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Structural formula
Structural formula of silicon tetrachloride
Surname Tetrachlorosilane
other names

Silicon tetrachloride

Molecular formula SiCl 4
Brief description

pungent smelling, colorless liquid

External identifiers / databases
CAS number 10026-04-7
EC number 233-054-0
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.037
PubChem 24816
ChemSpider 23201
Wikidata Q413709
Molar mass 169.90 g mol −1
Physical state



1.48 g cm −3

Melting point

−70 ° C

boiling point

57 ° C

Vapor pressure

260 h Pa (20 ° C)


reacts violently with water

Refractive index

1.41156 (25 ° C)

safety instructions
GHS hazard labeling from  Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP) , expanded if necessary
06 - Toxic or very toxic 05 - Corrosive


H and P phrases H: 301 + 331-314-335
EUH: 014
P: 261-280-301 + 310-305 + 351 + 338-310
As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions . Refractive index: Na-D line , 20 ° C

Tetrachlorosilane (also silicon tetrachloride , silicon tetrachloride ) is the perchlorinated derivative of monosilane . It is a chemical compound from the group of silicon tetrahalides with the empirical formula SiCl 4 . It is a colorless, volatile liquid that smokes in moist air and consists of the elements silicon and chlorine .


Tetrachlorosilane was first produced by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1823 . To do this, it passed chlorine gas over heated silicon or a silica / carbon mixture and isolated the resulting tetrachlorosilane in a cooled receiver.

Extraction and presentation

Tetrachlorosilane is usually obtained through the chemical reaction of chlorine with hot silicon:


Since further processing into silicon dioxide produces hydrogen chloride , this is also used to save raw materials through the composite:


The resulting hydrogen can be used for the production of fumed silica .


Tetrachlorosilane is a very reactive compound. Unlike the corresponding carbon compound carbon tetrachloride , tetrachlorosilane reacts violently with water:

The hydrolysis of tetrachlorosilane takes place via the intermediate stages SiCl 3 (OH), SiCl 2 (OH) 2 and SiCl (OH) 3 , which can be isolated at lower temperatures. These intermediates can, as with other silanols , with each other with elimination of water z. B. to dimerize or polymerize to linear compounds of the Si n O (n-1) Cl (2n + 2) type , the hydrogen chloride formed accelerating the polymerization. The first intermediate, the trichloromonosilanol, dimerizes analogously to other monosilanols, such as trimethylsilanol , with the formation of hexachlorodisiloxane. In any case, the driving force behind the reaction is the formation of the particularly stable Si – O – Si bond.

Oxidizing agents , acids , alcohols , bases , ketones , aldehydes and the like v. a. also react with silicon tetrachloride. It has a strong corrosive effect and is corrosive to the skin, eyes and lungs.


In the purification of silicon , silicon tetrachloride is sometimes used as an intermediate. By reaction with butyl lithium in diethyl ether can tetrabutylsilane be made:

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h Entry on silicon tetrachloride in the GESTIS material database of the IFA , accessed on February 1, 2016(JavaScript required) .
  2. David R. Lide (Ed.): CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics . 90th edition. (Internet version: 2010), CRC Press / Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, Index of Refraction of Inorganic Liquids, pp. 4-140.
  3. Entry on Silicon tetrachloride in the Classification and Labeling Inventory of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), accessed on February 1, 2016. Manufacturers or distributors can expand the harmonized classification and labeling .
  4. Gustav Rauter: About silicon tetrachloride . In: Justus Liebig's Annals of Chemistry . tape 270 , no. 1-2 , 1892, pp. 235-266 , doi : 10.1002 / jlac.18922700114 .
  5. Jons Jacob Berzelius: chlorine pebbles . In: Textbook of Chemistry, 5th edition . tape 1 . Arnold-Verlag, Dresden 1856, p. 325–326 ( Digitale-sammlungen.de ).
  6. Joseph Goubeau , Rudolf Warncke: For the hydrolysis of halides. I. The hydrolysis of silicon tetrachloride . In: Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry . tape 259 , no. 1-4 , October 1949, pp. 109-120 , doi : 10.1002 / zaac.19492590109 .
  7. ^ Stephan Pawlenko: Organosilicon Chemistry. Walter de Gruyter, 1986, ISBN 978-3-11-086238-6 , p. 18 ( limited preview in Google book search).