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Jassen is a card game of the Bézique family, which is particularly widespread in the Alemannic- speaking area, i.e. in German-speaking Switzerland , Liechtenstein , Vorarlberg , in the south of Baden-Württemberg and in Alsace , but also in South Tyrol , in the French-speaking area of ​​Switzerland and in Ticino . Jassen is usually played with four players and 36 cards. Jassen is considered a national game in Switzerland and the number 1 card game in Vorarlberg.


Jass cards (around 1805)
French and German cards
French and German cards

Jass or Jas comes from the Netherlands . Dutch forerunners were Jasspel and Belle-Bruid. Not only the Jas (farmer) but also the Trumpfneun (Nell) reminds of the Dutch origins.

In the last third of the 18th century, the game with Protestant mercenaries came to Switzerland. Jass quickly gained popularity and supplanted the tarot , which was brought to Switzerland by Swiss and French mercenaries from northern Italy. Today only in Visperterminen and Surselva Tarock with the 78 cards and the Italian suit symbols cup, coin, sword and staff is played. The oldest Swiss evidence of Jassen comes from Schaffhausen in 1796 : two priests are suing two farmers who were playing “for a glass of wine” with a game “which is called Jassen”.

Jassen became popular in the 19th century , and a number of different variants have emerged over time.

The game can be played with the French as well as the German or Austrian hand. Depending on which region you are in, the cards that predominate there are taken. The exact origin of the Swiss Jassgraben along the Aare and Reuss is unclear. The two rivers used to be considered a natural border, in addition the areas in the west were under French influence, in the east under German influence.

The development of the German-Swiss image around 1880

One-headed card image by Jakob Peyer.
One-headed card image by Jakob Peyer.

Jakob Peyer, who joined the map manufacturer A. Bühlmann in the 1870s, is most likely the creator of today's map image. Both the details of the clothes and the faces of the characters on today's Swiss-German Jass cards are based on Peyer's cards. The one-headed pictures were produced in Hasle according to Peyer's submission only until J. Müller in Schaffhausen took over the playing card factory. For decades, Müller produced the one-headed models based on his own templates. It was not until the 20s of the last century that the Peyer cards were used as templates for the double-headed picture. There are different versions of the playing card decks, in 2017 the Swiss graphic artist Jens Riedweg designed a digital revision of the card image by Jacob Peyer.

Further use of the term

The term Jass was transferred from the game to the card sheet used and from there to games that are not related to Jass. So is z. For example, the game " Tschausepp " (which is largely identical to the game known in Germany as Mau-Mau ) is known as a Jass variant. In this respect, Jass is not to be seen as a specific card game, but as a general term for a large number of card games in the field of application. In this context, statements about the distribution and popularity of Jassen must be seen separately from a specific game as statements about card games in general.


French leaf colors
Corner Heart Shovel Cross
Diamond or corner heart shovel Cross or club
Colors of the Bavarian leaf
Schell heart leaves Acorn
Schell Heart new Foliage new Acorn Bavarian
Colors of the German / German-Swiss newspaper
Ring Roses Shields Acorn
Clamps New Roses New Schilten New Acorn New
Plain German Jass cards (Sau, König, Ober and Unter von Eichel)
Jass border Switzerland
The exact origin of the Swiss Jassgraben along the Aare and Reuss is unclear. The two rivers used to be considered a natural border, in addition the areas in the west were under French influence, in the east under German influence.

Is played with French cards west of the Brünig-well Reuss line , so in the Romandie , in the cantons of Bern , Solothurn , the two Basel , Valais , Aargau (without the free Office , the District Baden and eastern der Aare areas of the district Zurzach ), also to the east of the Brünig-Napf-Reuss line, in which High Alemannic is not spoken, i.e. in Ticino , in parts of Graubünden and along Lake Constance in Thurgau .

The German cards are used in central Switzerland , in Zurich and Schaffhausen , in eastern Switzerland , in the canton of Aargau (only Freiamt and Baden district ) and partly in Liechtenstein .

In Vorarlberg and South Tyrol , a variant of the Bavarian (Austrian) cards that looks slightly different is usually used for playing. These cards are called Plain German .

One of the largest private collections of old and new Jass cards is in the possession of the Freiburg Germanist Walter Haas . Parts of it were shown in 2002 as part of the exhibition Playing Cards - Fascination of a Popular Art of the Gutenberg Museum in Freiburg im Üechtland.

French sheet

French Jass cards fanned out
French Jass cards fanned out

The colors of the French cards have these names in the following languages:

  • German : Hearts , corner / diamonds , shovel / spades and clubs / clubs
  • French : cœur , carreau , pique and trèfle
  • Italian : Cuori , Quadri , Picche and Fiori
  • Romansh : cors , pizs , palas and cruschs

Each suit comprises nine cards: 6 to 10 , jacks / pawn , queen , king and ace (French: six, sept, huit, neuf, dix, valet, dame, roi, as; Romansh: sis, set, otg, nov, diesch, pure peasant , dama lady , retg king , portga sow ).

To make the colors easier to see, the cards for the Jass programs on Swiss television are blue (instead of red) and crosses are green (instead of black).

German-Swiss sheet

German-Swiss Jass cards fanned out
German-Swiss Jass cards fanned out

The colors of the (German-) Swiss cards are called roses, bells, acorns and reeds. Each suit comprises nine cards: 6 to 9 ( called Nell in Trumpf ), Banner , Under (also called Puur (pawn) in Trumpf ), Ober, König and Ace (partly sow ).

Austrian newspaper

The colors of the Austrian cards are based on the simple German sheet with a Salzburg picture and are called hearts, bells (also diamonds), acorns (also crosses) and leaves (also spades, grass or green). Each suit comprises nine cards: 6s (also called Weli in Schelle ), 7s, 8s, 9s (in Trumpf Nell ), 10s, Under (in Trumpf Bauer ; Liechtenstein: Under ), Ober, König and Ace (partly Sau ).


Classic gameplay

Most of the variants are based on the following game principle: A color is declared a trump , of this color the Under is the highest trump 20 points, the nine (called Nell, Näll ) 14 points. In turns counterclockwise (in Vorarlberg and South Tyrol clockwise) the four players each place one card. The aim is to win the four cards (“trample”) by playing the highest value of the color or trump played first. You can also trump with trumps if you still have the suit, but it is not permissible to add a smaller trump to a trick already drawn in order to keep a high card of the suit played ("undertrump"). You get the points of the cards won.

You can also collect points with Wys, Wyys, Weis . Wyy points are obtained when you have three or more consecutive cards of a color or if you have all the colors of a number. This must be announced at the first installation and presented on request. In Switzerland (for Vorarlberg see Weis (Jassen) #Vorarlberg ) the three-leaf (three consecutive cards of the same suit ) usually counts 20 points, four-leaf 50 points, five-leaf and more 100 points, four identical picture cards 100 points, four nines 150 points and four under 200 points. The Wyys are announced all around the Schieber , only the party with the most valuable Wyy is allowed to write all of its Wyy points. Twenty points are given for the stöck, i.e. That is, if you have the upper or queen and king of the trump, the sticks are announced when the second card is played. The stöck may always be written, even if the other party has announced a higher value Wyys .

The normal cards have the following point values: banners / tens: 10 points, under / jacks: 2 points, upper / queen: 3 points, king 4 points and the ace 11 points. In an Obenabe / Bock game (highest card tricks, no trump) the eight counts 8 points, in an Undenufe / Geiß (lowest card tricks) also, but there in the Swiss version of the sixes counts 11 points and an ace is awarded Nothing. In the Vorarlberg and South Tyrolean variants, the card values ​​remain unchanged. Whoever takes the last trick wins 5 additional points. A total of 157 points per round are distributed among the players. Special rule: if a player / team makes a mud (from Italian marcio "lazy, spoiled"), that is, all tricks are taken from one side, the winning team receives 100 extra points, for a total of 257.

In many game variants (typically with the Swiss slider ) the points are multiplied by a multiplier depending on the trump suit, the way of playing must be agreed before the start of the game. You can play “everything simply” (all trump suits are counted, i.e. 157 points are distributed) , “Bells / Schilten double”, “Obe drü, une four”, where the points scored for Rosen / Eichel (with Simply count the French sheet with red), with bells / schilten (French sheet: with black) the number of points is doubled, with Obenabe it is tripled and with Undenufe it is quadrupled, so you usually play on 2500 points. A variant played in Appenzellerland with double bell, triple rose, quadruple Schilten, five-way Obenabe, six-way Undenufe and seven-way acorn is played to 5000 points; This results in different tactics, because an "expensive" game with a high multiplier is not to be lost, so a "counter- mash " when the opposing party wins can lead to a game- changing loss.

To thank

The game is played in several rounds. For each party the points of each round are added up. At the beginning of the game, a target score is agreed, e.g. B. 1000. The game ends as soon as one party has reached the required number of points and "thanks". This can be in the middle of the game, so the last round is usually not played completely. The winner is whoever “thanks” first and not who reaches the number of points first or who achieves a higher number of points; A game can also be lost if one party forgets to thank them in time. If a party mistakenly thanks them before they have achieved the required points, they lose the game.

Stöck-Wyys stitch

If both parties are only a few points missing, it can happen that one party takes these points with the first trick of a round, but the other with the wis that is entered at the same time as the first trick. To clarify this situation, there is the negotiation rule, which determines the order in which counting is carried out in this case. This rule varies from region to region and must be agreed before the game. In Switzerland, the most common rule is Stöck – Wyys – Stich, but Stöck – Stich – Wyys is also known (in Swiss restaurants where games are played, the negotiation rule is often posted). In Vorarlberg the rule is Stich – Stöck – Wyys. In this particular situation, the normal "thank you rule" does not apply.


In Switzerland, the scores at the "Schieber" are typically recorded on a slate with a chalk pen. On a Z-line, lines for 20 points each are made at the bottom from the right and four lines are connected to a hundred with a slash. In the middle, slashes are made for 50 points each, two crossed lines are simply counted as 100 points. In the top line, the hundred dashes are written from the left and, for the sake of clarity, 500 points are connected with a slash. In game variants with multipliers, several hundred points can be obtained in one round using white or mud games, for 500 points a V is then written on the top line, which can be added to an X for 1000 points. Individual points up to 20 are written as numbers on the right edge of the board, added up and written as twentieth lines when the corresponding number is reached.

Towards the end of the game, when it comes to thanking you, you can see the players from both parties busily counting the lines on the board. In restaurants, cards, blackboard, Jass chalk, sponges and a Jass carpet can often be requested (Chömer please no d Chaarte haa), the slates with the Z printed on one side and Jass chalk are available in many shops and are mostly available in Swiss ski and alpine huts .

Jass variants

In contrast to other widespread card games, there are no rules for most Jass variants that have been declared by an association to be generally valid for its members; The Federal Differential Jass Association is only available for the Differentials variant . The widely popular TV show Samschtig-Jass , in which the variant Differential is played, gave an impulse to standardize the rules . The rules according to which the Samschtig-Jass is played also apply to non-members of the above Association found widespread use and acceptance. The Puur-Näll-As set of rules , in which the rules for most of the card games referred to as Jass are fairly exhaustive, has also established itself as a fairly recognized standard work. In public slide tournaments, the rules of Puur-Näll-As are now predominantly played, in French-speaking Switzerland according to the regulations of the Fédération Romande et Tessinoise de Jass. Proponents point out that only such a standard enables spontaneous and supra-regional games (and especially tournaments) without long agreements about the rules having to be made beforehand. Critics see this as a danger to the vitality and diversity of the Jass culture, which threatens to stifle the wealth of variants. This can be countered by the fact that a uniform set of rules is only a possibility, but not a legal obligation, to play according to these rules.


The most famous Jass variant in Switzerland is the slide for four people, where two partners sit opposite each other. But two or six players are also possible. In Vorarlberg this game is known as Krüzjassa or Kreuzjassen . The person whose turn it is to determine the type of game can pass this decision on to his partner, who then has to decide. General types of play are: Trumpf, Obenabe (in Vorarlberg: Bock; As highest card) and Undeufe (in Vorarlberg: Goaß (Geiß); 6 highest card). But there are other types of games such as slalom (alternating Undenufe and Obenabe) or Guschti resp. Queer (depending on your choice: first 5 up after 4 down or vice versa), which can be allowed in the game by agreement.

There are (in principle) the following variants - all trumps, playing directions and goals can be combined (e.g. Herz-obenabe-Maxi (normal heart trump) or A-Slalom-Misère) - however, all variants are rarely considered possible, which is why there are usually only a few variants to choose from.

Trump card none especially with undenufe, slalom and middle
Color (A, B, C, D) normal trump (A, B, C, D stand for the colors of the French hand: hearts, harrows, clubs, schufle)
all “Tutti”: In every trick the first card played is trump, all pawns count 20 and all nines 14, so 285 points are possible
Direction of play above (normal way of playing) 6 → As, 8 counts eight points to keep the total number of points at 157
undenufe As → 6, the 6 counts eleven points and the ace zero, 8 counts eight points to keep the total number of points at 157 (variant: standard point counting with ace counts eleven points).
slalom There is always an alternation between above and below, the direction of the first stitch being indicated. Depending on this, the 6 or the As are counted, 8 counts eight points to keep the total number of points at 157 (variant: standard point counting with As counts eleven points).
center The highest card is 10, then the card played first is followed by the next. (10, 9 = pawn, 8 = queen, 7 = king, 6 = ace), 8 counts eight points to keep the total score at 157
target Maxi (normal way of playing) The aim is to score as many points as possible.
Misère The aim is to score as few points as possible.

Further Jass variants

Bidder (in Vorarlberg: Steigerer) Game variant for 3 or 5 players. You play in teams (1 against 2 or 2 against 3). In the initial phase, bidding the highest score allows a player to request a card. The player who owns this card becomes his partner. These players form the team of two. The two-man team is particularly favored by the fact that it only has to achieve its initial number of points to win, while the three-man team always has to achieve 1000 points. This variant comes closest to Skat.
Butzer (also: Handjass or Schläger ) Jass for three people. Everyone plays alone. The deal is the same as with Königsjass. There is also the stick again with the same rules. With the Butzer, however, only one round is ever played, whereby each player must achieve at least 21 or 26 points (depending on the agreement). If he can do this, he'll get a dash, if not a bit of a hunk. However, you cannot take part at all and stay with the previous score (although you can no longer sit out if you swap the six or go to the stick). As many points are awarded as players participate (unless two players fold, in which case the round is invalid). So if only one of three players reaches the required points, he gets three lines, one does not reach them, one gets two lines, etc. Each head of hair means one line deduction.
Chratze Jass for 2 to 7 people, in which a pot is played with 4 cards per player, whereby a Chratzender has to take two tricks and the other players one trick each.
Coiffeur (v. "Quoi faire") Mixture between Jass and Yatzy and Poker for at least 2 teams of two. The point is to play all game types in a list once per team, whereby the points achieved are then counted for the group that determined the game type.
Differentiators After looking at the cards, an amount must be announced, which must then be reached as precisely as possible. In popular broadcast Samschtig-Jass of the Swiss television this version of the game is played.
Investigator The investigator is a Jass variant for three or four players.
Guggitaler Swiss Jass variant for 3 to 5 players. The aim is to collect as few points as possible. It is played without a trump. The game consists of several rounds, each round having different rules: In the first round, each rose counts 5 points, in the second every trick 10, in the third every upper 20, in the fourth the rose king 45 and in the fifth everything together. In rounds 1, 4 and 5 no rose may be played as the first card as long as you still have other cards in your hand. In the sixth round a domino (similar to Elfer out! ) Is played, which can reverse the entire distribution of points. The distribution of points at Domino is based on the current scores. If there are 5 players, one card (usually a 6) must be left out.
Brackets Game variant for 2 to 4 players. The game runs like in darts up to 301, 501 or 1001.

The goal is to be the first to cross the border. In addition, the attacking player who chooses the trump has to score more points than his opponents. Otherwise the points are credited to the opponents.

Königsjass Jass for three people. Each party receives 3 times 3 cards, the remaining 9 go to the stick. The top one indicates the trump. With the six of the trump suit you can take the top card from the stock and put down the six. In addition, all players can decide in turn whether they want the stick. If you want the stick you put your cards down and get the stick for it. The player with the six can still swap at this point. Then the game begins. Each player plays alone and generally to 1000 or 1500 points, which of course can be agreed differently depending on the situation.
Molotov Molotow is a type of Jass for 3 to 6 players. The stocking is determined (in the 1st or 2nd round) through the color that will be played from that of the first not specify (i. E. A card of the same color as the first card played this round) can.

The aim of the Molotov-Yass is to score as few points as possible. The so-called table wise represents an additional difficulty to achieve as few points as possible . If at the end of the round there is a white on the table, the points are credited to the person who scores. As an additional rule, it can be agreed that the players have to change their seats after each round based on the points achieved so far. Especially in smaller or public spaces (train compartments, cafés, etc.) this can on the one hand attract attention from other people and on the other hand loosen up the game.

NASA JASS A type of game for 4 players. The basic idea of ​​this type of Jass is that the Jass should be made more difficult and at the same time more interesting by incorporating quiz elements. In addition to the actual Schieberjass, the players have to answer quiz questions as follows: The player who plays the first hand asks a quiz question from the area of ​​general knowledge, which then goes in turn. If an opponent knows the answer, he gets 20 points, if the other player knows the answer, he gets 40 points, if nobody knows the answer, there are 10 penalty points for the questioner and 10 points for the opposing team. The name of this type of Jass refers to the fact that, like pilots of NASA spaceships, several tasks have to be carried out at the same time. The relatively new Jassart was developed in student circles and can be modified, for example, by asking a question for each “hand” or by asking questions only from individual areas. Colloquially this variant is called "nose" in Switzerland and especially in the canton of Bern.
Oh shit! For 4 players, everyone against everyone. 9 rounds are played, the first with all 36 cards, in the following 4 rounds are  removed blindly (!); d. In other words, each player receives one less card round after round, so each player only receives one card in the last round. (To make life a little more difficult for memory artists, you can always shuffle all 36 cards and then remove 4, 8, 12 etc.)

In advance, 9 trumps (including Obenabe and Undenufe) are drawn (by taking off), whereby the same trump cannot appear twice in a row.

Before the first lead everyone says how many tricks they think they can take. The total of the tricks announced must not correspond to the number of cards still in play! Sometimes more tricks are announced than there are cards in play, sometimes fewer. The dealer (drawn before the first round, then counterclockwise) bids last and may have. U. Disadvantages: It may be that he has to bid 0 tricks in the last round with the pawn in hand ...! The first announcer leads, the rules of the game apply: suit or trump.

The name (also in all Swiss dialects (the most common: Gopfertaminomal-Jass )) comes from the exclamation when the first surplus or missing stitch is used. The player can then only try to spoil his teammates with their tricks.

Distribution of points: Number of correctly predicted tricks per round (possibly plus 10 bonus points).

Tactics: It may be that players have to / want to help each other in a round, but at least one is always wrong.

Palette-Jass Game variant for 4 players (variant for 5 players, see Jass regulations Puur-Näll-As). Everyone bids in turn based on the cards they received. The highest bidder takes over and opens the game. He can ask for a card. The player with the requested card is with the highest bidder, but is not allowed to show this. Accordingly, he keeps the requested card, so that it is only clear who is together when this card is played. Each game is complete for itself and brings a result for the jass board. The game taker receives the following writing points: 110–119 = 2, 120–129 = 4, 130–139 = 6, 140–149 = 8, 150–157 = 10. Mud with partner = 12, mud alone = 20 points. The partner of the game taker receives half of the writing points. If the player misses the goal, the corresponding minus points are noted. After two rounds (everyone distributes the game twice), the loser is determined based on the lowest total number of points. For tips, strategies and 65 other types of Jass, see Jassreglement Puur-Näll-As from AGM AGMüller.
Pandur Jass for three people, who even cheat (bschissa) is allowed. Each round is played as announced, with constantly changing teams.
Ramsen A type of jass that is played primarily in the Upper Basel area (use: Schüfeli or salami), but also in the Emmental, from the upper Brienzersee to Meiringen, in Obwalden, in Oberaargau and in the Sense district in German-Friborg (use: sausages).
Six slider A type of Jass for 6 (or 8) players in 2 groups of 3 players each. The game is played with 2 decks of cards, each player receives 12 cards. In principle, the game works the same as the normal slide. If two cards are the same, the one that was played later wins. It can be pushed three times .
Six - "Schläpf" A perfectly normal Jass, except that you don't play with nine, but with six cards.
Schellenjass A type of jass for 2 to 4 players. The aim is to collect no or as few bells as possible or to capture all nine bells. If a player manages to collect all nine bell cards, that is, to do the "turi", he receives a credit of three lines on the board, the other three partners get nothing. The game is played without a trump and a bell card may only be thrown away if the suit played can no longer be specified. If the "Schellenjass" is played with French cards, hearts are chosen as the relevant color, the game is then called Herzjass.
Feast A type of game for 2 players. Each of the two players is dealt 9 cards per game round, the remaining 18 cards form the pile. The bottom card of the deck shows the trump suit. This card can be exchanged (stolen) for the “trump six” up to the 9th round.

Start: The starter plays a card of his choice, but not a trump. Whoever “brings home” the respective trick takes the top card from the stack. The loser takes the second. The first nine rounds are therefore played with 9 cards each. Wise men are allowed in each of the first 10 rounds, provided that new ways arise from one round to the next. (The clever gourmet player makes most of his points with wise men precisely because he keeps clever card combinations!) The player who wins in the 9th round leads in the 10th round. What is new is that it is now also possible to trump or stab. End of the game: The game is repeated until a previously defined number of points or time limit is exceeded.

Sidi-Barani Slider-like jass for 4 players, with the difference that it is not specified who is allowed to determine the game. This right goes to the person who (similar to the high bid stimuli at Skat ) announces the highest score. If the announcer and his partner reach this number of points (e.g. 120), you will receive a bonus in addition to your points in the amount of the announced number of points (e.g. 120). If they do not reach them, the opponents receive the bonus. Both teams write the points achieved as a minimum. The opposing team has the opportunity to double up until the first card is played. If the opposing team doubles, the bonus is double. The game is played on, for example, 120 points, but the winning team receives a bonus of 240 points in addition to their points.
Veehellers ( Swiss German Vee [feː] for "cattle") Jass for 3 or 4 players. All cards are dealt evenly. In the first round, the player who has the acorn banner on his cards may spend, then it goes in turn.

A total of three penalty points are awarded per round: the first point is awarded to the player who wins the first trick. The second penalty point is obtained if the top of the bell is in one of the stitches made and the third penalty point is distributed for the last stitch. Whoever reaches nine penalty points first (or another number by agreement) loses the game, the "denial" is carried out.

The same color must always be played as was spent. The first player who can no longer suit determines the trump through the card he deals. The trump is always a suit, i. H. without obeabe and inferiority.

If a player is the only bell in his cards to receive the upper (Schüllenober blutt), he may announce that he has the "nasty card" (s'fiise chart) on the first card played. Now the player who stabs the bell gets a plus point. You don't have to announce the nasty kart, the more difficult it is then to avoid a penalty point from the upper part of the bell.

Two-Sidi (in Vorarlberg: Bodasee-Jass) Jass for 2 players. The game is played with 36 cards, with six cards per player being placed face down, six cards face up on the face down cards and six cards being distributed to the player's hand. So there are 12 cards in front of each player. It is dealt in groups of three cards, i.e. three face down with the opponent, three with oneself, three again with the opponent etc.

Before the start of the game there is a "bid", i. That is, the players estimate how many points they will get in the game round. Whoever did not bid opens the bid with an announcement of at least 60 points. The other player can outbid this bid by at least 5 points. Either one color, obeabe or undeufe is played. Every type of trump counts, there is no refusal, sticks do not count. The maximum number of points is 157.

The player with the highest bid starts. He first determines the trump and then begins the lead. After a card on top of a face down card has been played, the face down card underneath is revealed.

At the end of the game the points are added up and compared with the estimate. If the number of points achieved is higher than the estimate, the difference is noted as the number of points for the bidding player. If the number of points is lower than the estimate, the opponent receives the points that the bidder lacks for his bid. The winner is whoever reaches 50 points first.

Example: The bid is 100 points. If the bidder reaches 105 points, he writes down 5 points. If he reaches 90 points, his opponent notes 10 points.

One tactic is to try and play the cards on the table to reveal the cards underneath.

Other, older Jassarten are Fischentaler-, Bäretswiler- or Schaffhauserjass, the Raubjass, the Hintersich-Jass (Hindersi-Jass), the Zebedäusjass and Zugerjass .

Special postage stamp

Swiss Post special stamp from 2018
Swiss Post special stamp from 2018

In September 2018, the Swiss Post then issued selected Riedweg cards as special postage stamps.

See also


Web links

Commons : Jass  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Kurt Lehner, Sigrun Wyss: On the history of playing cards in the Schaffhausen area. Journal for Swiss Archeology and Art History 30 (1973), pp. 185–204, here 185 f.
  2. Max Ruh: The First Reference To Jass. The playing card. Journal of the International Playing-Card Society 25 (1997), p. 177.
  3. The history of Swiss playing cards. Archived from the original on 2019 ; accessed on August 8, 2019 .
  4. ^ David Parlett: The Oxford Guide to Card Games. Oxford / New York 1990, p. 293.
  5. Swiss German pattern. Retrieved November 25, 2019 .
  6. Graphic designer of the new Jass cards Jens Riedweg. In: Swiss Jass. Retrieved on August 8, 2019 (German).
  7. Laura Sibold, Laura Sibold: Baarer designs Jass stamps for the post. Retrieved August 8, 2019 .
  8. ^ David Parlett: The Oxford Guide to Card Games. Oxford / New York 1990, p. 292 f.
  9. Christian Schmutz : For playing and collecting. In: Freiburger Nachrichten. June 26, 2002.
  10. Swiss Jass Directory: Jass rules: The most important things to know in brief. Retrieved July 27, 2018 .
  11. Swiss Jass Directory: Jass rules: The most important things to say thank you for Jass. Retrieved July 27, 2018 .
  12. Johannes Wey: Dozen of variants, one principle. In: May 7, 2011, accessed June 16, 2019 .
  14. See the relevant article in the Schweizerisches Idiotikon , Vol. III, Col. 70.
  15. Laura Sibold, Laura Sibold: Baarer designs Jass stamps for the post. Retrieved August 8, 2019 .
  16. Swiss Post: Four stamps for every occasion. Retrieved August 8, 2019 .