dueled at Cologne Cathedral. In: March 6, 2015, accessed August 18, 2016 .
  19. 1944 char Panther (French)
  20. 100 years of the DaimlerChrysler plant in Berlin - Chronicle 1902–2002. Published by: DaimlerChrysler AG, Berlin Plant, Berlin 2002, 2nd edition, p. 103.
  21. ^ Frank Köhler: The manufacture of tracked vehicles at the MNH company in Hanover from 1939–1945. In: Association of Friends and Patrons of the Defense Technical Study Collection Koblenz , first published in 1994, online since October 22, 2011, accessed on December 18, 2017.
  22. Frank Köhler: Panther - milestone in tank technology. Uelzen 2014, p. 12.
  23. inter alia Jentz & Doyle (1997); Spielberger: The Panzerkampfwagen Panther and its varieties. Stuttgart 1977; Forty: The German tank weapon in World War II. Augsburg 1988.
  24. Repair instructions in: D 655 / 30a Pz Kpfw Panther Ausf. A and D Repair instructions for tank control room, drive. of January 24, 1944, p. 51 ff.
  25. Karsten Jahn: Eagle owl and falcon. The development of night vision devices for the armored troops by the weapons office (army) of the German Wehrmacht . In: Klaus Christian Richter: (Ed.): Panzergrenadiers. A branch of service in the mirror of its history . Freundeskreis der Panzergrenadierruppe, Munster / Örtze 2004, ISBN 3-00-014858-2 , pp. 197–211, pp. 202–203.
  26. Jahn (2004), p. 202
  27. Jentz & Doyle (1997), p. 95.
  28. Jentz & Doyle (1997), p. 96.