Hedgehog cob ( Sparganium erectum )
The hedgehog cob ( Sparganium ) are one of the two genera of the plant family of the bulrush family (Typhaceae) within the order of the sweet grass (Poales). The 19 to 30 species , depending on the author, are mainly found in the temperate areas of the northern hemisphere .
They are aquatic and marsh plants that can develop dense stands in wetlands . A special feature of the Sparganium species is the branchy, paniculate inflorescence made up of several purely female-flowered and, above, purely male-flowered, spherical partial inflorescences. The beaked fruits form a ball with outward-pointing tips - hence the name hedgehog cob.
Description and ecology
Hedgehog species are perennial herbaceous plants that overwinter green . They are aquatic and marsh plants ( hydrophytes , helophytes ) with underground, creeping rhizomes as survival organs. Sometimes they grow completely submerged or with floating leaves and inflorescences floating on the surface of the water. The leaf arrangement of the always hairless stems is alternate and strictly two-lined (distich). The leaves are long and with parallel edges (linear) and grass-like and consist of a sponge-like compressible floating tissue. The parallel- veined leaf blades are angularly bulging outwards and flat on the inside, so that a triangle results in cross-section - in contrast to the cattails with a semicircular leaf cross-section. The leaf sheaths are always open. At the vaginal orifices in the transition to the blade, there are no ligules .
Hedgehog piston species are single sexed ( monoecious ). The knotty paniculate total inflorescence of the hedgehog cob species consists of spherical partial inflorescences . The inflorescence is of bracts interspersed (bracts) - unlike the cattail species. The larger spiky female spherical heads are arranged in the lower part, the male-flowered in the upper part of the inflorescence branches.
The unisexual, threefold flowers are huskless. The flowers sheath ( Perigon ) of the female flower consists of membranous scales that an ovary with spatulate scar surrounds. The one to eight stamens of the individual male flowers are also surrounded by some basal scales.
The vegetative spread occurs via rhizomes. The hedgehog species can develop dense stands, so-called reeds , in suitable locations . The species of the genus are adapted to moist to wet, temporarily or always flooded habitats. They colonize waterfronts, swamps and moors . There they are often associated with cattails, sedges and rush species.
Systematics, botanical history and distribution
The exact placement of the genus has long been disputed. For example, some authors added the hedgehog genus to the cattail family due to their morphological similarity, while others preferred to keep separate families (Typhaceae with the only genus Cattail and Sparganiaceae - hedgehog family - with the only genus hedgehog). According to the strictly phylogenetically oriented APG IV , however, as in APG III , the Sparganium are part of the cattail family (the separate classification in APG II was a "mistake").
The genus Sparganium contains about 21 species:
- Sparganium americanum Nutt. : The distribution area includes Canada, the USA, Mexico and Colombia.
- Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong : The distribution area includes southeastern Canada and the eastern and central USA.
- Narrow-leaved hedgehog ( Sparganium angustifolium Michx. ): It is widespread in Eurasia and North America.
- Sparganium confertum Y.D.Chen : The homeland is northwestern Yunnan .
- Simple hedgehog ( Sparganium emersum Rehmann ): It is widespread in Eurasia and North America.
- Branched hedgehog ( Sparganium erectum L. ): It is widespread in Eurasia , North Africa and North America.
Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. : There are two subspecies:
- Sparganium eurycarpum subsp. coreanum (H.Lév.) CDKCook & MSNicholls : It occurs from Russia's Far East to Korea and Japan.
- Sparganium eurycarpum subsp. eurycarpum : It occurs from North America to Mexico.
- Sparganium fallax Graebn. : The range extends from the eastern Himalayas to Japan, Sumatra and New Guinea.
- Sparganium fluctuans (Engelm.) BLRob. : The distribution area includes Canada and the northern United States.
- Sparganium glomeratum (Laest. Ex Beurl.) Neuman (Syn .: Sparganium manshuricum D.Yu ): The range extends from Northern Europe and Eastern Europe to Japan, Canada and the USA.
- Sparganium gramineum Georgi : The range extends from eastern Norway to Japan.
- Sparganium hyperboreum Laest. ex Beurl. : The distribution area includes the sub arctic to Canada and also the southern Alps.
- Sparganium japonicum Rothert : Home is Japan, Korea and the Primorye region .
- Sparganium kawakamii Hara : It occurs only in Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands .
- Sparganium limosum Y.D.Chen : This endemic species only occurs in northwestern Yunnan .
- Dwarf hedgehog cob ( Sparganium natans L. , Syn .: Sparganium amplexicaulium D.Yu , Sparganium tenuicaule D.Yu & LHLiu ): It is widespread in Eurasia and North America.
- Sparganium probatovae Tzvelev : This endemic occurs only in north-eastern Kamchatka .
- Sparganium rothertii Tzvelev : It occurs from Siberia to Japan.
Sparganium stoloniferum (Buch.-Ham. Ex Graebn.) Buch.-Ham. ex Juz. : There are two subspecies:
- Sparganium stoloniferum subsp. stoloniferum (Syn .: Sparganium arcuscaulis D.Yu & GTYang , Sparganium multiporcatum D.Yu ): It thrives from temperate areas of Asia to the Himalayas.
- Sparganium stoloniferum subsp. choui (D.Yu) K.Sun (Syn .: Sparganium choui D.Yu ): It occurs only in Inner Mongolia .
- Sparganium subglobosum Morong : The range extends from Russia's Far East and Nansei-shoto to Assam and from New Zealand to New Guinea.
- Sparganium yunnanense Y.D.Chen : This endemic species only occurs in southwestern Yunnan .
There are the hybrids :
- Sparganium × longifolium Turcz. ex Ledeb. = Sparganium emersum × Sparganium gramineum : It occurs from northeastern Europe to Siberia.
- Sparganium × oligocarpon Ångstr. = Sparganium emersum × Sparganium natans : It occurs from Northern Europe to Siberia.
- Sparganium × speirocephalum Neuman = Sparganium angustifolium × Sparganium gramineum : It occurs in northern and northeastern Europe.
- Sparganium × splendens Meinsh. (Syn .: Sparganium × diversifolium Graebn. ) = Sparganium angustifolium × Sparganium emersum : It occurs in Europe.
Hedgehog cob species are used as ornamental plants, especially for garden ponds.
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