Gui Minhai

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gui Minhai ( Chinese桂敏海 or 桂 民 海, Pinyin guì mín hǎi, born May 5, 1964 in Ningbo , Zhejiang Province in the People's Republic of China ), also known as Michael Gui, is a Swedish publicist and book publisher born in China . Gui is a successful author of books on current Chinese politics and political figures. During his ten-year writing career, Gui wrote around 200 books under the pseudonym Ah Hai (阿海). and is one of three shareholders in the Causeway Bay Books bookstore in Hong Kong .

At the end of 2015, Gui went missing in Thailand . Gui was one of five men who disappeared in a series of incidents known as the "Disappearances of the Causeway Bay Books Booksellers." The case led to fears, especially in Hong Kong and Great Britain, that the People's Republic of China would end its previous policy of “ one country, two systems ” in Hong Kong. In particular, observers saw the independence of Hong Kong's judicial system as threatened by interference by Chinese law enforcement agencies . The Chinese government did not initially comment on Gui's whereabouts. A video confession of Gui was later seen in mainland China media . In it, Gui said that he had returned to China and volunteered to face the authorities. Gui thus waived the consular protection to which he was entitled as a Swedish citizen . The Gui case severely strained relations between Sweden and China.

Many observers expressed doubts about the voluntary nature of Gui's confession. The Washington Post described his report as "chaotic and incoherent, mixing possible facts with what appears to be pure fiction". In late February 2016, Chinese state media announced that Gui was being held for "doing business illegally." Gui is said to have knowingly distributed books since October 2014 that have not been approved by China's Press and Publications Authority. Although Gui was released in October 2017, he was abducted again by State Security officers - a group of plainclothes men - in January 2018 while on his way to Beijing to see a doctor. Shortly afterwards, he again confessed to being incarcerated for violating unspecified laws and denouncing Swedish politicians who incited him to leave the country and "used me as a pawn". Gui Minhai was still in custody in China in December 2019 and was sentenced to 10 years in prison in February 2020 for "illegally providing information abroad".



Gui Minhai was born in Ningbo in 1964 and graduated from Beijing University in 1985 with a bachelor's degree in history. Gui was until 1988 as editor of the People's Education Press worked when he traveled to Sweden and at the University of Gothenburg for a Ph.D. enrolled. After the Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 (known as the Tian'anmen Massacre ), he was given a Swedish residence and later became a Swedish citizen , after which he gave up his Chinese citizenship. According to his daughter, he was drawn to the beauty of his adopted home and the freedom he felt there. Gui received her doctorate in 1996. Gui's wife is also a Swedish citizen; her daughter was born in 1994.

Gui returned to China in 1999 and founded a subsidiary in Ningbo for a Swedish company called Tangyou (唐 友), which sells air purification products. Gui was involved in a drink-driving accident in Ningbo in December 2003, in which a 23-year-old young woman was killed while crossing a street. The victim's mother disagreed with the police investigation report, which stated that her daughter was also responsible for the non-observance of traffic, as she had heard from witnesses that the car had driven too fast. So she risked her life to experiment for 10 days with the help of her son and a driver and demonstrated that the speed of the accident car would have had to exceed 110 kilometers per hour for the accident to happen. She appealed to the Zhejiang Provincial Public Security Bureau , which after re-examination concluded that Gui should be fully responsible for the May 2004 incident. The mother's experiment was widely reported in the Chinese media. The victim's parents later filed a civil lawsuit against Gui for damages . The Ningbo Municipal Intermediate People's Court ruled the following August that Gui had committed a crime for which he was given a two-year suspended sentence. Gui then traveled to Germany and violated his probation requirements . Gui left China in 2004 and worked for a German subsidiary of Nordpool Unternehmensberatung .

Publishing career

Causeway Bay Books bookstore in Causeway Bay , Hong Kong; January 3, 2016

As of 2006, Gui Minhai founded several publishing houses that focused on Chinese politics. Gui joined the Chinese Association of PEN International, through which he became acquainted with professionals from the Hong Kong International PEN. In 2013, Gui Minhai, Lee Bo and Bo Lui founded the Mighty Current Media (also known as Sage Communications referred), a Hong Kong company that specializes in the publication and distribution of books of political gossip about leading politicians specialized in China. Gui and Lee Bo each own 34 percent of the company's shares (Lee Bo's shares are in the name of his wife, Sophie Choi) and Lui Bo owns the remaining 32 percent. In 2014, the company acquired Causeway Bay Books , an upstairs bookstore in busy Hong Kong.

During his ten-year career, Gui wrote around 200 books under the name "Ah Hai". The subjects of these books included Bo Xilai and Zhou Yongkang , former members of the Politburo , and Secretary General Xi Jinping . The books have been described in the Western media as "politically oriented tabloid- style books that are banned in China". Gui's colleague Lee Bo acknowledged that Gui's books contained a lot of guesswork and gossip rather than fact, and described Gui as a businessman whose publication was driven more by profit than ideology .

Since work that is critical of the leadership of the Chinese regime is considered sensitive, Gui has always kept his work projects secret. Gui kept his actions to himself and his phone calls were redirected to foreign countries. Gui did not travel to China for a long time; he did not visit his father when he was sick and did not return to China for his father's funeral. Media reported that Gui published about half of the popular books on Bo Xilai. When Bo was surprised by the political consequences of the 2013 Wang Lijun incident in 2013, Gui reportedly received HK $ 10 million in financial gain from the increase in book sales. Guis Verlag reportedly financed its property acquisitions in Hong Kong and Germany, including a seaside retreat in Pattaya , Thailand .

The International Publishers Union announced in February 2018 that Gui was the winner of the Publishing Freedom Award for fearless publishing in the face of adversity.

Ling heard a rumor that the main reason Gui Minhai went missing was a book. Lee Bo would have believed that too. The title of the book is Xi Jinping and his mistresses . Available from google books , it is an e-book , not a physical book. The book has two versions. The first version has 135 pages and the second version 155 pages. They were published in late January 2016 and early February 2016. In an interview, the author said: The book actually caused a problem for Gui Minhai.


Gui Minhai's colleagues last heard in October 2015 that a surveillance camera captured Gui leaving his home in Pattaya, Thailand on October 17 and was apparently taken away by an unknown man. Gui was the second bookseller to be associated with Causeway Bay Books and apparently disappeared without a trace. Lui Bo was last seen near his home in Shenzhen on October 14, 2015 . In the weeks that followed, three more people disappeared. The three were reported missing in November. Lee Bo had informed the media about the disappearance of his four colleagues, and he himself disappeared from Hong Kong on December 30th. Lee was reported to have gone to Shenzhen, but this seemed unlikely as his travel permit had been left at home on the mainland. Lee's disappearance made others fearful of disappearing or being extradited. Lee Bo's disappearance prompted Prime Minister Leung Chun-ying to hold a press conference on January 4, 2016 , declaring that it was "unacceptable" and a violation of the Basic Law for Chinese mainland law enforcement agents to operate in Hong Kong would be.

Two weeks after Gui's disappearance, four men came to supposedly look for his computer in his apartment, but left without him. A manager at the estate where Gui lived tried to contact Gui using the number of the person she had last called about Gui. A taxi driver replied and said that four men left the phone in the taxi. These men wanted to go to Poipet , a border town in Cambodia . Gui called his wife on November 6th to tell her he was safe but unwilling to reveal his whereabouts; that was the last time you heard from Gui. The Thai authorities had no record of Gui leaving the country. Gui's family contacted the Swedish embassy and the Swedish police made a report through Interpol . The Guardian magazine said the Thai government had done little to move the case forward and that the military junta was increasingly accommodating Chinese demands.

Confirmation of detention

The Xinhua News Agency published an article on January 17, 2016, which said that a person named Gui Minhai was arrested in December 2003 for a fatal traffic accident that killed a school girl. Xinhua alleged that Gui Minhai (桂敏海) used a different, but identical-sounding middle name and fled abroad in November 2004 under the guise of a tourist with a borrowed ID card following the court case. His stated age is said to have been 46 years in 2005, a difference of five years compared to the information in Gui's Swedish passport. The two discrepancies raised doubts that it could possibly have been a case of identity misconduct. Xinhua claimed that Gui surrendered to security officers in October 2015.

A video confession broadcast publicly on China Central Television in January 2016 confirmed Gui's identity. In the 10-minute exclusive video, a tearful Gui expressed remorse over a homicide charge that he dismissed ten years ago. Gui said his return to mainland China and surrender were his "personal choice." This has nothing to do with anyone else. He should take responsibility and he does not want "individual persons or institutions to interfere or make malicious hype" about his return. Gui also said, “Even though I have Swedish citizenship, I still feel Chinese, my roots are in China. So I hope that Sweden can respect my personal choice, that they respect my rights and privacy and allow me to solve my own problems ”. Criminal investigations into other allegations are ongoing. It wasn't until January 19, when Swedish citizen Peter Dahlin, co-founder of a non-governmental organization training local lawyers in China, appeared on TV and confessed that he had violated Chinese law and "harmed the Chinese government and the feelings of the Chinese people ", the international public became aware that Gui had also been on television. Dahlin was then deported. Reporters Without Borders condemned China's forced confessions and urged the European Union to sanction CCTV and Xinhua for "knowingly spreading lies and explanations believed to have been obtained under pressure." Lee Bo's January 17th letter to his wife stated that he voluntarily went to the mainland to assist Chinese law enforcement in an investigation involving Gui. Lee Bo denounced Gui as a "morally unacceptable person" because of which he got into trouble with the authorities.

Gui's confession was greeted in disbelief, as was many of the facts surrounding his disappearance from Thailand. Among other things, the release of the video three months after its disappearance has been questioned. Hong Kong Legislative Council President Jasper Tsang said, "The China Central Television (CCTV) report [and the broadcast of Gui Minhai's confession] did not seem able to reassure the public. If the case drags on, there will be more speculation. " Human Rights Watch was quoted as saying," Since Gui has been held in solitary confinement in a secret location for almost three months and without a lawyer, his confession on state-controlled television is unbelievable. " Washington Post noted, “The narrative appears chaotic and incoherent, mixing possible facts with what looks like pure fiction . It feels illogical, even absurd ”. Amnesty International's China researcher questioned the narrative: “Why should four other company employees go missing to assist with normal criminal proceedings? How could other missing or otherwise investigated colleagues of Gui Minhai have any connection to the case? ”The Guardian drew a link to Operation Fox Hunt , a Chinese government campaign launched by Xi Jinping in 2014 to repatriate corrupt officials or opponents of the regime who fled overseas and possibly responsible for the kidnapping of the other missing booksellers. By mid-June 2016, Gui's family had not received any official confirmation that he was under arrest, reported Gui's daughter.

Response to imprisonment

Artist Kacey Wong protests: the sign in his hand says "hostage is safe". February 10, 2016

Bei Ling , a personal friend of Gui Minhai and president of the independent Chinese PEN, said that Gui did not surrender voluntarily but was abducted. He confirmed that there had indeed been an alcohol-related car accident that involved Gui and killed a young woman, but that the accident and his disappearance were unrelated. Bei Ling alleged that there was no official record of Gui's departure from Thailand and that international law had been violated by Gui's abduction. Bei Ling speculated that the kidnappers had returned to Gui's apartment to get his passport and that Gui might have been sent to China from Cambodia on a plane loaded with Chinese deportees. Lee Bo notified Gui's daughter Angela of her father's disappearance in an email on November 10. In it, Lee mentioned that he feared that Gui had been brought to China "for political reasons". Angela rejected claims that her father returned to the mainland voluntarily.

Sweden has repeatedly asked China for transparency and summoned the Thai ambassador in December. After the video confession appeared, the Swedish Foreign Ministry reported that a Swedish envoy was allowed to visit Gui. In January 2016, Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallström condemned the forced confessions of Dahlin and Gui (both Swedish citizens) on Chinese television as "unacceptable". The Chinese government said that Gui was primarily a Chinese subject , and the Swedish government appeared to have tacitly accepted that position. Sweden's diplomatic efforts were carried out through consular channels and were inconspicuous.

In late February 2016, state media appeared to be clearing up the charges against Gui, saying that Gui was being held for "doing business illegally." Gui is said to have knowingly distributed books that have not been approved by China's Press and Publications Authority. According to the allegations, around 4,000 such books have been mailed to 380 buyers in 28 cities in mainland China since October 2014, disguised as other books. Also in early February 2016, the European Parliament issued a statement calling for Gui Minhai, Lee Bo and their three colleagues from Causeway Bay Books to be released immediately. In his report on Hong Kong for the second half of 2015, British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond expressed concern about the disappearance of the people at Causeway Bay Books, saying that the kidnapping of Hong Kong citizen Lee Bo was “a grave violation of the Sino-British-Joint-Declaration on Hong Kong and undermines the principle of one country, two systems ”.

Gui's arrest was discussed in the US Congress Executive Committee on China in May. In September 2016, his daughter, Angela Gui, spoke to the UN Human Rights Council and also campaigned for her father on Swedish television. This occurrence prompted another public statement by Wallström regarding his arrest. The Swedish government, which claimed it was involved in "quiet diplomacy" with the Chinese regime, assured Gui a second audience after 11 months in prison .

A year after Gui's disappearance, there is general consensus among commentators that the five booksellers were kidnapped by Chinese authorities. Gui spent a year in custody beginning in October 2016, while the other four men were released in early March 2016. A colleague, Lam Wing-kee, gave an interview in the media in which he spoke at length about his abduction and months of mainland detention in Ningbo and later in Shaoguan . Other colleagues remained inconspicuous and declined to comment.

In June 2017, Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven spoke with the Chinese President about the Gui Minhai case during a state visit.

In 2018 Gui Minhai was awarded the Prix ​​Voltaire of the International Publishers Union ; In 2019 with the Tucholsky Prize from the Swedish PEN Club. According to the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten , the Chinese government threatened Sweden with consequences.

Release from custody at the Public Security Bureau and apparent reappearance

According to Chinese officials, Gui Minhai was released on October 17, 2017. The Swedish Foreign Ministry had received notification from the Chinese authorities that Gui had been released, "but neither his daughter nor the Swedish authorities knew his whereabouts." On January 19, 2018, a group of about 10 men in plain clothes boarded a train bound for Beijing and pulled Gui off the train. According to his daughter Angela, Gui was on his way to a medical examination in Beijing, accompanied by two high-ranking Swedish diplomats. The Swedish government confirmed the incident. In early February appeared Gui again in a confession in front of reporters from pro-establishment news agencies, including the South China Morning Post of Hong Kong . Gui, who had been in detention or under close surveillance for the past two years, appeared to have been released in October 2017. He is reported to have said that Sweden made his case a sensation and led him to an unsuccessful attempt to leave China on the pretext of a doctor's appointment at the Swedish embassy in Beijing. They were supposedly waiting for an opportunity to bring Gui back to Sweden. Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International condemned "this type of fabricated [confession] made in solitary confinement." Sweden condemned China's "brutal intervention" in Gui's case the following week.

Misinformation campaign

A study by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute that analyzed the tweets from accounts under Chinese government control banned by Twitter in response to protests against Hong Kong's extradition law in 2019 found that the accounts also targeted Gui Minhai. Other dissidents targeted by the bot network included Guo Wengui and Yu Wensheng, as well as prominent PLA veterans. The misinformation campaign ran from January 23 to February 23, 2018. January 23 was the day the news broke that Gui had been captured and taken out on a train.

Back door diplomacy controversy

In February 2019, Gui's daughter Angela wrote a blog post in which she documented a "very strange experience" involving Anna Lindstedt, the Swedish ambassador for China. In the post, she claimed that Lindstedt contacted her in mid-January and invited her to a meeting in Stockholm that she had arranged with some Chinese businessmen. Lindstedt thought these people could help secure her father's release.

Angela said on her blog that the meeting took place in a private lounge in a Stockholm hotel. She was secluded there for days and was even escorted to the toilet. The men who claimed to have "connections within the Chinese Communist Party" apparently used a mixture of incitement , manipulation and threats against them. She was told that her father's release would be made contingent on breaking off her campaign and avoiding media exposure. She was offered a Chinese visa and a job at the Chinese embassy. According to Angela, Ambassador Lindstedt's presence and seemingly supportive stance indicated that the talks had been initiated by the Swedish Foreign Ministry. Still, she felt uncomfortable at the meeting. When she later inquired at the Swedish Foreign Ministry, she was told that she was unaware of what had happened.

The Chinese embassy in Stockholm denied any involvement. The Swedish Foreign Ministry said it only learned of the events after the meeting. It confirmed to the press that the ambassador had been removed and that an internal investigation into the incident was ongoing. On December 9, Lindstedt was charged by the Swedish public prosecutor's office with “arbitrariness in negotiations with a foreign power”, with a possible maximum sentence of two years in prison.

Trial and verdict 2020

Gui has been detained on charges related to "illegal business transactions," according to Chinese officials. However, on February 25, 2020, it was announced that he had been charged with "illegally providing intelligence abroad." Gui was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Human rights groups condemned the "harsh judgment". Amnesty International said the allegations were "completely unfounded" and called for his release.

Although Gui is a naturalized Swedish citizen who renewed his passport sometime between late 2017 and mid-2018, the Ningbo Intermediate People's Court , where Gui was tried, reportedly announced that Gui applied for restoration of his Chinese citizenship in 2018 . A measure that observers described as an unprecedented step to deny him access to the consulate. Peter Dahlin, a Swedish compatriot who had to confess on Chinese television before his deportation, commented: "The only 'state secret' Gui could have is knowing how Chinese agents kidnapped him in Thailand and the torture he was subjected to. which he suffered after his return to China ”. Chinese officials have insisted that someone like Gui be considered "primarily a Chinese citizen." Legal scholars and many overseas Chinese who have acquired foreign citizenship have expressed deep concern about the apparently selective application of Chinese citizenship law , which prohibits dual citizenship .

Dahlin writes: “Both Jerome Cohen and Donald Clarke, who are among the most respected legal scholars on China, responded with what appeared to be shock, realizing that what happened could easily become a habit for China to kidnap, bring back and overseas ethnic Chinese critics to forcibly restore their Chinese citizenship against their will. ”Cohen and Clarke mentioned that this event would violate Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations . The Swedish Foreign Ministry stated that Gui is still a citizen, as "Swedish citizenship can only be given up after an examination and a decision by the Swedish Migration Agency". Sweden, denied access to the trial, demanded that Gui "be released and that we have access to our citizens for consular assistance". The Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that the consular arrangements have been put on hold and will be restored as soon as the COVID-19 pandemic in the People's Republic of China | Coronavirus epidemic is "resolved". Willy Lam, Senior Fellow of the Jamestown Foundation, said, "In a time of national emergency when parts of China are practically martial law, the authorities believe they can do whatever they want."

The EU noted: “There are serious questions about this case that need to be answered. His rights, including consular access and due process, were not respected ”. The United States specifically designated Gui as a "Swedish citizen" and demanded his immediate and unconditional release. The US State Department: "We will continue to work alongside our partners and allies for greater respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in China."


  • In 2019, Gui was awarded the Tucholsky Prize (Sweden) by the Swedish PEN (Svenska PEN) . The Chinese Embassy in Sweden condemned the award for “a criminal who committed serious crimes in both China and Sweden” and threatened “dire consequences”. The embassy also objected to Minister of Culture Amanda Lind's participation in the ceremony, stating that Lind would be a persona non grata in China if she attended the ceremony.
  • At the award ceremony in Schorndorf in December 2020, Gui will be awarded the international Johann Philipp Palm Prize for freedom of expression and freedom of the press. His daughter Angela will accept the award on behalf of her father.


  • 《二十 世纪 西方 文化史 掠影》 (Insight into Western cultural history of the 20th century), Beijing Normal University Press, 1991, ISBN 7810141120
  • 《北欧 的 神话 传说》 (Norse Myths and Legends), Liaoning University Press, 1992, ISBN 7561017294
  • 《雍正 十年: 那条 瑞典 船 的 故事》 (Yong Zheng ten years: the history of the Swedish ship), China Social Sciences Press, 2006, ISBN 7801064194 [8]
  • 《我 把 黑森林 留给 你》 (I left the Black Forest for you), 香港 文化 艺术 出版社 (Hong Kong Culture and Arts Publishing House), 2007

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Gui Minhai , Independent Chinese PEN Center, accessed October 30, 2017
  2. 桂 友 : 30 年前 已 用 「桂敏海」 近年 被指 錯字 , Ming Pao (in Chinese), January 19, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  3. a b Ma Chaoyang (馬朝陽), 中国 当代 校园 诗人 诗选 (On the poetry of Chinese contemporary poets, in Chinese), 北京 師範大學 五四 文學 社 (Peking Normal University May Fourth Literary Society), pp. 205–206, 1987 In this poem selection is a poem by "Ah Hai" from Peking University, enrolled in 1981, with an author profile at the end of the poem stating that he was born in 1964 and that his hometown is Ningbo, Zhejiang. He graduated from the History Faculty of Peking University in 1985 and his Chinese name is 桂敏海 (Guimin Hai). This shows that its original Chinese name is 桂敏海 (Guimin Hai), not 桂 民 海 (Gui Minhai). A scan of the page is here , accessed October 30, 2017
  4. a b 周代 (Zhou Dynasty), 雀巢 集 (in Chinese), 長江 文藝 出版社 (Yangtze River Literature and Art Publishing House), pp. 215-218, 1994. A prose by Zhou Dai in 1992 about the friend his son "Ah Hai" in Sweden said that "Ah Hai", born in Ningbo in 1964 and graduated from the 1985 class of Peking University, was doing his PhD at Gothenburg University, was an assistant at the Nordic Institute for Asian Studies, and was his Chinese name be 桂敏海 (Guimin Hai). A scan of the page is here , accessed October 30, 2017
  5. a b c d Phila Siu, Exclusive: Email reveals Lee Po feared Gui Minhai kidnapped by Chinese agents before he himself disappeared ( Memento from March 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), South China Morning Post, March 8, 2016, accessed on March 30, 2016 October 2017
  6. a b c d e f g h i j k l Oliver Holmes, Gui Minhai: the strange disappearance of a publisher who riled China's elite , The Guardian, December 8, 2015, accessed October 30, 2017
  7. a b Edi Tor, Hong Kong publisher kidnapped in Thailand and returned to China! , Boxun News, November 6, 2015, accessed October 30, 2017
  8. A Hai, 雍正 十年 1732: 那条 瑞典 船 的 故事 平装 - 2006 年 1 月 1 日 (Yongzheng ten years 1732: The story of the Swedish ship), Publisher: Wireboard Book, January 1, 2006, ISBN 9787801064196 , accessed on October 30, 2017
  9. a b c Michael Forsythe, Missing Man Back in China, Confessing to Fatal Crime , The New York Times, January 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  10. ^ A b Ed Flanagan, Disappearances, Forced Confessions: China Targets Dissent , NBC News, January 31, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  11. a b Stuart Leavenworth, Britain accuses China of serious breach of treaty over 'removed' Hong Kong booksellers , The Guardian, February 12, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  12. a b c d e f Julie Makinen; Jonathan Kaiman, Mystery deepens as two missing Hong Kong men surface in mainland China , Los Angeles Times, January 20, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  13. a b c d e Jackie Sheehan, Unreliable evidence in the case of the missing Hong Kong booksellers , China Policy Institute, The University of Nottingham, January 21, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  14. a b c 香港 铜锣湾 书店 老板 桂敏海 "失踪" 事件 调查 [Disappearance of Causeway Bay Books boss case under investigation] (in Chinese), Xinhua News Agency, January 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  15. Rachel Wong, Gothenburg axes twin city agreement with Shanghai as Sweden closes all Confucius Institutes , Hong Kong Free Press, April 24, 2020, accessed May 25, 2020
  16. a b c d e f Tom Grundy, Questions raised after missing HK bookseller 'confesses' to drink-driving death on state TV , Hong Kong Free Press, January 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  17. a b Laura Ma, Who believes China's narrative on Hong Kong's missing bookseller mystery? , South China Morning Post, January 19, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  18. a b c Bookseller confession 'not enough' , The Australian, AAP, January 19, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  19. a b China says missing Hong Kong publisher Lee Bo is in mainland , Asian Correspondent, January 19, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  20. a b Emily Rauhala, Hong Kong bookseller's televised 'confession' was absurd and incoherent - and that's the point , The Washington Post, January 18, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  21. a b Zheping Huang, Chinese citizens don't believe Hong Kong bookseller Gui Minhai's public confession either , Quartz Media, January 19, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  22. a b Karen Cheung, Missing booksellers 'operated illegal business', but could return to HK soon - state media , Hong Kong Free Press, February 29, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  23. Chris Buckley, Chinese Police Seize Publisher From Train in Front of Diplomats , The New York Times, January 22, 2018, accessed May 25, 2020
  24. Sweden 'using me like chess piece', says detained publisher Gui Minhai in government-arranged interview , South China Morning Post, February 9, 2018, archived from the original, accessed May 25, 2020
  25. Former Swedish ambassador to China indicted over meetings to discuss Hong Kong bookseller , South China Morning Post, December 9, 2019, Archived from the original, accessed May 25, 2020
  26. China jails Hong Kong bookseller for 10 years , BBC, February 25, 2020, accessed May 25, 2020
  27. Hong Kong Publishers Sentenced to Ten Years Imprisonment in China , Epoch Times, February 25, 2020, accessed May 30, 2020
  28. a b c d e f g h i j k Phila Siu; Jeffie Lam, 'What has happened to him is abduction': Gui Minhai was involved in drink drive accident but trip to mainland dubious, close friend reveals , South China Morning Post, January 18, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  29. Kelly Ho, Gui Minhai is Swedish, says Stockholm, following claim jailed bookseller sought to reinstate Chinese citizenship , Hong Kong Free Press, February 25, 2020, accessed May 25, 2020
  30. Angela Gui, A call that never comes: Why I cannot remain silent after Chinese authorities abducted my father , Hong Kong Free Press, September 3, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  31. 我們 與 寧波 共 繁榮 —— 首屆 在 甬 外商 投資 企業家 論壇 發言 選 載 (We are wealthy in Ningbo. The first session of the Ningbo Foreign Investment Entrepreneurs Forum was selected), 寧波 通訊 (Ningbo Newsletter), (in Chinese) (1): 26–28, 2001. 創業 之 路 在 故鄉 - 唐 友 環保 工程 (寧波) 有限公司 董事長 兼 兼 桂敏海 : 我 我 生 在 寧波 , 長 在 寧波 寧波 , 是 個 地道 的 寧波 人。 雖然我 離開 寧波 將近 20 年 了 , 但是 當 我 決定 在 環保 科技 領域 內 投資 創業 的 時候 , 毫無 疑慮 地 回到 了 寧波 寧波 , 在 自己 的 故鄉 走上 了 一條 創業 之 路。 …… 這 一點 , 歐洲人 反而重視 , 我 在 瑞典 時 就給 很多 瑞典 企業 講過 跨 文化交流 的 課 (Venture Road in Hometown - Tang You Environmental Engineering (Ningbo) Co., Ltd. Chairman and CEO Guimin Hai: I was born in Ningbo, lived in Ningbo, was a real Ningbo citizen. Though I left Ningbo for almost 20 years, but when I decided to invest in environmental protection, science and technology, there was no doubt about going back to Ningbo, my hometown. I started a business path ... this point European people were paying attention to. When I was in Sweden, I asked many Swedish companies about intercultural communication.) E The page scan is here , accessed October 30, 2017
  32. a b c d e 国家 环境保护 局 污染 控制 司 (Department of Environmental Protection, National Environmental Protection Agency), 2004. 工程 技术 实例 与 配套 技术 产品 设备 (Engineering examples and supporting technical products and devices) (in Chinese). 中国 环境 科学 出版社 (China Environmental Science Press), p. 449. 唐 友 環保 工程 (寧波) 有限公司 企業 簡介 : 1990 年 , 為了 擴大 生產能力 , 降低 生產 生產 成本 , 唐友公 司 將 工廠 從 瑞典 的 哥德堡 遷往 前捷克斯洛伐克 (今天 的 斯洛伐克 共和國)。 今天 , 唐友公 司 在 整個 世界 的 同類 公司 中 , 生產 的 設備 和 產品 種類 最為 齊全 齊全 , 品種 多樣 , 尤其 是 是 在 清除 工業 靜電 、 淨化 大型 建築 室內 空氣 和 解決 機動 車輛尾氣 污染 等 領域 , 無論 是 理念 、 技術 還是 節能 方面 , 均 十分 先進 , 並 擁有 一支 始終 在 環境保護 領域 領域 前列 的 科研 隊伍。 同時 同時 就 充分 保證 了 我們 在 環境保護 領域 中 , 始終 保持 世界 領先 地位。 (Tang You Environmental Engineering (Ningbo) Co., Ltd .: In 1990 Tang You relocated the plant from Gothenburg to the former Czechoslovakia (now the Slovak Republic) to expand production capacity and reduce production costs. Tang You company is similar to similar companies in the world, they produce devices and products that mainly help in the elimination of industrial static electricity, indoor air purification and solution of automobile exhaust emissions and other fields, whether it is concept, technology or energy saving, they are very advanced , and the company is a pioneer in environmental protection and knowledge business research. At the same time, it wants to fully ensure that they always take the leading position in the field of environmental protection.)
  33. a b c 群众 面前 无 小事 ── 记 浙江省 公安厅 成功 化解 周艾萍 上访 案, (Before the eyes of the masses - the Zhejiang Provincial Public Security Bureau successfully resolved the Zhou Aiping petition case), Guang Ming Daily (in Chinese), January 27, 2005 - via WiseNews (article no. 200501271410046)
  34. 爱女 车祸 惨死 被判 次要 责任 模拟 现场 母亲 以 命 讨 公 (Car accident tragedy in which a mother simulated the accident to prove that the driver, Gui, was guilty.), Nanguo Zaobao (in Chinese), via WiseNews (Item No. 200503103800081) March 10, 2015
  35. a b 中国 老年 Issues 1–12, 中国 老年 杂志 社 , China Senior Journal, Issue 1–12 , 2005, accessed October 30, 2017
  36. 独立 中文 笔 会 关于 会员 桂 民 海 被 加 罪 再审 的 抗议 声明 , Independent Chinese PEN Center, March 5, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  37. a b 內地 針對 的 是 桂 民 海 (The mainland turns against Guimin Hai), Apple Daily (in Chinese), January 6, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  38. a b c d China state TV 'confession': Gui Minhai , YouTube, January 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  39. 不理 會 央視 桂 民 海 片段 瑞典 政府 堅持 尋 真相 [Ignoring the CCTV confession, the Swedish Government insists on finding the truth], Apple Daily (in Chinese), January 19, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  40. a b [Causeway Bay Bookstore] Gui Minhai won the International Freedom of Publications Jury Award: Bravery and Fearlessness ( Memento February 3, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), Reuters, February 1, 2018, accessed on January 28, 2020
  41. ^ Disappearance of 5 Tied to Publisher Prompts Broader Worries in Hong Kong . In: The New York Times . January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  42. ^ Ilaria Maria Sala: 'Smear campaign' against Chinese president linked to disappearance of Hong Kong booksellers . In: The Guardian . January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  43. 偽造 習 情人 書 反覆 騙錢 . 內幕. 2016-02-22.
  44. 习近平 与 他 的 情 人们
  45. 习近平 与 他 的 情 人们
  46. 自由 亚洲 电台. 作者 谈 内容 和 出版 波折 . YouTube . 2016-04-02
  47. ^ A b Hannah Beech, China's Hunt for Dissidents Expands to Foreign Countries , Time, January 18, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  48. Luo Qiu; Su Wenhua 洛 秋 心; 蘇文華, 香港 禁書 書店 老闆 「被 消失」 奇案 [The strange case of bookstore 'disappearances'], The Initium (in Chinese), November 10, 2015, accessed October 30, 2017
  49. Elizabeth Cheung, Controversial Hong Kong bookseller becomes fifth man to go missing in mysterious circumstances , South China Morning Post, January 2, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  50. a b Juliana Liu, The 'unprecedented' case of the missing Hong Kong bookseller , BBC News, January 4, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  51. Michael Forsythe, Disappearance of 5 Tied to Publisher Prompts Broader Worries in Hong Kong , The New York Times, January 5, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  52. ^ Ilaria Maria Sala, Hong Kong bookshops pull politically sensitive titles after publishers vanis h, The Guardian, January 7, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  53. 桂 民 海 發 神秘 訊息 予 女 員工 料 失蹤 或 因 新書 [Gui Minhai's mysterious SMS to daughter; colleagues fear disappearance linked to new book], Oriental Daily News (in Chinese), November 14, 2015, accessed October 30, 2017
  54. 銅鑼灣 書店 東 主 失蹤 後 曾有 四人 搜 掠 其 住所 BBC : 桂 民 海 擬 出版 習近平 內幕 書 (in Chinese), The Stand News, November 13, 2015, Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  55. 【書店 5 人 失蹤】 巨流 傳媒 瑞典 籍 股東 桂 民 海 疑 泰國 失蹤 瑞典 外交部 : 嚴正 看待 [Bookstore 5 missing: Disappearance of Swedish national Gui Minhai in Thailand - Sweden gravely concerned], Chinese newspaper Ming Pao (in Chinese ), January 5, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  56. 今日 说法] 本期 话题 : 求证 (2005 年 4 月 8 日) (car accident, alcohol involved) (in Chinese), China Central Television, April 11, 2005, accessed October 30, 2017
  57. Action against CCTV urged over 'forced confession' , RTHK, January 21, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  58. a b TV confession dubious: Activists , The Straits Times, January 19, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  59. Tom Phillips, Missing Hong Kong bookseller 'confesses' on Chinese state TV , The Guardian, January 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  60. ^ Danny Lee, Daughter of missing Hong Kong bookseller Gui Minhai hopeful after return of Lam Wing-kee , South China Morning Post, June 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  61. a b 香港 铜锣湾 书店 案 : 瑞典 寻求 中国 澄清 桂 民 海 下落 [Causeway Bay Books case: Sweden seeks clarification on whereabouts of Gui Minhai] (in Chinese), BBC, January 18, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  62. Missing Hong Kong booksellers paraded on Chinese TV , BBC News, February 29, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  63. Stuart Lau, Detained Causeway Bay bookseller Gui Minhai not seen by Swedish diplomats for more than three months, says consul general , South China Morning Post, June 6, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  64. ^ A b c Michael Caster, The last missing bookseller: One year on, the anniversary of Gui Minhai's abduction demands action , Hong Kong Free Press, October 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  65. Antoine Oury, Depuis plus d'un an, l'éditeur Gui Minhai est détenu en Chine , (The publisher Gui Minhai has been imprisoned in China for over a year), ActuaLitté, October 18, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  66. Missing bookseller Lui Por back in Hong Kong, government says , The Guardian, Agence France-Presse, March 4, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  67. Phila Siu; Oliver Chou; Clifford Lo, Booksellers slipped back to mainland China after requesting Hong Kong police drop missing persons cases , South China Morning Post, March 9, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  68. Jennifer Ngo, Full transcript of Lam Wing-kee's opening statement at his Hong Kong press conference , South China Morning Post, June 17, 2016, accessed October 30, 2017
  69. Löfven lyfte frågan om Minhai med presidential (Löfven raised Minhai's question with the President), Sydsvenskan, June 26, 2017, accessed October 30, 2017
  70. ^ Prix ​​Voltaire - 2018 , accessed August 29, 2019
  71. Keegan Elmer, Chinese Embassy in Sweden warns of 'bad consequences' after Gui Minhai gets literary price , South China Morning Post, November 16, 2019, accessed January 29, 2020
  72. James Griffiths, Where is Gui Minhai? Hong Kong bookseller 'released,' but missing , CNN, October 25, 2017, accessed May 16, 2020
  73. Chinese Police Seize Publisher From Train in Front of Diplomats , New York Times, January 22, 2018, accessed February 5, 2018
  74. Abduction from the train compartment , Süddeutsche Zeitung, January 23, 2018, accessed on February 5, 2018
  75. Tom Phillips, Bookseller Gui Minhai surfaces in Chinese custody to deliver staged confession , The Guardian, February 10, 2018, accessed May 16, 2020
  76. Elise Thomas, Dr. Jacob Wallis, Tom Uren, Tweeting through the Great Firewall , Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Archived from the original on September 3, 2019, accessed May 20, 2020
  77. Simone McCarthy, Before the Hong Kong protests, banned Twitter accounts 'targeted Chinese government critics' , South China Morning Post, archived from the original, September 3, 2019, accessed May 20, 2020
  78. a b c d Kate Lyons, Sweden investigates its Beijing ambassador over 'strange' meetings , The Guardian, February 14, 2019, Archived from the original, accessed May 20, 2020
  79. Erik Rush, Kidnapping Case: Sweden's Ex-Ambassador to China on Trial , Epoch Times, June 6, 2020, accessed June 7, 2020
  80. Keegan Elmer, Ambassador to China Anna Lindstedt sent back to Sweden after Gui Minhai reports , South China Morning Post, archived from the original, February 14, 2019, accessed on May 22, 2020
  81. Kris Cheng, Threats, verbal abuse, bribes, flattery won't silence me: Sweden probes unauthorized meeting with daughter of bookseller detained in China , Hong Kong Free Press, February 14, 2019, Archived from the original, accessed May 22, 2020
  82. Iliana Magra; Chris Buckley, Sweden Charges Ex-Ambassador to China Over Secret Meetings , The New York Times, December 9, 2019, accessed May 22, 2020
  83. a b Negotiation against former Swedish ambassador to China started , greenpeace magazine, June 5, 2020, accessed on June 6, 2020
  84. a b c Lily Kuo, Gui Minhai's daughter says China 'buried' his sentence amid coronavirus outbreak , The Guardian, February 27, 2020, accessed May 22, 2020
  85. a b c Violet Law, 'Message is clear': China jails Hong Kong publisher Gui Minhai , MSN News, February 28, 2020, accessed May 22, 2020
  86. a b Peter Dahlin, Jailed bookseller: With Gui Minhai citizenship ploy, Beijing infringes int'l law and its own rules , Hong Kong Free Press, February 29, 2020, accessed on May 22, 2020
  87. Ben Westcott, Steven Jiang, Eric Cheung, Hong Kong bookseller Gui Minhai sentenced to ten years in Chinese jail , CNN, February 25, 2020, accessed May 22, 2020
  88. Yanan Wang, Jan M. Olsen, China sentences Swedish bookseller Gui Minhai to 10 years in prison , The Globe and Mail, AP, February 25, 2020, accessed May 22, 2020
  89. Owen Churchill, US assails Beijing over sentencing of Hong Kong bookseller Gui Minhai , South China Morning Post, February 28, 2020, accessed May 22, 2020
  90. ^ Prix ​​Voltaire - 2018 , IPA, July 5, 2018, accessed January 29, 2020
  91. Gui Minhai får årets Tucholskypris ,, November 4, 2019, accessed on November 8, 2019 (Swedish)
  92. Amanda Lind, Gui Minhai prisades av Svenska Pen (Gui Minhai was praised by the Swedish Pen) , Svenska Dagbladet (Swedish daily newspaper), archived from the original, November 15, 2019, accessed on May 22, 2020
  93. Keegan Elmer, Chinese embassy in Sweden warns of 'bad consequences' after Gui Minhai gets literary prize , South China Morning Post, archived November 16, 2019, accessed on May 22, 2020
  94. Award ceremony 2020 ,, accessed on May 18, 2020
  95. Author and publisher imprisoned in China receives award , Deutschlandfunk Kultur, May 18, 2020, accessed on June 19, 2020