Resurrection (Tolstoy)

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Resurrection ( Russian Воскресение - Woskressenije ) is the third and last novel by Lev Tolstoy after War and Peace and Anna Karenina . It was published in 1899, twenty years after Anna Karenina .

Tolstoy wrote the novel for more than ten years. The story builds on a court case a friend told him about in 1887. Tolstoy finished work on the novel in 1899 because he wanted to use the proceeds to support the emigration of the Duchoborzen from Russia to Canada . It appeared in Russia in 1899 as a sequel to the Niwa magazine in a censored version. For publication in Niva, Tolstoy received 1000 rubles for each sheet consisting of 16 pages. Also in 1899 an uncensored version was published in England. The novel caused a wide echo in the literary world.

German translations are by Wladimir Czumikow (1900), Vera Hirschfeld, Marie von Pezold, Ilse Frapan , Hermann Asemissen, Adolf Heß, E. Kaiser, Wadim Tronin, August Scholz and Barbara Conrad (Hanser-Verlag, 2016).


The plot focuses on the purification of the protagonists through moral action. A noble landlord, as a jury member in court, recognizes a girl he has seduced in an accused prostitute, seduced on an Easter night, the feast of Christ's resurrection . He feels complicit in her fate and tries to revise her judgment. He experiences the entire imperfection of the legal system of that time and finally follows it in forced labor and exile. She rejects a marriage with him, although or rather because she loves him. She plans to marry another inmate.

In addition to the main plot, Tolstoy woven numerous secondary characters and subplots into the novel, as in all of his novels, so that a wide-ranging image of society emerged across all classes. There is always a great appeal to humanity and charity, to the knowledge of “true life” through conversion to God and love for all creatures.


A Roman number at the beginning of an entry indicates - in parts 1 to 3 - the chapter in which the person is introduced. According to the (estimated) importance of the people for the understanding of the novel, three levels are differentiated: Italic, without labeling, in brackets.

Part 1

  • I - Jekaterina Michailowa Maslowa , "the Maslowa" alias Lyubow, Lyubascha, Lyubka, also Katerina, Katyusha, daughter of an unmarried court maid, grew up with Sofja Ivanovna and Marja Ivanovna
  • II - Sofja Ivanovna and Marja Ivanovna, these also Maschenka, old ladies, aunts Nekhludov on his father's side
  • Dmitri Ivanovich Nekhludov , "whose student nephew, a rich prince": Lieutenant of the Guard Mitja too, seduced Katyusha when she was 16 years old, gave her a hundred-year ticket and traveled away. That was eight years ago at the beginning of the novel.
  • Karoline Albertowna Kitajewa, brothel owner, Katyusha's landlady, witness
  • III - the "Korchagins": Ivan Ivanovish Korchagin, general and governor; his wife Sofja Wassiljewna; her daughter Marija , mostly Missi , "the young princess Korchagin"; one son, Petya, a sextan; a daughter of four years
  • Agrafena Petrovna, Nekhludov's housekeeper
  • IV - Maria Wassiljewna, wife of the noble marshal, vies for Nekhludov
  • V - Peter Baklaschow, businessman, co-jury
  • Peter Gerassimowitsch, teacher, co-jury
  • VI - (Klara Wassiljewna, mistress of the court chairman; Matwei Nikititsch, member of the court; Breve, deputy prosecutor; Mikhail Petrovich, apparently the court chairman)
  • VII - (State Councilor JM Nikophorow; retired Colonel Ivan Semjonowitsch Ivanov; Captain Yuri Dmitrijewitsch Danchenko; businessman Grigori Yefimowitsch Kuleschkow and so on)
  • IX - Simon Petrow Kartinkin, housekeeper, and Euphemia Ivanovna Botschkova, housekeeper, both are co-defendants of Maslova
  • X - (Therapont Jemeljanowitsch Smjelkow, merchant of the second guild, suddenly died; Timochin, merchant, his compatriot and friend; Rosanova, landlady and witness)
  • XII - Matrona Pavlova, old maid with the aunts
  • XIV - (Tikhon, servant to the aunts)
  • XVIII - (Schönbock, generous regimental comrade)
  • XXV - Fanarin , lawyer (and Mikishin)
  • XXVI - (Iwan Iwanowitsch Kolossow; * Michail Sergejewitsch Teljagin, also Micha, Missis cousin; Miss Roeder, the governess of the four-year-old sister Missis; Katerina Alexejewna, also Jekaterina, a forty-year-old virgin and Slavophilin)
  • XXVII - Ryepin
  • XXVIII - Kornei, a servant of Nekhludov
  • XXX - Fellow prisoners: Korablewa, cell elder and brandy seller; Fedosia Biriukowa called Fenitschka; a woman of 40 years with an infant, later called "the Vladimirsche"
  • XXXII - Shcheglow, convict and escapee
  • Fedka Molodjonkow, factory worker (roughly up to bodily harm)
  • XXXIII - Natalia Ivanovna Ragoshinskaya, Nekhludov's sister, and (2, XXXI) her husband Ignatius Nikiphorowitsch Ragoshinsky
  • XXXV - Ivashenko
  • XLI - Sidorov, sergeant
  • XLII - Maria Karlowna, overseer
  • XLV - Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikow, also Mika, Lieutenant Governor
  • Semyon Ivanovich, writer
  • Garschkin
  • Anatole Ssemjonowitsch
  • XLVI - Vasiliev, employee
  • Petrov, overseer, famous for his strength
  • Nepomnashchi, tramp
  • Mitrij (a Dimitrij)
  • XLVII - Fedotov, bailiff
  • XLVIII “magnificent old men” Menshov, prisoners; her son, a farm boy, also a prisoner
  • XLIX - Vyera Yefremovna Bogoduchovskaya, daughter of the deacon, political prisoner
  • L - Countess Paszek, benefactress
  • LI - Marusja, daughter of the inspector, 5 or 6 years old, makes music
  • LIV - Maria Pavlovna with son Kolja, moves to Siberia
  • LV - Lydia (Lida) Schustowa, friend of the Bogoduchowskaya, and Gurkewitsch, friend of the Bogoduchowskaya
  • (LVI - Medynzew, talkative young man)
  • (LVII - Nadina Bukshövden)
  • (Anna Ignatjewna, Maslennikov's wife; Mrs. Bjeljuwska; Michail Iwanowitsch Tschernoff)
  • (LVIII - Countess Voronzow and Viktor Apraxin; Annette)

Part 2

  • (I - Wassilij Karlytsch, German administrator of the Kuzminskoje estate [the estate of Nekhludov's aunts is called Panowo according to 2, III]; Miss Kirimova)
  • III - (Matryona Semjonischa Charina, Katyusha's aunt)
  • IV - (Fedka, a boy)
  • V - (Mikhail, Ssemjon Makarov, Marfa, Anisja)
  • VI - (Waska; Malanja)
  • VIII - Nikoljenka Irtenev, friend of Nekhludov, whose sister was in love with him (2, XXXI)
  • X or earlier - (Samanov, a Croesus)
  • XII - (Dufar, a French)
  • XIV - Countess Ekaterina Ivanovna Tscharskaja, Nekhludov's maternal aunt, and her husband Dmitrij Tscharski, a former minister. D.
  • Chervansky, Countess Marietta's husband
  • (Aline; Kiesewetter, a preacher; Baron warlike; the Kamenskaya, whose son was killed in a duel; Helene)
  • XV - Count Ivan Mikhailovich, former minister D .; Senator Wladimir Wassiljewitsch Wolf, Cassation Department
  • XVI - (Baron Vorobjew)
  • XVIII - Skorovodnikov, the learned lawyer, and B., the practical lawyer, both in the Senate
  • XIX - old general and German baron
  • XX - Nikitin, Chairman of the Senate; Seljonin, assistant to the Chief Public Prosecutor
  • XXI - (Velyanov)
  • XXIV - (Bogatyreff, former comrade Nekhludov)
  • XXV - (Vyera Jefremowa Kornilowa, aunt of Lydia Schustowa; Lydia's cousin Sakharov; Mitin; Petrow)
  • XXVII - (Taporow, church protector)
  • XXX - (Okhotin, recidivist thief; Fyodorov, gang leader)
  • XXXIV - Taraß Bargutschow, Fedosia's husband
  • XXXV - (Killer Fyodorov; comedian Okhotkin; "Tausendschön")
  • XXXVII - (Matwei Ivanytsch)
  • XXXIX - (East, a diplomat, acquainted with Nekhludov)
  • XL - (Pugachev, Stenka Ryazin)
  • XLI - (Mawra, wife of the factory worker)
  • XLIII - Philip (Korchagin?)

part 3

  • I - Maria Pavlovna Shchetinina and a Simonson , both political prisoners
  • III - Novodvorov, a revolutionary
  • VI - Anatol Krylzow, political prisoner; "The famous Petrov"; (Losinski, a Pole, and Rosowski, a Jew)
  • X - Karmanov, a slave laborer; (Makar Djewkin, a robber)
  • XI - (Emilia Cyrillowna Ranzewa), (wife of an exile), "a complete man"
  • XII - Nabatow, a peasant; Marcell Kondratjew, a factory worker
  • XIII - (the pretty Grabez)
  • XVI - (Busovkin, a father; Karmanow; Aksiutka)
  • XVIII - (Petlin, a political criminal)
  • XXIII - Seljonin


Musical theater

  • 1903: Siberia : the novel Resurrection served as a template (Premiere: Milan 1903)
  • 1902: Resurrezione : drama in four acts by Franco Alfano ; Libretto by Cesare Hanau (based on Bataille ) (premiere: Turin 1904)

Film adaptations (selection)

Radio plays

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Edward Wasiole: Tolstoy's Major Fiction . University of Chicago Press, 1978, ISBN 0-226-87398-6 .
  2. Aleksandra Tolstaya: The Tragedy of Tolstoy . Yale University Press, 1933, ISBN 0-226-87398-6 .
  3. Resurrection. Novel . First complete translation commissioned by the author by Wadim Tronin and Ilse Frapan. Friedrich Fontane, Berlin 1900.