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The Wearmouth Bridge
The Wearmouth Bridge
Coordinates 54 ° 54 ′  N , 1 ° 23 ′  W Coordinates: 54 ° 54 ′  N , 1 ° 23 ′  W
OS National Grid NZ395575
Sunderland (England)
Residents 174,286 (2011)
ZIP code section SR1, SR2, SR3, SR4, SR5, SR6, SR9
prefix 0191
Part of the country England
region North East England
Metropolitan county Tyne and Wear
Metropolitan Borough Sunderland
British Parliament Sunderland South
Sunderland North

Sunderland [ ˈsʌndələnd ] is a port city in the Metropolitan County of Tyne and Wear in north-east England . Until 1974 Sunderland was a county borough of the traditional county of County Durham . Sunderland is located at the mouth of the River Wear in the North Sea and has a population of around 174,000. Since 1974 the city has been the eponymous core town of the larger Metropolitan Borough City of Sunderland .


Penshaw Monument

The name Sunderland goes back to the location of the place on the river Wear and is derived from Soender-land (the land divided by the river). In 674, the King of Northumbria , Ecgfrith, made a large piece of land available to Benedict Biscop in order to build the monastery of St. Peter, which the later historian Beda Venerabilis entered in 680 . The north side of the Wear was called Monkwearmouth , while the south side, which remained under the rule of the Bishop of Durham, was called Bishopwearmouth - names that are used to this day.

During the English Civil War (1642–1649) Sunderland sided with Parliament and was a garrison town for Scottish fighters who led the siege of the royalist Newcastle upon Tyne . During the time of the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell , Sunderland was given a privileged position over the other ports. However, after the restoration of the monarchy, the city was hampered in its growth as a trading center by several royal charters . This historical development contributed to the hostility between Newcastle and Sunderland that continues to this day.

In 1830 local government was in the hands of the three Sunderland churches. However, when the cholera broke out, those entrusted by the Church with its administration were helpless. The call for democracy and organized local government led to the creation of the Borough of Sunderland in 1836, although impatient citizens elected a mayor as early as December 1835.

Sunderland is located on a plateau high above the river and has therefore never had the problem of allowing its inhabitants to cross the river without hindering ships with tall masts. In 1786 the Wearmouth Bridge was built; In 1859 a new bridge was built by Robert Stephenson on the same site , which was given its shape to this day in 1929. Sunderland Harbor underwent significant expansion in the 1850s with the Hudson Dock designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel . From the 19th century the people of Sunderland were also called Mackems .

Today's cityscape

Sunderland has always been a center of shipbuilding and for a long time also of coal mining . The last shipyard , however, closed in 1988, the last coal mine in 1994. Today the Stadium of Light , where the football club AFC Sunderland plays, is located on the mine site . The Vaux brewery , built in the center in 1837, was one of the largest employers for 170 years, but closed in 2000.

With the decline of traditional industries, modern industries (electronics, chemistry, paper) have settled in Sunderland. Some of them are located in nearby Washington , as is the Nissan automobile factory . The service sector has also expanded in Sunderland; some call centers are in the city.

In 1990 the banks of the Wear were regenerated; Residential houses as well as shopping and business centers were built on the site of former shipyards.

Since Sunderland was badly hit by bombing during World War II, the city center consists mostly of functional post-war buildings. However, many old buildings have been preserved; They include the Church of Holy Trinity , built in 1719, and the Church of St. Peter , which arose from the earlier monastery and dates in some parts from the year 674.


In Sunderland is the University of Sunderland , whose St. Peter's campus is located on the site of a former shipyard. There are two other campuses.


Sunderland is connected to the Tyne & Wear Metro rail network; Park Lane bus station, opened in 1999, is the largest after Victoria Coach Station in London.



Every year the Sunderland International Airshow takes place on the coast near Roker and Seaburn . The event attracts more than 1.2 million spectators and is the largest public air show in Europe.

sons and daughters of the town


Web links

Commons : Sunderland  - collection of images, videos and audio files