Währing (district of Vienna)
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Währing is a formerly independent municipality and now a district of Vienna in the same 18th district of Vienna Währing and one of 89 Vienna Katastralgemeinden . A small part of Währing is in the 19th district of Vienna, Döbling .
242.64 hectares of Währing are located in the east of the 18th district and 11 hectares in the south of the 19th district. The cadastral community extends over an area of 253.64 hectares. Währing borders in the north on Sievering and Oberdöbling , in the east on the district of Alsergrund , in the south on Hernals and in the west on Gersthof , Weinhaus and Pötzleinsdorf .
The main urban development axis of the district is Währinger Straße . It runs here in a valley that rises towards the west and is formed by the Währinger Bach . Währing extends on both sides of this valley, rising to the south on the Ganserlberg and north-west on the hill of the Türkenschanze . The south of Währing is a densely built-up residential area, while the north is characterized by the villa area of the Cottage district and the large green spaces Sternwartepark , Türkenschanzpark and Währinger Park .
Währing was first mentioned in a document around 1170 as Warich . There are only guesses as to the origin of the name. Possibly it is Slavic ( var for warm spring, or Varica for dark brook) or Germanic origin ( werich for day work, ie a field the size of a man can work it in a day), but possibly it is also derived from Werigandus, the first abbot of the Michelbeuern monastery.
The chapel and the "Hof zu Währing" (also called Berghof or Freihof) formed the oldest core of Währing. The oldest residential building was the Hof zu Währing (today Währinger Straße 91-93), in which the seat of the Michaelbeur estate administration was located. The chapel of St. Gertrude was first mentioned in 1226. The place developed along the Währinger Bach as a typical street village . When Matthias Corvinus conquered Vienna in 1485, he set up camp in Währing. The time before that brought great misery, as mercenary bands marched through the area and plundered. A school in Währing was first mentioned in 1529, the school fees for the teacher were paid by the parents. Because of his low salary, the teacher was sexton , bell ringer , organist and servant of the pastor at the same time . After the school was destroyed during the Second Turkish Siege of Vienna , no school existed until 1750. In the 16th and 17th centuries raged here plague , but the town developed further. In 1582 there were already 42 houses, two developed roads led to Vienna and Döbling. In 1683, Währing was completely destroyed during the second Turkish siege of Vienna , and the vineyards were destroyed. Many residents were killed or taken away as slaves.
It was not until 1750 that Währing regained the same size as in 1582. After that, the place began to grow rapidly. Viticulture declined at the beginning of the 19th century and agriculture increased. At the same time the number of inhabitants also increased. In 1833 there were already 150 houses with 2578 inhabitants. The heavy pollution of the Währinger brook and the lack of a sewer system led to the outbreak of cholera in 1831 .
In the 19th century Währing developed into a summer retreat for rich Viennese, which changed the character of the place. Houses were expanded and raised, kitchen gardens converted into ornamental gardens. In 1835, Adolf Schmidl characterized the still rural suburb of Vienna and its inhabitants in his hiking guide Vienna's surroundings for twenty hours in a circle as follows:
- Since then, Währing has flourished so much that it looks more like a small country town than a village. It counts 150 houses, 2578 inhabitants and contains many stately, solid buildings, a wax bleaching plant, leather factory ec. and numerous artisans, who mainly work for the nearby residence, and since they can live and work more cheaply besides the lines , they also find their accounts. So it happens that the village expresses industrial prosperity like few others.
After the revolutionary year of 1848, the place continued to grow rapidly. There were 1857 200 buildings, so it was in 1880 already 991 and 1890 already 1311. A 1856 just north of the later District Line 18/19 on Währinger Spitz ( 19 north between Billrothstraße and Gymnasiumstraße the Philippovichgasse [today's street names]) built gas plant of Imperial Continental Gas Association took over the supply of natural gas to Währing; in the same year the first street lamps began to be erected. Between 1870 and 1880 the main streets of Währing were paved. In 1874 the arching of the Währinger Bach began to protect against flooding, which lasted until 1886. Between 1874 and 1879 the Vienna University Observatory was built on a 5.5 hectare site at the “Türkenschanze”. After the move of the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Vienna , it was officially opened on June 5, 1883 in the presence of Emperor Franz Joseph I. .
After the suburbs of Vienna were incorporated in 1850, the discussion about the incorporation of the suburbs began in the 1870s. The initiative for this came from Währing. The lawyer Dr. Leopold Florian Meißner sent a petition to the Lower Austrian provincial committee, in which he suggested the formation of "Greater Vienna". However, almost all of the suburbs were against the proposal.
In 1888, in his speech at the opening of the Währinger Türkenschanzpark , Emperor Franz Joseph I wanted the suburbs to be united with the city. The speech, supported by the Imperial and Royal Prime Minister Eduard Taaffe , caused a sensation and prompted the Lower Austrian Landtag to take action: The corresponding provincial law passed on December 19, 1890 became fully effective on January 1, 1892 after the transition year 1891 and united Währing, Gersthof, Pötzleinsdorf, Weinhaus, Neustift am Walde and Salmannsdorf to the 18th district of Vienna , Währing. Today Neustift am Walde belongs partly and Salmannsdorf completely to the 19th district of Vienna, Döbling . The area of the former village of Währing was 2.14 km² and in 1890 had 61,154 inhabitants.
Economy and Infrastructure
For a long time the place itself lived mainly from viticulture ; the wine was delivered to neighboring Vienna. Agriculture and animal husbandry served almost exclusively for self-sufficiency. In addition, earth and stones were mined in the area of the Türkenschanze. Due to the strong growth in the 19th century and the proximity to Vienna, trade and industry also took a certain boom in Währing. The most important industrial enterprise was the brewery built by Konrad Dreher in 1839 . This changed hands several times until the company began to flourish when it was taken over by Karl Wilhelm Schwarz. Towards the end of the 19th century, it began to suffer from competition from major Viennese breweries, and in 1910 operations ceased. Other important businesses of the 19th century were the Gerlach leather factory founded in 1847, the Mellner oven factory and Karl Schmoll's shoe polish factory founded in 1884. In 1991 the Evangelical Hospital in Vienna moved to the district part.
A village church in Währing was first mentioned in a document in 1213, but at that time it was probably only the size of a chapel. Until 1226 it belonged to the parish of St. Stephan, after which Währing was raised to its own parish. The income of the parish like the tithe remained with St. Stephen. This meant that the pastor usually resigned from their office after a few months. Finally, the bishop appointed a curator for the parish. In the 16th century, Protestantism was very widespread in the Vienna area. In 1568 only three of the 367 inhabitants were Catholics. The trend was not reversed until 1628, when an order by the Abbot von Michelbeuern forced people to re-catholicise or to emigrate. In 1723 the Lichtental parish was separated. On September 11, 1753, Michael von Zollern (1665–1756, Zollergasse ) laid the foundation stone for today's St. Gertrud Church . It was built next to a tower built in 1528 and renovated in 1726, which was lower than the church and was still standing in 1846. The Lazarist Church by the architect Friedrich von Schmidt was built between 1876 and 1878. In 1898 the first Evangelical Lutheran church in Vienna, which had a tower and bells, was built in Währing as the " Evangelical Emperor Franz-Josephs-Jubiläumskirche ", today's "Luther Church" in Martinstrasse.
Sons and daughters
- Emil Karl Blümml (1881–1925), folk song researcher and music writer
- Ernst Krenek (1900–1991), composer
- Leopold Schrödl (1841–1908), sculptor
- Anton Baumann (1848–1926), politician; born in Werschetz , from 1885 member of the community committee of the independent town, later district chairman of Währing
- Egon Friedell (1878–1938), writer; born in Vienna, lived at Gentzgasse 7 from 1910 until his death
- Emmerich Kálmán (1882–1953), composer; born in Siófok , lived from 1930 to 1939 at Hasenauerstraße 29
- Anton Klettenhofer (1815–1897), Mayor of Währing 1864–1871 and 1873–1882, honorary citizen, lived in 1881 at Hauptstrasse 11 (Klettenhofergasse)
- Wolfgang Madjera (1868–1926), writer; born in Vienna, lived at Anastasius-Grün-Gasse 25 from 1902 until his death
- Arthur Schnitzler (1862–1931), storyteller and playwright; born in Vienna, lived at Sternwartestrasse 71 from 1910 until his death
- Jakob Wolfer (1911–1984), Protestant theologian; born in Drohobytsch , from 1956 first pastor of the Luther Church
- Christine Klusacek, Kurt Stimmer: Währing. From the Ganserlberg to the Schafberg. Mohl, Vienna 1989, ISBN 3-900607-17-6 .
- Andreas Pittler : The mayors of Vienna. A history of the city in portraits. Überreuter, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-8000-3873-0 .
- Michael Haitszinger, Klaus Prokop: elevenfold | Currency - Mensch & Bezirk , ARGE elfachzig, Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-200-03804-2 .
- ^ Adolf Schmidl: Vienna's surroundings for twenty hours in a circle. Described by Adolf Schmidl after his own hikes. Printed and published by Carl Gerold, Vienna 1835, Volume 1, p. 72. (online at: digital.wienbibliothek.at )
- ^ Vienna plan by Freytag & Berndt, Vienna 1898/1899
- ↑ Provincial Law Gazette Austria under the Enns No. 45/1890
- ↑ a b Realis : Lexicon of curiosities and memorabilia from Vienna. An instructive and entertaining reference and reading book in anecdotal, artistic, biographical, historical, legendary, picturesque, romantic u. topographical relationship. Published by Anton Köhler. 2. Volume sn, Vienna 1846, p. 399: “Währing”. P. 40: "Himmelpfortgrund" . ( Online version on Google Books).
Coordinates: 48 ° 14 ' N , 16 ° 19' E