Hedgehog flask

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hedgehog flask
Hedgehog cob (Sparganium erectum)

Hedgehog cob ( Sparganium erectum )

Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Order : Sweet grass (Poales)
Family : Cattail family (Typhaceae)
Genre : Hedgehog flask
Scientific name

The hedgehog cob ( Sparganium ) are one of the two genera of the plant family of the bulrush family (Typhaceae) within the order of the sweet grass (Poales). The 19 to 30 species , depending on the author, are mainly found in the temperate areas of the northern hemisphere .

They are aquatic and marsh plants that can develop dense stands in wetlands . A special feature of the Sparganium species is the branchy, paniculate inflorescence made up of several purely female-flowered and, above, purely male-flowered, spherical partial inflorescences. The beaked fruits form a ball with outward-pointing tips - hence the name hedgehog cob.

Description and ecology

Illustration: branchy hedgehog ( Sparganium erectum )
Schematic representation of the individual flowers and the inflorescence of the hedgehog's cob

Hedgehog species are perennial herbaceous plants that overwinter green . They are aquatic and marsh plants ( hydrophytes , helophytes ) with underground, creeping rhizomes as survival organs. Sometimes they grow completely submerged or with floating leaves and inflorescences floating on the surface of the water. The leaf arrangement of the always hairless stems is alternate and strictly two-lined (distich). The leaves are long and with parallel edges (linear) and grass-like and consist of a sponge-like compressible floating tissue. The parallel- veined leaf blades are angularly bulging outwards and flat on the inside, so that a triangle results in cross-section - in contrast to the cattails with a semicircular leaf cross-section. The leaf sheaths are always open. At the vaginal orifices in the transition to the blade, there are no ligules .

Hedgehog piston species are single sexed ( monoecious ). The knotty paniculate total inflorescence of the hedgehog cob species consists of spherical partial inflorescences . The inflorescence is of bracts interspersed (bracts) - unlike the cattail species. The larger spiky female spherical heads are arranged in the lower part, the male-flowered in the upper part of the inflorescence branches.

The unisexual, threefold flowers are huskless. The flowers sheath ( Perigon ) of the female flower consists of membranous scales that an ovary with spatulate scar surrounds. The one to eight stamens of the individual male flowers are also surrounded by some basal scales.

The distribution unit ( diaspore ) is formed from the solitary nut fruit ( achenes ).


The species of the genus Sparganium are pollinated by the wind ( anemogamy ). In some species, self-pollination ( autogamy ) is also possible. The diaspores spread through water ( hydrochory ).

The vegetative spread occurs via rhizomes. The hedgehog species can develop dense stands, so-called reeds , in suitable locations . The species of the genus are adapted to moist to wet, temporarily or always flooded habitats. They colonize waterfronts, swamps and moors . There they are often associated with cattails, sedges and rush species.

Systematics, botanical history and distribution

Narrow-leaved hedgehog ( Sparganium angustifolium ), flooding in water

The genus Sparganium was established by Carl von Linné . The generic name Sparganium is probably derived from the Greek spárganon for band ; but the relation to plant characteristics is unclear.

The exact placement of the genus has long been disputed. For example, some authors added the hedgehog genus to the cattail family due to their morphological similarity, while others preferred to keep separate families (Typhaceae with the only genus Cattail and Sparganiaceae - hedgehog family - with the only genus hedgehog). According to the strictly phylogenetically oriented APG IV , however, as in APG III , the Sparganium are part of the cattail family (the separate classification in APG II was a "mistake").

Hedgehog cob species are mainly found in temperate to arctic regions of the northern hemisphere . There are few occurrences in Australia and New Zealand .

The genus Sparganium contains about 21 species:

There are the hybrids :

  • Sparganium × longifolium Turcz. ex Ledeb. = Sparganium emersum × Sparganium gramineum : It occurs from northeastern Europe to Siberia.
  • Sparganium × oligocarpon Ångstr. = Sparganium emersum × Sparganium natans : It occurs from Northern Europe to Siberia.
  • Sparganium × speirocephalum Neuman = Sparganium angustifolium × Sparganium gramineum : It occurs in northern and northeastern Europe.
  • Sparganium × splendens Meinsh. (Syn .: Sparganium × diversifolium Graebn. ) = Sparganium angustifolium × Sparganium emersum : It occurs in Europe.


Hedgehog cob species are used as ornamental plants, especially for garden ponds.


Web links

Commons : Hedgehog's Cob ( Sparganium )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Rafaël Govaerts, 2004: World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS. 1-54382. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Sparganium. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  2. Franz Thonner: Exkursionsflora of Europe. Instructions for determining the genera of European flowering plants . R. Friedländer, Berlin 1901, OCLC 4950387 , Section III. Class. Monocotyledóneae, monocotyledons. , S. 4th f . ( Preview of a reprint in Google Book Search [accessed July 24, 2019]).
  3. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV . In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society . tape 181 , no. 1 , 2016, p. 1-20 , doi : 10.1111 / boj.12385 .
  4. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-121, doi: 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
  5. a b c d Walter Erhardt , Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold: The great pikeperch. Encyclopedia of Plant Names. Volume 2; Species and varieties. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7 .