The liturgy of many divine services begins with the rites at the opening ( Latin ritūs initiáles ) . They differ - also depending on the occasion - in the details, but reveal a common, historically grown basic structure of the liturgy.
At the opening, the liturgical assembly is constituted, which comes together for divine service in the name and in the presence of Christ , her head. She knows herself to be called by God as Ekklesia ( ancient Greek ἐκκλησία ekklēsía , literally: 'the (assembly) called out)') and expresses this.
Development of the opening rites in the Roman rite
Until about the 5th century, in the Roman rite, the pre-mass began immediately after the entry and a silent prayer, to which the clerics prostrated themselves at the altar , with the readings. The Kyrian calls were probably taken over from the Eastern Church liturgy from the end of the 5th century , the Gloria was sung at Christmas from the 4th century and on Sundays and martyrs' feasts from the beginning of the 6th century , but only in episcopal masses until the Middle Ages . The oration typical of the Roman liturgy (initially oratio prima , later called collecta ) has been attested since the 5th century; it finally sums up the prayer of the congregation. In the case of non-episcopal and in-house masses, a simpler sequence can be assumed, possibly beginning with a litany , which was concluded by Kyri calls, and an oration.
The Sunday festival service of the Bishop of Rome in the 7th / 8th The 19th century had a strong influence on the development of the liturgy in the entire Roman-Latin rite, which Charlemagne then, further developed with Frankish elements, declared to be the “unified liturgy ” of a Holy Roman Empire of the German nation . He began with processions to the station church , the clergy's dressing in the sacristy there and the entry of the pope and clergy into the church with a large retinue, with candlesticks and incense, while the Schola who walked with them sang the introit . In front of the altar, two acolytes offered the Pope two particles of the bread consecrated in an earlier mass, the sancta , for veneration. When he reached the altar, the Pope bowed, crossed himself and exchanged greetings of peace with the clergy accompanying him . After a silent prayer on his knees, the Pope kissed the Gospel book and sat on the cathedra . Kyrie, Gloria and Oration followed, followed by the Word Service.
The form of mass celebrations in parish and monastery churches was based on the papal liturgy. The levitated high mass with bishop or priest , deacon and subdeacon was the basic form of solemn mass until the 20th century. In the Frankish liturgy of the early Middle Ages, the celebrant walked through the church in procession with the clergy from the main entrance while singing the introit in the Gregorian chant ; Bishop and clergy simultaneously spoke Psalm 43 (42) with the refrain Introibo ad altare Dei, ad Deum qui laetificat iuventutem meam ("I want to come to the altar of God, to God who delights my youth", Ps 43.4 EU ), followed by the oration Aufer a nobis . Psalm and oration later became a step prayer with the Confiteor , which began with the sign of the cross in the 14th century. Once the procession arrived at the altar , the Gloria Patri of the Introit was started. The kissing of the gospel book and the greeting of peace among the clergy were omitted at this point.
From around the 13th century, with the mendicant orders , the almost daily "silent" mass of the individual priest became more frequent and developed as missa lecta to the basic form, which after the Council of Trent with the Roman Missal and the rite servandus in celebratione missae Pope Pius' V was enshrined in 1570; the last Editio typica of the Missale Romanum appeared in 1962. The simplified rite continued to follow the solemn form, but all texts had to be spoken by the priest himself, even if parts of the liturgy were sung by the choir or the schola. After the step prayer and the altar kiss on the epistle side of the altar, the priest recited the introit, which was reduced to the antiphon and a single psalm verse. He spoke Kyrie and Gloria in the middle of the altar, then turned to the congregation with the acclamation Dominus vobiscum and then, turned to the altar, spoke the orations : the daily prayer and up to six other orations with which celebrations or prayer requests were commemorated .
With the opening, the pre-mass began in this liturgy, which was valid until the Second Vatican Council . In the liturgical reform of the council, decided in the Constitution Sacrosanctum concilium , the Missa cum populo ("community mass") became the basic form of mass of the Roman rite from 1970. Here the opening rites are viewed as an independent part of the celebration of mass, which precedes the “liturgy of the word”. The step prayer was omitted and merged with a confession of guilt by the whole congregation, the liturgical greeting to the congregation and an introduction to the liturgy of the day were newly created. The opening of every Mass by a sign of the cross spoken aloud by the celebrant , for which there is no liturgical tradition, is at the express request of Pope Paul VI. back.
If other services precede Holy Mass, parts of the entrance rite are omitted. On Palm Sunday, for example, the palm consecration and procession in the church are immediately followed by the daily prayer of Holy Mass, on Easter Vigil the Gloria follows the reading service without prior admission of guilt and without Kyrie. "If the lauds , celebrated in a choir or in community, immediately precede the mass, one can begin with the opening verse and the hymn of the lauds - more likely on weekdays - or with the singing of the opening verse of the mass and the entrance and greeting of the celebrant - so more likely on holidays. In both cases the other elements of the opening rite are omitted. Then the psalmody of lauds follows exclusively in the usual way up to the short reading. The general admission of guilt by the mass is not applicable; possibly also the Kyrie. Then, depending on the rubrics, the Gloria follows, and the celebrant recites the daily prayer of mass. Then the word service follows in the usual way. "
The opening in the Protestant service
The processes at the beginning of a service are different in the agendas of the various Protestant regional churches or even regionally and locally. Usually the main features of the early church opening rites can be recognized, but event-related or local variations are common. The early Christian introit is preserved in most agendas as the prayer of an entire psalm, the incipit of the Gregorian introit still determines the name of Sundays such as Laetare or Quasimodogeniti .
The entrance rites in the Byzantine rite
In the Eastern Church rite , the readings immediately followed the entry and the opening greeting. From around the 8th century the Byzantine rite developed in abundance. The divine service has since started with the proscomidy ('offering', from Greek προσκομίζω proskomízō , ' bring '): The head of the liturgy speaks personal preparatory prayers, dresses up with prayer and prepares the offerings with the deacon at a table outside the sanctuary, while in the church the third and the sixth are prayed. The following opening rite of the liturgy of the word, also called “liturgy of the catechumens ”, developed from the simple entry rite , because unbaptized baptismal applicants can also take part in it. The opening rite includes the deacon's request for blessing, a trinitarian call to prayer from the celebrant and three litanies (“ectenias”), each with an antiphon and oration . The "small entry" leads from the opening to the reading service: the Gospel book is carried to the ambo in front of the iconostasis and then, while the hymn Trisagion is chanted, the clergy in a solemn procession through the middle door of the iconostasis, the "king's door", to the altar.
Structure of the opening rites
( Missa lecta , until 1962 )
( Missa cum populo , from 1970 )
Ev. Divine service book (1999), basic form I.
|Preparation prayers of the priest ( Praeparatio ad Missam or Akzess ): apartment, church or sacristy
dressing with Ankleidegebeten (vestry)
|Preparatory prayers by the priest and deacon (in front of the locked royal door)
Proskomidy (preparing the gifts at the preparation table on the side of the altar)
In the church: the third and sixth are prayed
|Asperges (on Sundays)|
if necessary, Introit including Gloria Patri (Choralschola)
song (congregation song, choir song or introitus)
|Music at the entrance ( organ )
Regional: Entry of the liturgists
|Gradual prayer with signs of the cross , Psalm 43 and Confiteor||Blessing from the deacon,
trinitarian call to prayer
|Welcoming the altar
(kissing the altar, possibly incense )
|Welcoming the altar
(kissing the altar, possibly incense)
|Sign of the cross
if necessary introduction, possibly with introductory verse
|Vote and greeting|
|General confession of guilt
or baptismal memory
|Introit (celebrant)||Song and / or psalm, glory be to the father||Three antiphons (Psalms, New Testament)
major ectenia (litany), two minor ectenias
also with preface or penitential prayer
|possibly Gloria||possibly Gloria||If necessary, glory be to God
often as a song. Honor to God alone in the heights
prayer if necessary further orations (" commemorations ")
|Daily prayer||Daily prayer|
Small entry with the gospel
troparia , presentation of reading and gospel
- Hans Bernhard Meyer: Eucharist. History, theology, pastoral care. Regensburg 1989 (Church service. Handbook of liturgical science, part 4), p. 335.
- Josef Andreas Jungmann SJ: Missarum Sollemnia. A genetic explanation of the Roman mass. Volume 1, Herder Verlag, Vienna, Freiburg, Basel, 5th edition 1962, p. 342.
- Hans Bernhard Meyer: Eucharist. History, theology, pastoral care. Regensburg 1989 (Church service. Handbook of liturgical science, part 4), p. 174f.
- Hans Bernhard Meyer: Eucharist. History, theology, pastoral care. Regensburg 1989 (Church service. Handbook of Liturgical Science, Part 4), p. 196f.
- Josef Andreas Jungmann : Missarum Sollemnia. A genetic explanation of the Roman mass. Volume 1, Herder Verlag, Vienna, Freiburg, Basel, 5th edition 1962, pp. 124.377-386.
- Hans Bernhard Meyer: Eucharist. History, theology, pastoral care. Regensburg 1989 (Church service. Handbook of liturgical science, part 4), p. 214f.
- Secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference: Missale Romanum. Editio typica tertia 2002, Basic Order of the Roman Missal Book, preliminary publication for the German Missal Book (3rd edition) (PDF; 545 kB); Working Aids No. 215; Bonn 2007; No. 28.46-54.
- Annibale Bugnini : The liturgical reform: 1948–1975; Testimony and Testament . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1988, ISBN 3-451-20727-3 , p. 396,404 .
- General Introduction to the Liturgy of the Hours No. 94.
- Evangelical church service book. Agenda for the EKU and the VELKD. Verlagsgemeinschaft Evangelisches Gottesdienstbuch, Berlin 1999; Altar Edition: ISBN 3-7461-0139-5 , loose-leaf edition: ISBN 3-7461-0140-9 , Pocket Edition: ISBN 3-7461-0141-7 , p. 14
- Hans Bernhard Meyer: Eucharist. History, theology, pastoral care. Regensburg 1989 (Church Service. Handbook of Liturgical Science, Part 4), p. 139.