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The Tijaniya ( Arabic الطريقة التجانية, DMG aṭ-Ṭarīqa at-Tiǧānīya , Wolof Tiijaaniyaa , Turkish Ticaniye ) is a Sufi order ( Tariqa ), which was founded in the 1780s by Ahmad at-Tidschānī and is now widespread mainly in West Africa and Northeast Africa, but also has followers in the Middle East and Indonesia .


Establishment of the order by Ahmad at-Tijani

The name Tiǧānī is derived from an Algerian Berber tribe near Tlemcen called Tidschān / Tidschāna , to which Ahmad at-Tidschani's mother belonged. Tijani was born in 1737 in the Ksar ʿAin Mādī near the southern Algerian city of Laghouat . After he had founded his order, he claimed with the title Sherif a direct descent from Mohammed, but this does not result from his origin. An even more questionable self-assessment for his opponents was that he rose to the two highest hierarchical levels of a Sufi at the same time: Qutb ("pole, axis") means the predominant religious power at a certain time, Tijani described himself as the "pole of poles" ( quṭb al-aqṭāb ), the spiritual (even divine) center of the universe from which all other religious leaders called Qutb would derive their power. His second claimed rank was that of a "seal of Muslim holiness" ( ḫatm al-auliyāʾ al-Muḥammadīya ), that is, the last of the saints authorized by the Prophet. His followers relieved him of these claims, because for them the justification of Tijani that he had seen the Prophet directly in a vision is sufficient evidence and the basis of their belief.

When Ahmad at-Tidschani had settled in Fez in 1789, he was able to found his Zawiya with the support of Sultan Mulai Sulaiman . This connection to the ruling house was formative for the development of the order, whose members consisted of the upper class. No other order was so closely associated with the Makhzen until the beginning of the French protectorate in 1912 .

Tijani spread his teaching in Fez, Morocco, and in southern Algeria and developed it into the most important branch of the Chalwati -Tariqa. His teacher Muhammad ibn Hamwi at-Tijani (called: Abū ʿAbdallāh) taught him according to the Maliki school of law. Tijani did not receive his legitimation as usual through instruction in the descent of the prophet ( Silsila ), but claimed that a vision had come to him directly from the prophet , which invalidated his earlier initiation into the Khalwati order.

In the last years of his life he forbade his followers to visit other Sufi orders or the graves of other saints ( Welsh ), since the Tijaniyya made the final statements. This regulation was particularly problematic for his followers in Fez, because the residents there usually made a pilgrimage to the Qubba of their patron saint Mulai Idris . His preference for luxury things and a pleasant way of life has also entered into Tijani's teaching. Many order members in Morocco belonged to the wealthy class or were high functionaries in the government of the sultan in the 19th century. Tijani died in Fez in 1815.

One of the most important sources for the early history of the Tijānīya is the book "Lifting the veil over those companions who have met the Sheikh at- Tijānī " ( Kašf al-ḥiǧāb ʿamman talāqa maʿa aš-šaiḫ at-Tīǧānī min al-aṣḥāb ) by Ahmad Sukairij (d. 1944).

Spread in North and West Africa

After Ahmad at-Tijānī's death, the order was headed by his son ʿAlī at-Tamāsīnī, who resided in the eastern Algerian town of Tamāsīn. In ʿAin Mādī, the southern Algerian hometown of Ahmad at-Tijānī, the order gained a foothold before 1820, but came into conflict with members of the Tijana tribe, the so-called Tajādschina. The conflict between Tijānīya, Emir ʿAbd al-Qādir , who besieged the place in 1838, and the Tajājina lasted until the middle of the 19th century and led to the gradual expulsion of the Tajājina from the place. After the death of ʿAlī at-Tamāsīnī in 1844, the leadership of the order passed to Muhammad as-Saghīr, who had already taken his seat in ʿAin Mādī. After the collapse of Ottoman rule in the country, he tried to found his own Tijani state in southern Algeria. Under Ahmad at-Tidschānī II, the grandson of the order's founder, who resided in ʿAin Mādī between 1865 and 1897 and maintained friendly relations with the French colonial power, the place experienced great economic prosperity and developed into an important spiritual center for the order. In addition, Tamāsīn remained a second center of the order in Algeria, which rivaled ʿAin Mādī.

The scholar Ibrāhīm ar-Riyāhī (1766 / 67–1849 / 50) contributed in particular to the spread of Tijānīya in Tunisia. He had already been introduced to the order in 1797 during a visit by Ahmad at-Tijānī's follower Harāzim Barāda in Tunis . From 1803 to 1804 he traveled to Morocco on the occasion of a famine in Tunisia to ask the Moroccan Sultan Mulai Sulaiman for food aid. On this occasion he met Ahmad at-Tijani himself in Fez. After his return, ar-Riyāhī founded the first Tijānīya- Zāwiya in Tunis . At the same time he played an important role in the public life of Tunis: in 1828/29 he was appointed chief mufti , in 1839/40 rector of the madrasa of the Ez-Zitouna mosque , and when in 1841 Ahmad I al-Husain decided to reside on his territory the slavery abolition, he gave the Mufti, the official approval.

From Morocco, the Tijaniya order expanded south in the western Sahara around 1800. Muhammad al-Hāfiz ibn al-Muchtār (1759-1830) from the Idaw-ʿAlī tribe, who had met Ahmad at-Tijānī in Fez, introduced the order in Mauritania . His favorite student Maulūd Fāl spread it in Senegambia .

ʿUmar Tall and the Tukulor Empire

The Tukulor scholar al-Hādj ʿUmar ibn Saʿīd Tall (1796–1864) became the most influential representative of the Tijānīya in West Africa around the middle of the 19th century . He was an indirect student of Maulūd Fāl in Senegal and achieved a high reputation during a stay in Mecca. During his gradual return from Mecca, he stayed in Sokoto for eight years , where he had a good relationship with Mohammed Bello, the successor to Usman dan Fodios , and where he married his daughters.

In Mauritania and on the Niger, the brotherhood came into conflict with the influential Qadiriyya , especially with the ulama (Koran scholars) from the al-Baqqā'ī clan in Timbuktu , who were considered to be the highest authorities in theological and legal questions among the Kunta Moors . Until the French conquered what is now Mali , there were disputes over theological questions and the interpretation of Koranic regulations for daily life. After his return to West Africa, Umar ibn Saʿid Tall organized a jihad from 1851 until his death against what he believed to be “pagan” Muslims in the area between the present-day states of Mali, Senegal and Guinea and against the French colonial troops. In 1855 his armed forces conquered the Bambara empire of Segu , moved further east and in 1862 defeated the Fulbe empire of Masina, which was shaped by the opposing Qādirīya order ( accused of " apostasy ") . After initial success and high losses on both sides, Umar was killed in a revolt in 1864. The inability to establish a functioning order in the conquered areas and the armed conflicts that continued even after his death contributed to a poor assessment of his Puritan movement.

ʿUmar was recognized by the followers of the order as a leading intellectual, his main work Kitāb ar-Rimāh is as widespread as the Jawāhiral al-maʿānī of the founder at-Tijani. His rejection of the other Sufi orders is evident in the phrase that has become the saying: "Qadiriyya and Tijaniyya are like iron and gold."

Cooperation with the French colonial power

In the second half of the 19th century, the Tijanis in Algeria and Tunisia worked closely with the French colonial administration , in contrast to many other rebellious Sufi orders. Under Ahmad at-Tidschānī II, who died in 1897, the order in Algeria increasingly became an instrument of French colonial policy. After his death, the dispute over where he was to be buried led to a split between the two Algerian Tijani Zawiyas , which lasted until the middle of the 20th century. In Morocco, too, most of the Tijani leaders cooperated with the French and thereby exposed themselves to the hostility of the other brotherhoods.

Similar developments emerged in West Africa at the beginning of the 20th century, where one of the most important Tijani Sufis was Abdoulaye Niass. He came from the region around Jolof , went on a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1890 and probably moved to Gambia in 1901 in order to avoid possible conflicts with the French colonial rulers. After another pilgrimage in 1910, he reached an agreement with the French. They assigned him, his family and his followers a place in Kaolack , the most important center of the Saloum region . There Abdoulaye Niass built the zāwiya of Lewna Niasseen.

Spread to other areas

In 1904, the Djenné- born Tijānī Sufi Muhammad ibn Muhammad Salmā settled in El Fasher in Darfur and founded a Zāwiya (meeting place) there. His son Sīdī Muhammad († 1956) built a mosque in El Fasher and from there spread the teachings of the Tijānīya in western Sudan.

In the 19th century, a small branch of the Tijaniyya made its way to Albania via Turkey in the shadow of the powerful Bektashi- Dervish order . In the 1930s the Tijaiyya also came to Indonesia, where the order has since spread from the north coast of Java .

Tijaniya rites and teachings

Overall, the Tijaniya brotherhood is characterized by three different rites:

  1. the special Tijānīya- becomes , which is recited in the morning and in the evening. It consists of the following components: 100 times the formula Astaghfiru Llāh (“I ask God for forgiveness”), 100 times a prayer over the Prophet, 100 times the formula Lā ilāha illā Llāh (“There is no God but God”). Any suitable formula can be used as a prayer for the Prophet, but the so-called Salāt al-fātih (" Prayer of the one who opens") is particularly recommended , the formula of which is as follows: Allāhumma salli ʿalā sayyidinā Muhammadin al fātihi li-mā ughliqa, wa-l -chātimi li-mā sabaqa, nāsiri-l-haqqi bi-l-haqqi wa-l-hādi ilā siraatika l-mustaqīm, wa ʿalā ālihi haqqa qadrihi wa miqdārihi l-ʿazīm (“O God, pray for our Lord Muhammad opens what has been closed, who closes what preceded, who helps the truth to victory through the truth, who leads on your straight path, and for his family as it is due to his power and immense greatness ”).
  2. the wazīfa , which must be recited at least once a day. It consists of the following components: 30 times the Istighfār formula Astaghfiru Llāh al ʿAzīm aladhī lā ilāha illā Hūwa l-Haiyu l-Qaiyūm ("I ask God, the mighty, the only, the living, the constant, for forgiveness"), 50 times the salāt al-fātih , 100 times the formula Lā ilāha illā Llāh , 12 times the prayer Jawharat al-Kamāl ("Jewel of Perfection"), a special prayer for the Prophet, the Ahmad at-Tijānī at a vision from the Prophet Mohammed is said to have received.
  3. the hadra , also called dhikr , which takes place every Friday after the afternoon prayer and wazīfa. It consists of the formula Lā ilāha illā Llāh being recited either 1,000 or 1,600 times or all the time until sunset.

In contrast to many other brotherhoods, ascetic forms of life are rejected in the Tijaniyya, the aim is to gain wealth. In all important religious writings of the Tijaniyya the "service" ( ḫidma ) is mentioned, which forms the ideal framework for life in the brotherhood. To submit to the order of the Sheikh means "service to the Sheikh" ( ḫidmat aš-šaiḫ ).

The main branches of the order

Hāfizīya and ʿUmarīya

The oldest branches of the Tijānīya order are the Hāfizīya and the ʿUmarīya. The former goes back to Muhammad al-Hāfiz ibn al-Muchtār, who introduced the order in Mauritania at the beginning of the 19th century, the latter to al-Hādj ʿUmar Tall , the founder of the Tukulor Empire.

The ʿUmarīya was headed from 1984 to 2001 by the reformist scholar Ahmad Tijānī Bā. Tijānī Bā came from Mali and was a descendant of ʿUmar Tall. Around the mid-1980s he was appointed imam of the Grand Riviera Mosque in the Abidjan district of Cocody . Since then he has also served as the first nationwide mufti in Ivory Coast, an office that did not exist before.


Another branch of the brotherhood is the Sy-Tidschānīya or Tidschānīya Mālikīya, which goes back to the scholar Malik Sy (1854-1922) from the western part of the Fouta Toro . After extensive travels, during which he studied Islamic law and Islamic theology, and a stopover in Saint-Louis in 1902, he settled in Tivaouane , which has since served as the seat of this branch of the order. In order to spread his teaching, he sent his students to the various localities of Senegal, who built up new communities of the order there. As heads ( muxaddam , from Arabic muqaddam ) of these local communities, they had a relatively large scope of action. In his later years, Malik Sy worked actively with the French colonial power. The Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty, founded in 1927, is a sub-organization of the Sy-Tidschānīya . The current caliph of the Sy-Tijaniya is Serigne Cheikh Ahmed Tidiane Sy.

Hamallists and Yacoubis

In the 1920s, Sheikh Ahmédou Hamahoullah (1882–1943), also known as Hamallah, founded a reform movement within the Tijānīya that was strongly egalitarian in the area of Mali . The followers of Hamahoullah, who were called Hamallists, in contrast to the followers of Umar Tall, recited the prayer Juhharat al-kamāl introduced by Ahmad Tijānī not twelve times, but only eleven times. Accordingly, her prayer beads only had eleven pearls. In the 1930s and early 1940s they fought fierce battles with the other Tijani Sufis. Because of this, Hamahoullah was exiled to Algeria in 1941, later to Montluçon , where he died in 1943. To this day, the place Nioro du Sahel in Mali is a stronghold of the Tijānīya Hamāwīya.

A student of Hamahoullah, Yacouba Sylla , went into business for himself in the Ivory Coast in the 1930s and founded a branch order there in the city of Gagnoa . The followers of this branch are also known as Yacoubis.



The mosque in Medina Baay, Kaolack

The youngest branch of the order is the Niyās-Tidschānīya or Tidschānīya Ibrāhīmīya, which goes back to Ibrāhīm Niyās (1900-1975), a son of Abdoulaye Niyās. In the middle of the 20th century he strived for a renewal of the Tijaniyya and rejected the previous religious training in the retreats called Chalva as a necessary prerequisite for spiritual enlightenment. The prophet told him to live without turning away from the world. Instead of seclusion, he introduced the principle of Tarbiya (mental training, education), which became the most important identification feature of the branch of Tijaniyya he founded, known as Niass-Tijaniyya or Tidschaniyya Ibrahimiyya. The initiation into the brotherhood by Tarbiya can take a few days to two years. Tarbiya should not be explained rationally, but only experienced. It is a secret initiation that contains questions about the relationship between God and man. Ibrahim Niass performed his prayers as a symbol of the unity of the fellow believers with his arms crossed over his chest (usually with the Malikites the arms are at the side when praying). He also pronounced a smoking ban for his followers.

As early as the 1930s, various followers of the Hāfizīya from Mauritania joined Ibrāhīm's circle, which gave his movement credibility in francophone and anglophone. Sīdī Ibn ʿUmar, a fourth-generation descendant of Ahmad at-Tijānī from ʿAin Mādī, also played an important role in spreading his new teaching. After visiting Ibrāhīm Niyās in Senegal in the spring of 1949, he traveled through Nigeria and Western Sudan in the second half of the year, where he spread his Tarbiya concept.

Political role in Nigeria and Niger

After Ahmadu Bello and his Jamāʿat Nasr al-Islām declared the veneration of saints illegitimate in northern Nigeria in the 1950s and began to campaign against the Sufi brotherhoods, and after the Ahmadiyya had settled in Kano in 1962, Mudi Salga was founded in 1963 , a leader of the Niass-Tijaniyya, the organization Fityan al-Islam to ward off these influences . She mobilized leaders and supporters of the Sufi orders against the representatives of the new orthodox Sunni Islam, including Saad Zungur and Abubakar Gumi (1924-1992). Gumi, who criticized the Tarbiya concept as unorthodox as early as the 1960s, founded the Wahhabi organization Yan Izala in 1978 .

The Yan Izala movement spread from northern Nigeria into Niger in the 1980s and, with a good financial background, began building mosques and proselytizing against the Niass-Tijaniyya in the cities. The clash between the two groups was sometimes violent. In order not to let the competition for the modernization of Islam lead to the division of society, the government founded the advisory National Islamic Council (NIC) in 2003 , which is supported by leaders of the Niass-Tijaniya as an alternative to the creation of an Islamic state. The Niass-Tijaniyya thereby established itself in a political role in Niger.

Clashes in Sudan

The first Tijani in El Fasher to openly declare himself a follower of Ibrāhīm Niyās was Ibrahim Sīdī (1949–1999) of the Salmā family, a son of Sīdī Muhammad. In front of his followers ( Murid, plural Muridun ), Ibrahim Sidi always emphasized the duty of work and punctuality as a virtue, the Muridun are workers for God. However, he had to defend himself against other Tijaniyya supporters who rejected the Tarbiya concept as an inadmissible innovation. After he published a pamphlet against the old doctrine in 1984, there was a split in Darfur into two camps within the Tijaniyya.

Development in Senegal

The Niasse-Tidschaniyya also continues to exist in Senegal. It is based there in Kaolack . Al-Hajj Ahmad Khalifa Niasse in particular made a name for himself about the caliphs of the Niass branch in Senegal. In August 1979 he founded a Khomeini- oriented Islamic party called Hizboulahi ("Party of God") and advocated the establishment of an Islamic Republic . His brother Sidy Lamine Niass founded the Islamist magazine Wal-Fajri at the end of 1983 , which was ideologically strongly aligned with the Islamic Republic of Iran .


  • Jamil M. Abun-Nasr: The Tijaniyya. A Sufi order in the modern world (= Middle Eastern Monographs. Vol. 7, ZDB -ID 415745-x ). Oxford University Press, London et al. 1965.
  • Jamil M. Abun-Nasr: Art: "Ti dj āniyya" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Vol. X, pp. 464a-466a.
  • El Hadji Samba A. Diallo: Les Métamorphoses des Modèles de Succession dans la Tijāniyya Sénégalaise. Paris 2010.
  • Jillali El Adnani: La Tijâniyya 1781-1881. Les origines d'une confrérie religieuse au Maghreb. Rabat: Marsam 2007.
  • John Hunwick: An introduction to the Tijani path: Beeing an annotated translation of the chapter headings of the Kitab al-Rimah of al Hajj Umar. In: Islam et Sociétés au Sud du Sahara. Vol. 6, 1992, ISSN  0984-7685 , pp. 17-32.
  • Ahmed Rufai Mihammed: The Niass Tijaniyya in the Niger-Benne Confluence Area of ​​Nigeria. In: Louis Brenner (Ed.): Muslim Identity and Social Change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Indiana University Press, Bloomington IN et al. 1993, ISBN 0-253-31269-8 , pp. 116-134.
  • Jean-Louis Triaud, David Robinson (ed.): La Tijâniyya. Une confrérie musulmane à la conquète de l'Afrique . Editions Karthala, Paris, 2000.

Web links

Commons : Tijānīya  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Abun-Nasr: The Tijaniyya. 1965, pp. 15f., 34, 40f.
  2. Cf. here the digital version of the 1961 edition.
  3. Cf. El Adnani: La Tijâniyya 1781-1881. 2007, pp. 211-219.
  4. Cf. El Adnani: La Tijâniyya 1781-1881. 2007, pp. 191-193.
  5. Cf. A. Dedoud Ould Abdellah: Le "passage au sud". Muhammad al-Hafiz et son héritage. In: Triaud / Robinson (eds.): La Tijâniyya. 2000. pp. 69-100.
  6. ^ John Glover: Sufism and Jihad in Modern Senegal. The Murid Order (= Rochester Studies in African History and the Diaspora. Vol. 32). University of Rochester Press, Rochester NY et al. 2007, ISBN 978-1-580-46268-6 , pp. 58-61
  7. Abun-Nasr: The Tijaniyya. 1965, pp. 74-76
  8. Abun-Nasr: The Tijaniyya. 1965, pp. 93-98
  9. Cf. David Robertson: “An emerging pattern of cooperation between colonial authorities and Muslim societies in Senegal and Mauritania” in D. Robinson and J.-L. Triaud (ed.): Le temps des marabouts. Itinéraires et stratégies islamiques en Afrique occidentale française v. 1880-1960. Paris 1997. pp. 155-181. P. 174.
  10. Robert Elsie : Islam and the Dervish Sects Albania. Notes on their history, distribution and the current situation. (PDF; 159 kB) Kakanien Revisited, May 2004, p. 9
  11. Chapter 8: Pesantren and Tarekat: The role of Buntet. The Origin of Tijaniyah. In: Abdul Ghoffur Muhaimin: The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon. Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims. Republic of Indonesia - Ministry of Religious Affairs - Center for Research and Development of Socio-Religious Affairs, Office of Religious Research, Development, and In-Service Training, Jakarta 2004, ISBN 979-3561-90-4
  12. Cf. el Adnani 120.
  13. Cf. Abun Nasr in EI 465b and el Adnani 119f.
  14. ^ Rüdiger Seesemann: Islam, work and work ethic: The "zawiya" of the Tijaniyya in el-Fasher / Sudan. In: Kurt Beck, Gerd Spittler (Hrsg.): Arbeit in Afrika (= contributions to Africa research . Vol. 12). Lit, Münster et al. 1996, ISBN 3-8258-3021-7 , pp. 141-160
  15. See David Robinson: “Between Hashimi and Agibu. The Umarian Tijâniyya in the Early Colonial Period “in Triaud / Robinson (ed.): La Tijâniyya. 2000. pp. 101-124.
  16. Cf. Marie Miran: “La Tijâniyya à Abidjan, entre désuétude et renaissance. Ou, l'œuvre moderniste d'El Hâjj Ahmed Tijâni Bâ, cheikh tijâni réformiste en Côte d'Ivoire contemporaine ”in Triaud / Robinson (ed.): La Tijâniyya. 2000. pp. 439-467.
  17. See the chapter Politique de déconcentration in Mouhammadou Mansour Dia: La pensée socioreligieuse d'El Hadji Malick Sy. Kifaayatu ar-Raa'hibiin . Abis éditions, Dakar, 2013. pp. 52–60.
  18. See David Robertson: “Malik Sy. Teacher in the New Colonial Order ”in Triaud / Robinson (ed.): La Tijâniyya . 2000, pp. 201-218.
  19. See Fabienne Samson: Les marabouts de l'islam politique. Le Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty, un mouvement néo-confrérique sénégalais. Paris 2005.
  20. See Alioune Traoré: Cheikh Hamahoullah, homme de foi et résistant. Islam et colonization en Afrique . Paris 1983.
  21. Cf. Benjamin F. Soares: "Notes on the Tijâniyya Hamawiyya in Nioro du Sahel after the second exile of its shaykh" in Triaud / Robinson (ed.): La Tijâniyya . 2000, pp. 357-365.
  22. See Mihammed: The Niass Tijaniyya . 1993, pp. 116-134.
  23. See David Robinson in Triaud / Robinson (ed.): La Tijâniyya . 2000, p. 510.
  24. Cf. Rüdiger Sesesmann: "The History of the Tijâniyya and the issue of tarbiya in Darfur (Sudan)" in Triaud / Robinson (ed.): La Tijâniyya . 2000, pp. 393-437. Here p. 408.
  25. Cf. Roman Loimeier: Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria. Evanston 1997. p. 48.
  26. ^ William FS Miles: Religious Pluralisms in Northern Nigeria. In: Nehemia Levtzion, Randall L. Pouwels (Ed.): The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press et al., Athens OH 2000, ISBN 0-8214-1296-5 , pp. 209-226, here p. 214.
  27. Cf. Ousmane Kane: Muslim modernity in postcolonial Nigeria: a Study of the Society of Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition. Leiden 2003, p. 176.
  28. Pearl T. Robinson: Islam and Female Empowerment among the Tijaniyya in Niger. Tufts University, Research Note, September 2005 ( Memento of the original from July 16, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 76 kB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / ase.tufts.edu
  29. Rüdiger Seesemann: The Writings of the Sudanese Tijani Shaykh Ibrahim Sidi (1949-1999) with Notes on the Writings of his Grandfather, Shaykh Muhammad Salma (d. 1918) and his Brother, Shaykh Muhammad al-Ghali (BC 1947). ( Memento of the original from March 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Sudanic Africa. Vol. 11, 2000, ISSN 0803-0685 , pp. 107–124 (PDF file; 126 kB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hf.uib.no 
  30. See Hanspeter Mattes: The Islamist Movement in Senegal between autonomy and external orientation . Hamburg 1989. pp. 40f.
  31. Cf. Mattes ibid pp. 44, 52-55.