|Original title||ル パ ン 三世|
|genre||Adventure, action, comedy, crime story|
|First publication||August 1967 - May 1969|
|Anime television series|
|Country of production||Japan|
|Episodes||228 in 3 seasons|
|Director||Hayao Miyazaki , Isao Takahata , Masaaki Osumi , Seijun Suzuki , Yuzo Aoki|
|music||Charlie Kosei , Takeo Yamashita , Yuji Ohno|
|First broadcast||October 4th, 1971 on Yomiuri TV|
|June 13, 2001 on MTV|
|title||Shin Rupan Sansei|
|Original title||新 ル パ ン 三世|
|First publication||June 1977 - May 1981|
|More TV series|
Lupine III ( Japanese ル パ ン 三世 , Rupan Sansei ) is a successful manga series in Japan by the Japanese manga author Monkey Punch . The series, which belongs to his genre , is about the adventures of Arsène Lupine III and his companions. Lupine III is the grandson of the famous master thief Arsène Lupine from the novels by Maurice Leblanc . In addition to the manga, numerous anime films were also produced.
Like his grandfather, Lupine III is a master thief and earns his living by stealing valuable objects. Lupine is always accompanied by his old friend Daisuke Jigen , a masterful shooter. Another companion is the beauty Fujiko Mine , who has been hopelessly addicted to Lupine since the first meeting. Although she occasionally works with Lupine and his group, she usually manages to get the prey alone and leave the others out in the rain. The last of the group is Goemon Ishikawa XIII , a Japanese samurai and master of sword art. Goemon is in possession of the Almighty Sword , which can easily cut through everything in the world.
Since Lupine is a wanted thief, he is constantly being followed by Inspector Zenigata , who works for Interpol . Zenigata is obsessed with arresting Lupine, but has only managed to do so once and Lupine has been able to break free.
- Arsène Lupine III ( ル パ ン 三世 , Rupan sansei )
- He is the grandson of the famous master thief Arsène Lupine . Just like his grandfather, he is a shrewd, sly and skillful master thief. He usually chooses his prey targets himself, although he also likes to steal from other villains. And he always warns his destination in advance. His appearance as a thief sometimes seems quite unprofessional, but this is only camouflage. In addition to his high level of intelligence and dexterity, he always has small technical gadgets as an aid and for emergencies. His biggest weak point is his love affair with Fujiko, which keeps getting him into trouble.
- Daisuke Jigen ( 次 元 大 介 , Jigen Daisuke )
- Daisuke is Lupine's constant companion and a marksman. With his Combat Magnum revolver, he always hits the mark, just like with any other firearm, including bazookas. His eyes are mostly covered by his trademark, a black hat, which makes him even more mysterious.
- Fujiko Mine ( 峰 不二 子 , Mine Fujiko )
- It is Lupin's great passion. Even if you don't see it at first glance, she is an extremely smart and well-cooked person who knows how to use her feminine charm for her own benefit. On Lupin's thief tours she is usually present in some form, although unlike Jigen she is not loyal to Lupine. She regularly allies herself with Lupin's opponent or Inspector Zenigata, if it is conducive to her success. However, Lupine can mostly outsmart them. Unfortunately, in the end, she escapes him with part or even all of the prey.
- Goemon Ishikawa XIII ( 石川 五 ェ 門 , Ishikawa Goemon )
- He is a thirteenth generation samurai and possesses the Almighty Sword ( 斬 鉄 剣 , Zantetsu-ken ), which literally means “the sword that cuts the iron”. He is also a descendant of the legendary samurai thief Ishikawa Goemon from the 16th century. This sword is able to effortlessly cut through everything except konnyaku , a very soft Japanese food. Goemon is not a regular part of Lupin's adventures, and sometimes he has his own agenda.
- Inspector Zenigata ( 銭 形 警 部 , Zenigata-keibu )
- With full name Koichi Zenigata ( 銭 形 幸 一 , Zenigata Kōichi ) is a police officer at Interpol. His declared aim is to arrest Lupine and his gang at any cost, using sometimes very absurd means. However, he actually never succeeds in arresting Lupine, although he can often keep up with his genius and occasionally manages to arrest him temporarily. At first glance, Zaza , as Lupine often calls him affectionately, and Lupine may be bitter enemies, but they also share a kind of friendship. If Lupine is apparently killed on a mission, Zenigata will not be happy until he can arrest his beloved enemy again. His name is an allusion to the gangster hunter Zenigata Heiji from the stories of Nomura Kodō .
The original manga series was published from August 1967 to April 1972 in the Japanese manga magazine Manga Action by the publisher Futabasha . Initially it was only created for five months, but was extended because of the success. After that, Monkey Punch never abandoned his pseudonym, which was initially only adopted for this project. It was later published in 14 volumes. The manga series has been translated into Italian, Spanish and English.
From June 1977 the sequel Shin Rupan Sansei ( 新 ル パ ン 三世 ) appeared in Japan in the same magazine , which told further adventures of Lupine and ran until May 1981. The collective edition finally comprised 21 volumes. An English version was published by Tokyopop under the title Lupine III: World's Most Wanted . From January the offshoot Rupan Sansei S appeared in Japan , written by Satozumi Takaguchi and drawn by Shusay. It also appeared in the Manga Action at Futabasha and later appeared in an anthology. In 1998 the series Rupan Sansei Y , written by Monkey Punch and drawn by Manatsuki Yamakami , started in the same magazine . It ran until 2004 and includes 20 anthologies.
The author chose the model for his character because he had known and valued the Leblanc stories for a long time and therefore wanted to develop his own concept from them. In his simplistic drawing style, Monkey Punch was inspired by Sergio Aragones and his cartoons in Mad Magazine . In the beginning, however, the style was even rougher, more sketchy and only more polished in the second manga series. The artist's attention to detail was important in the implementation: Lupin's weapon, a Walther P38 , is shown realistically and other weapons, the vehicles and other things are recognizable as real models - as well as Lupin's drinks.
|role||Japanese speaker ( seiyū )||German speaker|
|Arsène Lupine III||Yasuo Yamada , Kan'ichi Kurita||Peter Flechtner|
|Daisuke Jigen||Kiyoshi Kobayashi||Tilo Schmitz|
|Fujiko mine||Yukiko Nikaido , Eiko Masuyama||Ghadah Al-Akel|
|Goemon Ishikawa XIII||Chikao Ōtsuka , Makio Inoue||Peter Reinhardt|
|Inspector Zenigata||Gorō Naya||Stefan Staudinger|
The Tokyo Movie studio secured the rights to a film version in 1967 and began producing a short film. However, it was not published due to disputes in the production team. The first film adaptation of the manga was made in 1971, initially directed by Masaki Osumi . After bad ratings for the first three episodes, he was replaced by Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata , who made the anime more humorous. Lupine was shown to be more heroic and clumsy, Fujiko became less devious, and Zenigata became a friendly rival instead of a hateful enemy. Because of the continued lack of success, the first season was discontinued after 23 episodes. Sōji Yoshikawa wrote the scripts for the episodes and Yasuo Otsuka was responsible for character design and animation direction. The producing studio was Tokyo Movie. The series ran from October 24, 1971 to March 26, 1972 on Nippon Television Network .
Since the repetitions of the first season achieved increasingly better ratings, a second season was produced in 1977, which began under the title Shin Lupine III . The director in charge was now Seijun Suzuki and the lead writer Atsushi Yamatoya . Hayao Miyazaki also worked on two episodes in the second season: he wrote the script for episodes 145 and 155 under his pseudonym Tsutomu Teruki. The character design was by Takeo Kitahara. The series was broadcast from October 3, 1977 to October 6, 1980 on Nippon Television.
A third season was directed by Yuzo Aoki and writer Junichi Iioka . The character design was done by Hidetoshi Owashi, Shingo Araki, Tatsuo Yanagino and Yuzo Aoki; Tsutomu Ishigaki was the artistic director . It was first broadcast on March 3, 1984 to September 28, 1985 on Nippon Television.
Each of the three anime seasons published can easily be identified by the color of Lupin's jacket , because in each season his jacket had a different color, which was also retained in the film productions. Therefore, due to the color of the jacket, the plot time of each film can be classified within Lupin's career with a few exceptions.
- Lupine III, season 1, 23 episodes (1971–1972): green jacket
- Lupine III Part II (also: Shin Lupine III ( 新 ル パ ン 三世 )), 2nd season, 155 episodes (1977–1980): red jacket
- Lupine III Part III, 3rd season, 50 episodes (1984–1985): pink jacket
Most of the stories in the anime episodes were based on the manga. During the second season, a new episode was broadcast on Japanese television every week. It was also one of the first series to be broadcast at least partially in stereo .
In 2012 TMS Entertainment produced the television series Lupine the Third - Mine Fujiko to Iu Onna (LUPINE the Third - 峰 不二 子 と い う 女 - ) which premiered on NTV from April 5 to June 28, 2012 after midnight (and thus on the previous television day ) . Directed by Sayo Yamamoto . Two spin-off films were released for the series, each with Jigen and Goemon as the main focus. Another television series followed in 2015 under the title Lupine Sansei or Part IV , which was created at Telecom Animation Film and is mainly set in Italy. In 2018, Lupine Sansei Part 5 ( ル パ ン 三世 PART5 ) was released, another series that mainly takes place abroad, here France.
- Lupine III: The Woman Called Fujiko Mine, predecessor to Season 1/4. Series, 13 episodes (2012): green jacket
- Lupine III Part IV, Season 4/5. Series, 26 episodes (2015): blue jacket
- Lupine III Part 5, Season 5/6. Series, 24 episodes + 1 OVA (2018): blue jacket
Takeo Yamashita composed the soundtrack for the first season. The preludes are:
- Lupine Sansei Sono 1 by Charlie Kosei
- Afro Lupine '68 by Charlie Kosei with Yasuo Yamada
- Lupine Sansei Sono 3 by Yoshiro Hiroishi with Goro Naya
- Lupine Sansei Sono 3 by Yoshiro Hiroishi
The credits were backed with Lupine Sansei Sono 2 by Charlie Kosei.
The music and the opening and closing songs for the second season were composed by Yūji Ōno , a very successful jazz musician in Japan at the time. While the series was still being produced, he worked closely with the team to give each episode appropriate soundtracks. For the opening credits, the theme Lupine III was used in variations with and without vocals by Peatmac Junior . The closing song was initially the Love Theme without vocals, then sung by Ichiro Mizuki . In the second half the songs Love Squall by Sandi A. Hohn and Love is Everything by Noboru Kimura were used.
In the third season, in which Yūji Ōno was also committed for the soundtrack, the song Sexy Adventure by Yūsuke Nakamura was used for the opening credits. The final credits song is Fairy Night (フ ェ ア リ ー ナ イ ト) by Sonia Rosa .
- Mystery of Mamo (1978)
- The castle of Cagliostro (1979)
- Legend of the Gold of Babylon (1985)
- The Fuma Conspiracy (1987) was originally an OVA but was then shown in theaters
- Farewell to Nostradamus (1995)
- Dead or Alive (1996)
- Lupine III: The First (2019)
On April 1, 1989, the first TV special Bye-Bye Liberty Crisis ran on NTV . Since then, a 90-minute special has been broadcast there every year. Each TV special usually has 2 titles: the original title in Japanese and an English title used by NTV for worldwide distribution. The English title was given. If known, the German title is also given. Only numbers 5 to 8 of the specials have appeared in the German-speaking world.
On the occasion of the 55th anniversary of NTV and the 50th anniversary of Yomiuri TV , the crossover special Lupine San-sei VS Meitantei Conan ( ル パ ン 三世 VS 名 探 偵 コ ナ ン , Rupan san-sei VS meitantei Konan , engl Subtitle: Lupine the 3rd VS Detective Conan ) aired.
|No.||Published||English title||Japanese title||German title|
|01||04/01/1989||Bye-bye Liberty Crisis||バ イ バ イ ・ リ バ テ ィ ー ・ 危機 一 発！(Bai Bai Ribatii - Kiki Ippatsu!)|
|02||07/27/1990||Hemingway Papers||ヘ ミ ン グ ウ ェ イ ペ ー パ ー の 謎(Heminguwei Pēpā no Nazo)|
|03||08/09/1991||Napoleon's Dictionary!||ナ ポ レ オ ン の 辞書 を 奪 え(Napoleon no Jisho wo Ubae)|
|04||07/24/1992||From Russia With Love||ロ シ ア よ り 愛 を こ め て(Roshia yori Ai wo comet)|
|05||07/23/1993||Orders to Assassinate Lupine / Voyage to Danger||ル パ ン 暗殺 指令(Rupan Ansatsu Shirei)||The trip to hell|
|06||07/29/1994||Zantetsu Sword is on Fire / Dragon of Doom||燃 え よ 斬 鉄 剣(Moeyo Zantetsuken)||The golden dragon|
|07||08/04/1995||Hunt for Harimao's Treasure / The Pursuit of Harimao's Treasure||ハ リ マ オ の 財宝 を 追 え !! (Harimao no Zaiho wo oe !!)||Harimao's treasure|
|08||08/02/1996||The Secret of Twilight Gemini||ト ワ イ ラ イ ト ☆ ジ ェ ミ ニ の 秘密(Towairaito Jemini no Himitsu)||The diamond of dawn|
|09||08/01/1997||In Memory of the Walther P-38 / Island of Assassins||ワ ル サ ー Ｐ３８(Warusā P38)|
|10||07/24/1998||Memories of the Flame: Tokyo Crisis / Crisis in Tokyo||炎 の 記憶 ～ TOKYO CRISIS ～(Honou no Kioku ~ Tokyo Crisis ~)|
|11||07/30/1999||Da Capo of Love: Fujiko's Unlucky Days / The Columbus Files||愛 の ダ ・ カ ー ポ ～ Fujiko's Unlucky Days (Ai no da kāpo - Fujiko's Unlucky Days)|
|12||07/28/2000||Money Wars / Missed by a Dollar||1 ＄ マ ネ ー ウ ォ ー ズ(1 $ Manē Wōzu)|
|13||08/03/2001||Alcatraz Connection||ア ル カ ト ラ ズ ・ コ ネ ク シ ョ ン(Arukatorazu Konekushon)|
|14th||07/26/2002||Episode 0: First Contact||ＥＰＩＳＯＤＥ ： ０ （ゼ ロ） 『フ ァ ー ス ト コ ン タ ク ト』(Episode: 0 (zero) "Fāsuto Kontakuto")|
|15th||08/01/2003||Operation: Return the Treasure||お 宝 返 却 大作 戦 ！！(Otakara Henkyaku Dai-sakusen !!)|
|16||07/30/2004||Stoles Lupine||盗 ま れ た ル パ ン(Nusumareta Rupan)|
|17th||07/22/2005||An Angel's Tactics - Fragments of a Dream are the Scent of Murder||天使 の 策略 （タ ク テ ィ ク ス） ～ 夢 の カ ケ ラ は 殺 し の 香 り ～(Tenshi no Sakuryaku (Takutikusu) - Yume no Kakera wa Koroshi no Kaori)|
|18th||09/08/2006||Seven Days Rhapsody||セ ブ ン デ イ ズ ・ ラ プ ソ デ ィ(Sebun Deizu Rapusodi)|
|19th||07/27/2007||Elusiveness of the Fog||霧 の エ リ ュ ー シ ヴ(Kiri no Erūshivu)|
|20th||07/25/2008||sweet lost night ~ Magic Lamp's nightmare premonition ~||sweet lost night ～ 魔法 の ラ ン プ は 悪 夢 の 予 感 ～(Sweet Lost Night ~ Mahō no Ranpu wa Akumu no Yokan ~)|
|21st||03/27/2009||Lupine III vs. Detective Conan||ル パ ン 三世 vs 名 探 偵 コ ナ ン(Rupan Sansei vs Meitantei Conan)|
|22nd||02/12/2010||Lupine III: the Last Job||ル パ ン 三世 the Last Job (Rupan Sansei the Last Job)|
|23||12/02/2011||Lupine III: Blood Seal - Eternal Mermaid||ル パ ン 三世 血 の 刻印 〜 永遠 の Mermaid〜(Rupan Sansei Chi no Kokuin - Eien no Māmeido)|
|24||11/02/2012||Record of Observations of the East - Another Page||東方 見聞 録 〜 ア ナ ザ ー ペ ー ジ 〜(Tōhō kenbunroku - Anazā Pēji)|
Original video animation
Three original video animations for Lupine III were also released in Japan :
- Secret Files (1989)
- Return of Pycal (2002)
- Green vs Red (2008)
The OVA Secret Files contains, among other things, two versions of the pilot film of Lupine III, originally completed in 1969. The OVA also contains trailers for the films Mystery of Mamo , The Castle of Cagliostro and Legend of the Gold of Babylon .
However, in May 1983. Lupine first came to the United States, not as a television series, but as arcade game from Capcom , the images from the first two movies used. Until the 1990s, international releases of the series often had to use names like Rupan or Wolf , as the copyright owners of Maurice Leblanc's works did not allow the use of the name Lupine . As far as the series was aware, these had started a legal battle, at the end of which the use of the name Lupine was not allowed internationally . However, since it had been running in Japan for over 10 years without the rights holder taking any action, Monkey Punch's work was able to keep its name here. Leblanc's rights expired in 2016. From 1985 Lupine came out in France, already 1979 ran the first season on Italian television with GBR. The second season followed in 1981 and the third in 1987. From the 1990s this was also shown in Spain and Latin America. The English version in particular was later repeated by several broadcasters and finally also published by streaming services.
In 1987 the film Das Schloss des Cagliostro was heavily cut in German as Hardyman cleans up, released on VHS and shown on TV as Hardyman creates all . All scenes with Goemon, 26 minutes, have been removed, Lupine has been rewritten as a superhero and a certain "Mia Zaki" has been named as the director. From 2001 the four TV specials Voyage to Danger (Der Höllentrip) , Dragon of Doom (Der Goldene Drache) , The Pursuit of Harimao's Treasure and The Secret of Twilight Gemini (The Diamond of the Twilight) were released on MTV. shown, but each tailored to four episodes. The castle of Cagliostro was published in February 2006 by Anime-Virtual in an uncut version and with a new synchronization. Furthermore, from June 2006 the four TV specials broadcast by MTV appeared on DVD under their English titles. These have been broadcast on VOX at irregular intervals since the end of 2006 . In August 2006 the film Farewell to Nostradamus was released on DVD.
The first movie about Lupine III came out before the anime films in 1974, Nenriki Chin Sakusen . Another real-life film is Lupine The Third, released in 2014 . In 2007, a 95-part Filipino television series was also created based on the manga.
In 2014, a Takarazuka musical for the manga came on a Tokyo stage. The title was Lupine III -Ōhi no Kubi Kazari o Oe-.
Reception and analysis
According to Frederik L. Schodt , the manga was particularly popular with middle and high school students because of its clever twists and turns and the "jazzy, fashionable drawing style combined with humorous eroticism". Jason Thompson also emphasizes the many clever twists in the plot - and that the manga, with its extremely episodic character, is very different from most other mangas. Inspired by Mad Magazine and Mort Drucker and similar in their stories to the comedy of Spy vs. Spy or The Spirit , Lupine III is the prime example of comics as pure comedy for adults. They show a clichéd agent and gangster world of the 1960s, in which guns kill but bombs only leave a surprised black figure behind, with men as sloppy thugs and women as sex dolls. The one that was published from 1977 goes one step further, with a more mature, lively drawing style. Tatsuya Seto also refers to the clear American influences in Lupine III in his recommendation in 1001 Comics, which you should read before life is over . This would have influenced other artists and brought about "a general modernization of the Manga aesthetic". The British critic Paul Gravett writes about the manga: “What makes up for the Bond-like sexism is the incredible sense of the comic […], the ingenious twists and turns of the story and the presence of the devious femme fatale Fujiko.” “Apt, but often Sketchy pen drawings, slapstick-like gags, sexy girls and lots of action ”characterize the Manga, according to the German magazine Mangaszene . The series is "a delicious parody of James Bond and the like", but not as romanticized as the version by Hayao Miyazaki and therefore "not for everyone".
The anime was initially a flop in Japan. The cultural scientist Joachim Friedmann attributes this to the fact that the series with its realism, almost like in the Ligne claire , was something that had not been there before, as well as to the adult themes and the main character. The anime was one of the first to deliberately target adults. It was only when the right audience knew about the series over time that the second season became a huge success, while the first season in 1977 - several years after its unsuccessful first airing - was voted the fourth most popular series in the country by the audience. In 2006, TV Asahi ranked the series as the 39th Most Popular Anime in Japan. The characters and stories of the second season are kept simpler than those of the first season in order to appeal to a younger audience. In the following theatrical adaptations, the child-compatible versions of Lupine were often the more commercially successful ones, but the more serious ones, which show the dark side of the character, made Lupine a more complex figure that was also considered by the film critics. According to Monkey Punch itself, only the first season reflects the true spirit of their original. The Anime Guide calls the series an endless crime-comedy bunch, the stories of which are often shamelessly borrowed from films such as Pink Panther , Ocean's Eleven or To Catch a Thief . Critic Fred Patten also compares to To Catch a Thief , to which a pinch of James Bond was added in Lupine III .
Friedmann assigns the character Lupine to the Mod culture of the 1960s: “Slim, tall, with a French cut , always well dressed, always smiling and always in control.” He is “not an antihero, but definitely someone from the other side “who doesn't want to teach, but who is about coolness and fun. The opposite pole to him were his sweaty, dull, crazy or, like Zenigata, simply uncool opponents. Despite the many women lying at Lupine's feet, the series is not misogynistic, because the only one who can hold a candle to Lupine is a woman. With his character, "cynical, calculating, hedonistic, sex-hungry, immature", Lupine is the escapist dream of the regulated Japanese who can break out of the rigid rules of his society - un-Japanese and a typically Japanese creation at the same time.
In the 1990s, Lupine became the inspiration for the anime series Cowboy Bebop , a science fiction series with western elements and jazz music. Lupine's music was very successful in its own right and was also distributed outside of Japan independently of the series.
The releases in France and Italy quickly became successful, and the anime also became popular in the United States. In 2003 he reached number 9 in a survey by Newtype USA on the most popular animes. In Germany, Lupine III is much less well known because of its limited publications.
- Joachim Friedmann: Sometimes Good Guys Don't wear White . In: German Film Institute - DIF / German Film Museum & Museum of Applied Arts (Ed.): Ga-netchû! The Manga Anime Syndrome. Henschel Verlag, 2008. pp. 226-233. ISBN 978-3-89487-607-4 .
- Jonathan Clements, Helen McCarthy: The Anime Encyclopedia. Revised & Expanded Edition . Stone Bridge Press, Berkeley 2006, ISBN 978-1-933330-10-5 , pp. 380 .
- Animania 4/2015, p. 85.
- Trish Ledoux, Doug Ranney: The Complete Anime Guide . Tiger Mountain Press, Issaquah 1995, ISBN 0-9649542-3-0 , pp. 67 .
- Patten, 2004, p. 240.
- Manga scene No. 17, p. 10ff.
- Patten, 2004, p. 228f.
- Fred Patten: Watching Anime, Reading Manga - 25 Years of Essays and Reviews , p. 93. Stone Bridge Press, 2004.
- 金 曜 特別 ロ ー ド シ ョ ー 「ル パ ン 三世 vs 名 探 偵 コ ナ ン」 . (No longer available online.) Nippon TV, archived from the original January 8, 2011 ; Retrieved March 29, 2009 (Japanese). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Fred Patten: Watching Anime, Reading Manga - 25 Years of Essays and Reviews , p. 31. Stone Bridge Press, 2004.
- Jason Thompson: Manga. The Complete Guide . Del Rey, New York 2007, ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8 , pp. 196 f .
- Jonathan Clements, Helen McCarthy: The Anime Encyclopedia. Revised & Expanded Edition . Stone Bridge Press, Berkeley 2006, ISBN 978-1-933330-10-5 , pp. 474 .
- Sarah Nelkin: Lupine III Musical With All-Female Cast Previewed in Video. Anime News Network, December 4, 2014, accessed April 14, 2018 .
- Frederik L. Schodt: Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics . Kodansha America, 1983, ISBN 978-0-87011-752-7 , pp. 120 .
- Paul Gravett (eds.) And Andreas C. Knigge (transl.): 1001 comics you should read before life is over . Zurich 2012, Edition Olms. P. 282.
- Paul Gravett: Manga - Sixty Years of Japanese Comics , p. 102. Egmont Manga and Anime, 2004.
- Manga scene No. 19, p. 38.
- Christopher Macdonald: Japan's Favorite TV Anime. In: Anime News Network. October 12, 2006, accessed April 12, 2018 .
- Patten, 2004, p. 357.
- Newtype USA Jun 2003, Vol. 02 No. 06, p. 80.