Adalbert Marianus Czerny (born March 25, 1863 in Szczakowa / Jaworzno , Austrian Empire , today Poland ; † October 3, 1941 in Berlin ) was an Austrian pediatrician and university professor . He founded the international pediatric school at the Berlin Charité and is considered one of the co-founders of modern paediatrics. Several childhood illnesses were named after him.
Education and career
The son of a railroad - engineer was in the district Szczakowa in the city of Jaworzno in Galicia born, grew up in Vienna of the family and since 1879 in the City of origin in Pilsen on. There he graduated from high school in 1882 and then studied medicine at the German Karl Ferdinand University in Prague from 1881 to 1888 and became a member of the Carolina Prague fraternity (after 1945 the Carolina fraternity of Prague in Munich) and was assistant to the Physiologist S. Meyer.
After receiving his doctorate in 1888 as Dr. med. Adalbert Czerny worked as assistant to Alois Epstein (* 1849 in Kamenitz an der Linde, died 1918 in Prague), since 1888 chief physician at the State Research Institute in Prague, which belongs to the Prague University Children's Clinic, since 1884 associate professor at the German university and head of the children's clinic, named by the Pseudodiphtheria ( Epstein's disease ). In 1893 Adalbert Czerny completed his habilitation with a thesis on the knowledge of glycogenic and amyloid degeneration and, after his habilitation thesis, treated a topic from his later field of pediatrics in a lecture: the nutrition of infants based on the physiological function of their stomach . The medical community became aware of Czerny, and in the same year he received an appointment from the Universities of Innsbruck and Breslau. He chose Breslau and worked there initially as an associate professor and from 1906, after he had turned down an offer to Munich, as a personal professor. In Breslau he pushed through the construction of the children's clinic.
In 1910, Czerny was appointed full professor of paediatrics at the newly built children's clinic in Strasbourg and a little later (1913) he moved to the Berlin University Children's Clinic of the Charité as the successor to Otto Heubner , where he remained until his retirement in 1932. On May 15, 1931 he was a founding member and became the first chairman of the Berlin Society for Child and Adolescent Medicine . As an emeritus, at the age of 71 he took over a chair at the Medical Academy in Düsseldorf , where he temporarily headed the children's clinic there from 1934 to 1936.
Adalbert Czerny married Martha Retter (1874–1967) in Breslau in 1895, died on October 3, 1941 in Berlin and found his final resting place on October 15 in Pilsen in Bohemia . Her son Marianus Czerny (1896–1985) was Professor of Experimental Physics in Frankfurt am Main from 1938 to 1961 .
Importance as a co-founder of modern paediatrics
The school founded by Czerny dealt primarily with the nutritional physiology and metabolic pathology of infants. During his tenure at the University Children's Clinic in Berlin, he continued the research on infant mortality that Otto Heubner had begun and put it on a scientific basis. Together with his pupil and colleague Arthur Keller (1868–1934), Czerny summarized the results in his time in Breslau in 1906 in the two-volume work The Child's Nutrition, Nutritional Disorders and Nutritional Therapy - known in professional circles for short as the "Czerny-Keller"; further publications followed in 1917 and 1928.
This handbook has fundamentally determined nutritional science in pediatrics and thus the development of pediatrics up to the present day. The term nutritional disorder he used indicated the relationship between diet and illness. Czerny differentiated the three groups of diet-related , infection- related and constitution- related damage.
A second focus of his research was the relationship between nutritional disorders and child behavior. His lecture collection from 1908, The Doctor as Educator , which has been reissued over and over again , shows this approach in the title of the work. His attitude towards his parents was characterized by trust .
Discoverer of new clinical pictures in children
Several teething troubles bear Czerny's name:
- infant alimentary anemia (Czerny anemia)
- the (lymphatic) - exudative diathesis (Czerny diathesis), a clinical picture which Czerny clearly differentiated from the previously known scrofula and thus also from tuberculosis . It is an individual system for increased sensitivity of the skin and mucous membranes .
- the paradox breathing (Czerny phenomenon or -Atmung)
Appreciations and posthumous honors
The German Society for Child and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), founded in 1883, has sponsored the Adalbert Czerny Prize every year since 1963 (the 100th year of Czerny's birth) . The prize is awarded for special scientific achievements in the field of paediatrics. Czerny was its chairman in 1923.
- Adalbert Czerny, Arthur Keller : The child's nutrition, nutritional disorders and nutritional therapy : 2 volumes. Leipzig 1906-1917; 2nd and last edition, Deuticke , Leipzig 1925–1928.
- Adalbert Czerny: The doctor as educator of the child , Leipzig 1908; 6th edition, Deuticke, Leipzig 1922. Digitized on archive.org
- Adalbert Czerny: The origin and meaning of fear in the life of the child , Langensalza 1915.
- Biographical Lexicon of the Outstanding Doctors of the Last Fifty Years , ed. by I. Fischer, 2 vols., Munich / Berlin 1962, vol. 2, pp. 1679 f.
- Ernst Elsheimer (ed.): Directory of the old fraternity members according to the status of the winter semester 1927/28. Frankfurt am Main 1928, p. 76.
- Schmoeger 2003 p. 4/20
- Andrea Westhoff: For the benefit of the children. dradio.de, March 25, 2013, accessed on March 25, 2013
- see Eduard Seidler : "Fidgety philipp" and ADHD: From bad habits to illness in: Deutsches Ärzteblatt February 2004 edition, page 63 also online as a PDF file
- Miriam Gebhardt: Parents between norm and social change in family sociology in the 20th century. in: Gunilla Budde, Eckart Conze, Vornelia Rauh (eds.): Bourgeoisie after the bourgeois age: models and practice after 1945. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-525-36850-3 , pp. 187-204 , here p. 194, note 34
- Kleinschmidt 1933, p. 487
- List of previous winners and statutes
- List of presidents on the DGKJ website , accessed on March 25, 2013
- Axel W. Bauer , in: Wolfgang U. Eckart and Christoph Gradmann (Hrsg.): Doctors' Lexicon. From antiquity to the present , 1st edition CH Beck Munich 1995, 2nd edition Springer Heidelberg, Berlin et.al. 2001, 3rd edition Springer Heidelberg, Berlin et.al. 2006, p. 90. ISBN 978-3-540-29584-6
- Heribert Sturm : Biographical lexicon on the history of the Bohemian countries. Published on behalf of the Collegium Carolinum (Institute) , Vol. I, Adalbert Czerny p. 224; Alois Epstein p. 315, R. Oldenbourg Verlag Munich Vienna 1979, ISBN 3-486-49491-0
- Hans Kleinschmidt: On the seventieth birthday of Adalbert Czerny on March 25, 1933 . In: Clinical weekly . tape 12 , no. 12 , 1933, ISSN 0023-2173 , pp. 486-487 , doi : 10.1007 / BF01758016 .
- Rolf Schmoeger: Adalbert Czerny (1863–1941) co-founder of scientific paediatrics . Pro Business, Berlin 2003, ISBN 978-3-937343-36-5 (This publication does not contain proper page numbering, but a lot of good illustrations).
- Manfred Stürzbecher : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2 , p. 460 ( ).
- Werner E. Gerabek : Czerny, Adalbert Marianus. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 283.
- Literature by and about Adalbert Czerny in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Adalbert Czerny in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Czerny, Adalbert Marianus|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German pediatrician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 25, 1863|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Jaworzno|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 3, 1941|
|Place of death||Berlin|