Interlingua


from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Interlingua (interlingua)
Project author International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA)
Year of publication 1951
speaker unknown
Linguistic
classification
particularities international, Graecolatine lexicons , Angloromanic grammar
Language codes
ISO 639 -1

ia

ISO 639 -2

ina

ISO 639-3

ina

Interlingua is an international planned language that is based on the common vocabulary of the European languages ​​and has an extremely simplified grammar. Interlingua is advertised as "modern Latin " and is considered by the public to be the most important international planned language alongside Esperanto .

Words that are used internationally are called internationalisms . These are words that have the same meaning and the same or similar form in several languages, such as B. Medicine, Music, Nation, Radio, System, Telephone, Theater . These internationalisms are mainly of Greco-Latin ( Graecoatine ) origin.

Theoretically, at least 850 million speakers of Romance languages including second speakers can understand Interlingua fundamentally. Also speakers who have learned Latin or a Romance language as a foreign language . Speakers of non-Romance, European languages ​​understand many Interlingua vocabulary straight away through their own foreign and loan words . In particular, the English language should be mentioned here, more than 50% of which is of Latin origin.

Interlingua is the result of scientific research carried out from 1924 to 1951 by European and American linguists from the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). In 1951 Interlingua was published with the publication of the Interlingua-English Dictionary and the Grammatica complete de interlingua . The German-American philologist and translator Alexander Gode played a key role in the publication of both works .

Surname

The name “Interlingua” is derived from inter (Interlingua for 'between, middle, under') and lingua (Interlingua for 'language') and thus stands for the idea of ​​a neutral intermediate language and not a universal language that encompasses all languages ​​of the world .

The name Interlingua can be understood horizontally, as a bridge language between the different mother tongues, but also vertically as an intermediate language between the irregular or very complex natural languages ​​and a logical and systematic ideal language.

Interlingua originally referred to all international planned languages ​​of the naturalistic school. The term later became synonymous with Latino sine flexione . There is also a risk of confusion with Interlingue , which is called Interlingue-Occidental for clarity. These planned language projects merge into one another. With the approval of the Academia pro Interlingua, an academy for naturalistic planned languages, the International Auxiliary Language Association was allowed to use the name Interlingua for its planned language project.

Historical context

As a result of the increase in international relations, the problem of international understanding became more and more burning from the middle of the 19th century. The creators of the world aid languages ​​wanted to show a way out and therefore placed value on easy learnability, high active and passive language skills, internationality and neutrality in the sense of no people's language.

The neutral International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA; German: Internationale Hilfssprachengesellschaft) was founded in New York a. a. Co-founded by the patroness and Esperanto speaker Alice Vanderbilt Morris with the aim of creating the scientific basis for the selection of an existing planned language or the fusion of already existing planned languages ​​such as Esperanto (1887), Latino sine flexione (1903), Ido (1907), Esperanto II ( 1910), Occidental (1922) and Novial (1928). Initially, the aim was not to develop your own planned language . After the IALA did not consider any of the planned languages ​​examined to be suitable or the representatives of the various planned languages ​​could not agree on a common planned language, the IALA itself decided in 1934 to develop its own planned language, which was published in 1951 under the name Interlingua. In 1953, the IALA then dissolved.

It was not until after the Second World War that English became the world's most important language as the language of communication .

theory

For the linguists of the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA), the solution to the language question did not lie in the construction of a universal language . They therefore rejected any form of a planned language whose vocabulary was artificially constructed because such languages ​​are too abstract and thus difficult to learn and master. For the IALA, a mixture of linguistic material from the most varied of languages ​​within its own cultural area or with languages ​​from other cultural areas to create a new planned language was out of the question because of the arbitrariness of the selection and the lack of coherence of such a language.

Rather, the linguists of the IALA have come to the realization through observation that enough linguistic material already exists latently in the European languages ​​that, with deviations in pronunciation or orthography, e.g. B. consists of internationally used terms such as "information", "politics", "library", "philosophy", "restaurant", "automobile" but also words like " coffee ", " cocoa " or " yoghurt " etc. In linguistics, this phenomenon is called internationalisms . Initial estimates were based on up to 6,000 international words, most of which are of Greco-Latin origin.

The group of Anglo-Romance languages ​​is the most widespread European language group globally through science, technology, trade, diplomacy, colonization, migration, education, culture, Christian mission, sport, etc. and thus the source languages ​​for many foreign and loan words of numerous other languages ​​( "Language exports"). Therefore, the international language material is extracted from the Anglo-Romance languages, which consequently is not arbitrary, but objective, coherent, easy to learn and easy to master.

A schematized grammar that distorts the objectivity of the vocabulary is counterproductive, so that only a minimal and rational grammar, so the logic, supports the originality and naturalness of the international vocabulary.

For the IALA, the international language should be a means of communication for the exchange of ideas and for international understanding , but not a mandatory means of achieving world peace .

vocabulary

Europe's linguistic history has three working languages or Linguae francae in: Latin (decreasing since the late Middle Ages as to 1867, when Hungary was the last country Latin official language gives up), French (from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 to the Treaty of Versailles in 1918) and English (since 1918). These three lingua franca (donor languages) have left their mark on the vocabulary of the European languages ​​(recipient languages). A similar development can be seen in the history of scientific language .

selection

The vocabulary is acquired in three steps: selection, standardization and registration. Interlingua should build on the largest possible international vocabulary (see internationalism (language) ). Therefore, words in the following languages ​​are checked for internationality: English , French , Italian , Spanish and Portuguese . German and Russian are used as control languages. The theory assumes that outside of these great European languages, no word can be international.

The "rule of three" or the "rule of two +" describes the exact method:

"In sum, a preliminary formulation of the criterion of internationality runs as follows: A word is to be accepted as international when its presence is attested - in corresponding forms and with corresponding meanings - in at least three of the language units, Italian, Spanish and / or Portuguese, French and English, with German and Russian as possible substitutes. "

Corresponds a word in at least three of the four language units (Italian [ita], Spanish [spa] / Portuguese [por], French [fra], English [eng]) in form and content or in at least two language units plus German [deu] and / or Russian [rus], it is to be accepted. Examples:

  1. [deu] patrimonium , [eng] patrimony, [fra] patrimoine, [ita] patrimonio, [spa] patrimonio, [por] património, [rus] наследие
  2. [deu] godfather , [eng] godfather, [fra] parrain, [ita] padrino, [spa] padrino, [por] padrinho, [rus] крестный отец
  3. [deu] patron , [eng] patron, [fra] patron, [ita] patrono, patrocinatore, [spa] patrono, patrocinador, [por] patrono, patrocinador, [rus] патрон, покровитель
  4. [deu] patriarch , [eng] patriarch, [fra] patriarche, [ita] patriarca, [spa] patriarca, [por] patriarca, [rus] патриарх

standardization

As a rule, the etymological approach is used. The entire word family is examined, not just an isolated word. This gives you the exact prototype, which is fundamental for the derivation of the word family (here patr- ). For Interlingua in o. A. Cases: patrimonio, patrino, patrono and patriarcha.

This also means that the number of variants, i.e. examples in languages ​​other than the four mentioned language units, is irrelevant because the etymon is usually used, e.g. E.g .: German form ; French forme , it. span. kat. czech. slovak. sloven. Hungarian, Polish, Croat. Latvia. Lithuania. forma , dan. swed. eng. ndl. form , graubünden novel. furma , ir. foirm etc. In Interlingua the corresponding word is forma .

Registration

In a few cases, in which neither of the two rules applies, Interlingua refers to Latin, or the word of the reference language, which has the greatest possible internationality or the greatest possible correspondence with the system, is registered. The Interlingua-English Dictionary was published in 1951 with almost 27,000 words. The current vocabulary is estimated to be over 60,000 words.

grammar

The Interlingua grammar is a rational minimal grammar that does not want to change the objectivity of the international vocabulary and is intended to facilitate language learning and command of the language:

  • regular conjugation of verbs
  • Verbs ending in -ar , -er and -ir
  • Shortening of the verbs haber (to have) and esser (to be) in the present tense to ha and es
  • no subjunctive (possible form)
  • no progressive form as in English (I am calling ...)
  • no grammatical ( gender ), but only a biological gender ( sex ), therefore only a definite (le) and an indefinite article (un)
  • Plural formation with -s or -es
  • no match between noun and adjective in gender , sex and number : un seniora belle , duo senioras belle , le senior belle , le seniores belle ( declination )
  • Adverb formation on -mente
  • Derivatives, e.g. B. exportar, exportation, exportator, exportabile
  • normal word order SVO : subject - verb - object ( isolating language structure )

Conjugation of the verbs parl ar (to speak), vid er (to see) and aud ir (to hear):

person Present Past tense Future tense Conditional imperative Part. Perfect Part. Present tense
ok p a rla
v i de
au di
parl a va
vid e va
aud i va
parlar a
vider a
audir a
parlar e a
vider e a
audir e a
p a rla!
v i de!
au di!
parl a te
vid i te
aud i te
parl a nth
vid e nth
audi e nth
do
illegal, illa, illo
nos
vos
illes, illas, illos

Natural versus schematic

In order to be able to empirically secure the development of the international planned language, the IALA sent a 98-page questionnaire to 3000 language teachers worldwide from 1944 to 1947. He presented various models of the design of the future language. The fundamental question was whether a natural or a schematic grammar would best meet the requirements of an international planned language. The responses should have been 350. According to the IALA, the number of those who rejected a schematic model was clear. In the General Report of 1945 there is a sample text that clarifies the fundamental question. It is an excerpt from the speech given by the Hon. Cordell Hull in Dumbarton Oaks on August 21, 1944:

"The lessons of earlier disunity and weakness should be indelibly stamped upon the minds and hearts of this generation and of generations to come. So should the lesson of unity and its resultant strength achieved by the United Nations in this war (...) "

According to the naturalistic model:

“Le lectiones insignate per le disunione et le impotentia de le passato debe essere imprimite indelibilemente super le mente et le corde de iste generatione et de le generationes future, sic como le lectiones insignate per le unitate et le fortia resultante de seine, que le Nationes Unite have attingite in iste guerra (...) "

According to the schematic model (minimum):

“Le lectiones insignate per le desunita 'e le impotentia del pasato debe eser impresete indeleblemente sur le mente e cordia de este generation e del generationes future, asi como le lectiones insignate per le unita' e le fortia resultante da elo, keles le Nationes Unite ave atingete in este guera (...) "

According to the schematic model (medium):

"Le lekcionos insignate per le desuneso et le nonpotentso del pasato deve esere impresete nondeleblemen sur le mento et kordio de iste generaciono et del future generacionos, sik kom le lekcionos insignate per le uneso, et le forcio resultante de id, keles le Unite Nacionos atingete in iste guero (...) "

Phonetics and Orthography

The spelling of Interlingua is based on the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet without diacritical marks or accent marks . Interlingua has no phonematic orthography . There are some digraphs , e.g. B. in words of ancient Greek origin because of the better recognition (e.g. philosophia). The norm of pronunciation is continental and accentuation is the main rule on the vowel before the last consonant.

Text examples

“NOVE” MONA LISA ES GENUIN

Expertos suisse ha publicate provas que on ha trovate le predecessor al famose pictura de Mona Lisa. E le pictura que se trova in le museo parisian Louvre e le pictura “Isleworth Mona Lisa” esseva pingite per Leonardo da Vinci. Le version Isleworth has dece annos plus que le “original”, pingite inter 1503 e 1506. Le version Isleworth es nominate secundo le loco ubi illo esseva trovate in le initio del 1900s. Un collector de arte lo trovava presso un nobile britannic. Hodie illo es in le possession de un consortio suisse.

VENETIA SUB AQUA

De novo le citate del laguna, Venetia in Italia del Nord, batte contra inundationes. Touristas in le medio de octobre e initio de novembre debeva apportar bottas impermeabile quando illes visitava le Placia de Marco. In November le nivello esseva 1.40 metros plus old que normalmente. Durante plure annos Venetia ha submergite lentemente, proque on pumpava troppo de aqua phreatic, e le edificios descendeva. Secundo le magazine “Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems” le urbe ancora se affunda - duo a quatro millimetros per anno - causate per le movimento del tabulas tectonic.

CHOCOLATE ES SAN

Antea on ha trovate que chocolate nigre es favorabile pro le sanitate vasocardiac. Nunc un recerca publicate in le periodico “Neurology” monstra que etiam chocolate al lacte ha le mesme effecto. In le studio 37.103 viros participava. Illes qui consumeva circa 60 grammas cata septimana curreva le risco de esser affligite per apoplexia que esseva 17% minus que le viros qui mangiava nulle chocolate. On crede que le causa es que chocolate contine si-appellate flavonoides, un typo de antioxidantes que protege le vasos sanguinari. Le risco de feminas es minus quando illas consume chocolate un recerca demonstrava in 2011.

QUE ES INTERLINGUA?

Interlingua es un lingua complete perfecte pro communication international a causa de su vocabulario international e un grammatica totalmente regular - sin exceptiones. Centos de milliones comprende Interlingua a prime vista. Interlingua functiona in casa, in scholas, in officios - in omne locos, ubi on necessita communication sin frontieras. Il ha multe materiales - sur papiro e electronic: litteratura original o traducite, belletristic o professional, magazines o brochures, e-libros, sitos in Internet. Le avantages es numerose.

Source: PANORAMA magazine, 2012; Publisher: Union Mundial pro Interlingua

Development as language

Interlingua is the language death of the Latin as "modern Latin" and neutral, international bridge language since 1955 by the non-profit organization Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI) u. a. promoted with the organization of conferences.

At the time of Alexander Gode, 30 medical journals, including such renowned ones as Journal of the American Medical Association , Circulation , Circulation Research and American Heart Journal , published the synopsis of their scientific articles in Interlingua. Interlingua also served as a means of communication at 10 scientific conferences .

The international vocabulary was offered in Sweden in the 1960s as part of the school subject allmän språkkunskap (general linguistics) as an alternative to teaching Latin. The debates about Latin lessons have been shaped by similar positions for decades: the appreciation of a linguistic and cultural basis for higher education contrasts with skepticism as to whether this effort still meets modern standards. According to the Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI), Interlingua offers a way out of the dilemma , developing the cultural heritage of Latin with modern communication requirements.

Interlingua is marked according to ISO 639-1 of the International Organization for Standardization . Interlingua is thus in the list of the most developed languages ​​(in terms of vocabulary) worldwide.

Since the publication of the basic works in 1951, a multitude of grammatical and stylistic changes have resulted from language change. There are also numerous publications as e-books. The current vocabulary is estimated to be over 60,000 words. The standard textbook Interlingua - Instrumento modern de communication international has also been translated into Chinese and Japanese.

In 2004 the UMI translated the Treaty on a Constitution for Europe in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of Interlingua as the working or official language of the European Union .

The city of Kirchheimbolanden in Rhineland-Palatinate has published its city portrait on the Internet on Interlingua.

Interlingua is an official competition language in shorthand World Championship.

The Austrian National Library documents around 500 planned languages ​​in the world's largest specialist library for planned languages, of which Esperanto and Interlingua are the most important.

In 2017 the non-profit "Erasmus Institute for Interlingua eV" was founded as a language maintenance association for the German-speaking area.

Interlingua is gradually spreading through the Internet.

Benefits and advantages

Proponents of Interlingua see the following specific advantages for users in addition to the basic advantages of a planned language:

  • Interlingua can contribute to a better understanding of foreign and loan words in one's own mother tongue .
  • Interlingua can expand your personal English vocabulary.
  • Interlingua can be used to communicate directly with people who speak Spanish, Portuguese or Italian.
  • Interlingua can build on cultural heritage and contribute to European identity .
  • Interlingua can be used as a neutral and cost-effective working language in European and international organizations.
  • Interlingua can be useful as a language propaedeutic in foreign language lessons ( intercomprehension ).
  • Interlingua can provide the African and Asian linguistic world with access to science and technology terminology and provide a sound basis for further studies of European languages.

Interlingua spokesperson

The total number of speakers is unknown. Some outstanding Interlingua speakers were:

See also

literature

Textbook

  • Ingvar Stenström: Interlingua - Instrumento modern de communication international (German version) . Union German pro Interlingua, Mannheim 2013, ISBN 978-3-00-033340-8 .
  • Stanley A. Mulaik: Interlingua - Grammar and Method . CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015, ISBN 978-1-4679-6481-4 .

dictionary

  • Thomas Breinstrup; Italo Notarstefano: Interlingua - dictionario basic . Union Mundial pro Interlingua, 2012.
  • André Schild; Helmut E. Ruhrig: Dictionary German-Interlingua . Union Mundial pro Interlingua, 2008.

Interlingua and its history

  • Ingvar Stenström: Interlingua e su promotion durante 50 annos . Societate Svedese pro Interlingua, Svedia 2008, ISBN 978-91-971940-5-1 .

Press articles

Web links

Wiktionary: Interlingua  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Main Interlingua directory  - forwarding to subject areas, word lists, directories
Wiktionary: Portal Interlingua  - information on language, participation, on help pages, templates, statistical details, on the development status
Wikisource: Main Page  - Sources and full texts (Interlingua)
alternatively here: s: ia: pagina principal
Wikibooks: Pagina principal  - learning and teaching materials (Interlingua)
alternatively here: b: ia: pagina principal

Short film:

  • What is Interlingua? (German) - Explanatory video on YouTube (published on June 1, 2019), duration: 3:07

Individual evidence

  1. Union Mundial pro Interlingua (accessed October 19, 2017)
  2. Alexander Gode: Manifesto de Interlingua p. 6. (PDF file) - accessed on November 3, 2014.
  3. ^ André Schild: Interlingua - course in 20 lessons p. 5. (accessed on February 25, 2017).
  4. Interlingua versus Esperanto Die Zeit of October 18, 1951 (accessed April 26, 2016).
  5. Interlinguawissen.de (accessed on July 9, 2016).
  6. ^ Austrian National Library: Collection for Planned Languages (accessed on August 7, 2017).
  7. Duden: Das Fremdwort - Readable and Interesting (PDF file) - page 15 (accessed on October 26, 2017).
  8. Gymnasium Buxtehude: Why Latin? (accessed on October 26, 2017)
  9. Historia de Interlingua: Le historia antenatal de Interlingua (interlingua).
  10. General Report (1945): clearing house for international words needed ( Memento of July 2, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) (English).
  11. General Report (1945): semantic frequency list ( Memento of July 2, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) (English).
  12. Leibnitz Institute for European History (IEG): European History Online (EGO): Section European languages ​​and European world languages - accessed on March 6, 2016.
  13. General Report (1945): Sources of International Words ( Memento of July 2, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) (English).
  14. Historia de Interlingua: Le natura, si - un schema, no (interlingua).
  15. French in the German Language - From Kusine to Muckefuck (accessed on February 25, 2017).
  16. Latin-French-English (Three Epochs of European Language and Vocabulary History) (accessed on November 11, 2016)
  17. Deutschlandfunk: Fremdwalking - grammatical reflections (accessed on February 4, 2017).
  18. Der Standard: Esperanto is so much easier than Latin (accessed on August 7, 2017).
  19. Interlingua-English Dictionary: methods and techniques ( Memento from November 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
  20. Interlingua-English Dictionary: form of international words ( Memento of November 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  21. Joachim Grzega: Europe's languages ​​and cultures through the ages . Stauffenburg Verlag, Tübingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-86057-999-2 , p. 119 .
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  23. Omniglot: Interlingua (English) - accessed on November 16, 2016.
  24. ^ Grammar of Interlingua. Retrieved October 11, 2018 .
  25. Historia de Interlingua: Questionnaire, 1946 (interlingua)
  26. ^ Interlinguistic information from the Society for Interlinguistics, 2001, p. 63.
  27. Historia de Interlingua: Le natura, si - un schema, no (interlingua).
  28. General Report (1945): experimental translations of a sample text ( Memento of July 2, 2004 in the Internet Archive ).
  29. ^ A grammar of Interlingua: spelling and pronunciation ( Memento of July 24, 2004 in the Internet Archive ).
  30. Free copy of Panorama magazine, publisher: Union Mundial pro Interlingua (PDF file) - accessed on November 9, 2014.
  31. Ingvar Stenström: Interlingua e su promotion durante 50 annos . Societate Svedese pro Interlingua, Svedia 2008, ISBN 978-91-971940-5-1 , p. 66 .
  32. Ingvar Stenström: Interlingua - Instrumento modern de communication international (German version) . Union German pro Interlingua, Mannheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-033340-8 , p. 5 .
  33. Sylvia Vogt: Language classes in Berlin schools: Latin - does that have to be? Der Tagesspiegel , November 16, 2015, accessed on June 16, 2017 .
  34. Ingvar Stenström: Interlingua - Instrumento modern de communication international (German version) . Union German pro Interlingua, Mannheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-033340-8 , p. 6 . : “In Germany every year there is anew a discussion in schools about the meaning of Latin lessons. Learning Interlingua brings the pupil or student all the advantages that the Latin language brings with it, but there are no disadvantages or additional difficulties as in Latin (e.g. more complicated grammar than in German, lack of opportunities for lively conversation, etc. ) A six-month comparison test between interlingua and Latin classes would convince every teacher and linguist of this international language. "
  35. ^ Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages. Library of Congress , July 25, 2013, accessed June 16, 2017 .
  36. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Library of Congress , May 5, 2014, accessed June 16, 2017 .
  37. Le angulo linguistic. Union Mundial pro Interlingua, January 3, 2006, accessed June 16, 2017 (Interlingua).
  38. Bibliotheca electronic in interlingua. Union Mundial pro Interlingua, January 13, 2006, accessed June 16, 2017 (Interlingua).
  39. Interlingua. Omniglot.com, accessed June 16, 2017 .
  40. Litteratura in interlingua. Union Mundial pro Interlingua, April 4, 2012, accessed on June 16, 2017 .
  41. ^ Union Mundial pro Interlingua: Tractato de un constitution pro Europa. (PDF; 662 kB) Union Mundial pro Interlingua, October 29, 2004, accessed on June 16, 2017 (Interlingua).
  42. Kirchheimbolanden website. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 19, 2017 ; accessed on June 16, 2017 .
  43. SWR: Landtag employee writes fastest (accessed on August 7, 2017)
  44. Collection for planned languages. Austrian National Library , accessed on June 16, 2017 .
  45. Erasmus Institute for Interlingua eV accessed on November 21, 2018.
  46. Union Mundial pro Interlingua: Le sex beneficios de Interlingua (interlingua)
  47. Ingvar Stenström: Interlingua - Instrumento modern de communication international (German version) . Union German pro Interlingua, Mannheim 2013, ISBN 978-3-00-033340-8 .
  48. www.interlingua-colonia-rheni.org: Interlingua / Interlinguistik / Eurolinguistik (accessed on October 16, 2015).
  49. Call for the entry of Latin and ancient Greek in the UNESCO World Heritage List, p. 18. ( Memento of the original from December 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on November 29, 2014) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / vivariumnovum.net
  50. Latin as the official language? Deutschlandfunk from July 30, 2001 (accessed December 1, 2015)
  51. Union Mundial pro Interlingua: Tractato de un constitution pro Europa (interlingua) - accessed on November 29, 2014
  52. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR): Universal Declaration of Human Rights (interlingua) - accessed on March 6, 2016.
  53. ^ Hadi Schmidt-El Khaldi: Interlingua and EuroCom. BOD, Norderstedt 2011, pp. 25 and 31.
  54. www.interlingua-colonia-rheni.org: Interlingua / Interlinguistik / Eurolinguistik (accessed on October 16, 2015).
  55. ^ Union Mundial pro Interlingua: Le vitas detra interlingua (interlingua).
  56. Union Mundial pro Interlingua: biographias: Giovanni Blandino (interlingua) (accessed October 30, 2015).
  57. Litteratura in interlingua: manuales (interlingua) - accessed on October 29, 2015
  58. Litteratura in interlingua: dictionarios (interlingua) - accessed on October 29, 2015
  59. Litteratura in interlingua: historia (interlingua) (accessed on November 5, 2015)