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Shine scabiosis (Scabiosa lucida)

Shine scabiosis ( Scabiosa lucida )

Nuclear eudicotyledons
Euasterids II
Order : Cardigans (Dipsacales)
Family : Honeysuckle Family (Caprifoliaceae)
Subfamily : Cardaceae
Scientific name

The Dipsacaceae (Dipsacoideae) are a subfamily in the plant family of Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae) within the order of the carding-like (Dipsacales). The Dipsacoideae used to be a separate family of the Dipsacaceae Juss. considered.


Illustration of the meadow scabious ( Knautia arvensis )

These are annual or biennial or perennial herbaceous plants and, more rarely, subshrubs . The ever opposite leaves are mostly undivided. Stipules they do not.

A particularly characteristic feature of the cardaceae is the head-shaped inflorescence , which is very similar to that of the daisy family , and how it is surrounded by bracts (→ Pseudanthium ). The structure of the flowers differs considerably, however: the hermaphrodite flowers are four or five-fold, with double perianth . The four- or five-lobed flowers, often strongly zygomorphic on the edge of the head, are often surrounded by an outer calyx. The outer calyx consists of two intergrown pre-leaves. The calyx and the outer calyx are almost always dry-skinned and bristly. The petals are fused together. The two carpels are one under constant ovary grown. The mostly four (rarely two to three) stamens are not fused to form a tube. They form solitary closing fruits , called achenes .

Site conditions

The majority of the species can be found in dry or at least periodically dry, open areas such as steppes or dry grasslands .

Systematics and distribution

Slit-leaf teasel ( Dipsacus laciniatus )
Grass-leaved scabiosis ( Lomelosia graminifolia )
Pseudoscabiosa limonifolia
Pterocephalus depressus
Common devil bite ( Succisa pratensis )

The subfamily Dipsacoideae was set up in 1836 by Amos Eaton in A Botanical Dictionary , 4th Edition, p. 36 under the name "Dipsaceae". Type genus is Dipsacus L. A synonym for Dipsacoideae Eaton is Dipsacaceae Juss.

The species are distributed from the temperate to subtropical areas of Eurasia and Africa as well as in tropical and southern Africa. The main area of ​​distribution is the Mediterranean region and Asia Minor .

In the subfamily of the cardiac plants (Dipsacoideae Eaton ) there were earlier 11, since 2013 there are 14 genera with around 290 species:

  • Bassecoia B.L.Burtt (Syn .: Pterocephalodes V. Mayer & Ehrend. ): The three types are common in China , Thailand and the Himalayan region. Among them:
    • Bassecoia hookeri (CBClarke) V. Mayer & Ehrend. (Syn .: Pterocephalodes hookeri (CBClarke) V. Mayer & Ehrend. , Pterocephalus hookeri (CBClarke) Diels ): It iswidespreadin southwestern China and in the Himalayan region with Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal.
  • Scale heads ( Cephalaria Schrad. Ex Roem. & Schult. ): They are widespread with about 65 species mainly in the Mediterranean area and Asia Minor and they also occur from West to Central Asia and in southern Africa.
  • Cardiards ( Dipsacus L. , Syn .: Simenia Szabó ): The range of the approximately 20 species is in western Europe, in the Mediterranean area and in southern and eastern Asia.
  • Widow flowers ( Knautia L. , Syn .: Trichera Schrad. Ex Roem. & Schult. ): The range of the approximately 60 species is in Europe and around the Mediterranean in western Africa and south-western Asia.
  • Grass cabioses ( Lomelosia Raf. , Syn.:, Scabiosiopsis Rech. F. , Tremastelma Raf. ): Of the almost 40 species, around half are distributed in Europe. Here is a selection:
  • Pseudoscabiosa Devesa (Syn .: Scabiosa sect. Asterothrix Font Quer ): The approximately three species are common in the Mediterranean area.
  • Pterocephalidium G.López : It contains only one species:
  • Pterocephalus Adans. : The 25 or so species are distributed in the Mediterranean region to tropical Africa and via Central Asia to China (only two species).
  • Pterothamnus V. Mayer & Ehrend. : It contains only one type:
    • Pterothamnus centennii (MJCannon) V. Mayer & Ehrend. : This endemic is only known from the type location at an altitude of about 2000 meters in "Manica e Sofala, Manica Serra Zuira" in Mozambique .
  • Marsh ( Scabiosa L. , Syn .: Asterocephalus tin , sometimes with Sixalix Raf. ): The circulation area of about 100 species is preferably in the Mediterranean region of Europe, Asia and Africa.
  • Pycnocomon Hoffmanns. & Link According to G.Domina, the genus is a synonym of Lomelosia Raf.
  • Sixalix Raf. (sometimes in Scabiosa L. ): It contains several species, including:
    • Velvet scabiosis ( Sixalix atropurpurea (L.) Greuter & Burdet (Syn .: Scabiosa atropurpurea L. )): It occurs in the Canary Islands and Madeira, in North Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East and is a neophyte in the Azores.
    • Sixalix doppelcoides (Desf.) Raf. : It occurs only in Algeria and Tunisia.
  • Succisa Haller : There are around three types:
  • Succisella Beck : The five or so species are common in Europe.


Individual evidence

  1. a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group : An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-121, doi: 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
  2. ^ Dipsacoideae at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, accessed on May 14, 2014.
  3. ^ Sara E. Carlson, Veronika Mayer, Michael J. Donoghue: Phylogenetic relationships, taxonomy, and morphological evolution in Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales) inferred by DNA sequence data . In: Taxon . tape 58 , no. 4 , November 2009, ISSN  0040-0262 , p. 1074-1091 (English, abstract ). Abstract ( Memento of the original from October 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. a b c d e f g h i j Veronika Mayer, Friedrich Ehrendorfer : The phylogenetic position of Pterocephalidium and the new African genus Pterothamnus within an improved classification of Dipsacaceae. In: Taxon , Volume 62, Issue 1, February 20, 2013, pp. 112–126. Full text PDF.
  5. ^ Manfred A. Fischer, Karl Oswald, Wolfgang Adler: Excursion flora for Austria, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol . 3rd, improved edition. Province of Upper Austria, Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museums, Linz 2008, ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9 , p. 814 .
  6. a b c d e f G. Domina (2017): Dipsacaceae. : Datasheet Dipsacaceae , In: Euro + Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.
  7. JA Devesa: Pseudoscabiosa, Genera Nuevo de Dipsacaceae . In: Lagascalia . tape 12 , no. 2 , 1984, ISSN  0210-7708 , pp. 213–221 (Spanish, online [PDF; 1.1 MB ]).
  8. Ginés López González: "Pterocephalidium" and nuevo género ibérico de la familia "Dipsacaceae" . In: Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid . tape 43 , no. 2 , 1986, ISSN  0211-1322 , pp. 245–252 (Spanish, online [PDF; 475 kB ]).
  9. ^ Deyuan Hong, Liming Ma, Fred R. Barrie: p. 654: Dipsacaceae. - Same text online as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (Ed.): Flora of China. Volume 19: Cucurbitaceae through Valerianaceae, with Annonaceae and Berberidaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2011, ISBN 978-1-935641-04-9 .
  10. ^ A b Sara E. Carlson, Dianella G. Howarth, Michael J. Donoghue: Diversification of CYCLOIDEA-like genes in Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales): implications for the evolution of capitulum inflorescences . In: BMC Evolutionary Biology . tape 11 , no. 325 , November 2011, ISSN  1471-2148 , Background, doi : 10.1186 / 1471-2148-11-325 (English, information about genera and their numbers of species).

Web links

Commons : Caprifoliaceae  - collection of images, videos and audio files