City Parish Church of the Assumption of Mary (Landsberg am Lech)
The Catholic parish church of the Assumption of Mary is the main church in the city of Landsberg am Lech . It is located on Georg-Hellmair-Platz. The listed building under the file number D-1-81-130-76 is a stately three-aisled pillar basilica with a polygonal choir, nave flank tower and two vestibules in the north and south-west, which was designed by Matthäus Ensingers with the help of Valentin Kindlin and Veit Maurer over the years It was built between 1458 and 1488 and was converted to Baroque style from 1680 to 1710.
The church is first mentioned at this location in 1219. During the late Romanesque period , it was expanded as a three-aisled basilica and a choir was added. The font from this time has been preserved, it is located in the central aisle.
Abbot Leonhard von Wessobrunn laid the foundation stone in 1458. The late Gothic pillar basilica was built according to plans by Matthäus Ensinger , who also made a decisive contribution to the construction of the Ulm Cathedral and the completion of the Strasbourg Cathedral . Most of the masonry is made of bricks . Most of the facades are now plastered, some of them smooth. The construction was carried out under the direction of the Strasbourg builders Valentin Kindlin and Ulrich Kiffhaber . In 1466 it was consecrated. The carved wooden Madonna on the north side of the choir, which was created around 1440, probably comes from Hans Multscher from Ulm .
In the 17th century the church was baroque and redecorated. In 1979 an extensive interior renovation was carried out in which an electric night storage heater was installed. Furthermore, the medieval stained glass in the choir was restored by the Munich workshop Gustav van Treeck and provided with external protective glazing.
The complete renovation of the church was carried out from 2007 to 2010 by the Munich architect Christoph Maas. As part of this refurbishment, the west gable was statically refurbished, the south portal partially underpinned and the roof insulated and re-covered. The roof trusses, the stucco and the vaults were renovated. In addition to general cleaning work in the building and on paintings, the paintings by Joseph Bernhard (1702) and Johann Jakob Pottmayr (1702) were cleaned with additions by Waldemar Kolmsperger (1903). The external protective glazing of the medieval stained glass in the chancel from 1979 was renewed, the approx. 400 medieval stained glass in the choir and the approx. 220 stained glass created by the Mayer'schen Hofkunstanstalt were preserved and provided with protective glazing.
The stone restorations were carried out by the Bamberg company Bauer-Bornemann, the work on all glass paintings from the Middle Ages and the 19th century was carried out by the Würzburg company Rothkegel Glas GmbH.
The church was originally a flat-roofed pillar basilica with a six-bay nave with a length of 70.2 m, a width of 33.2 m and a ridge height of 35 m. The choir, which has not been retracted, closes with a five-eighth closure with buttresses, also on the walls of the nave. All windows are ogival and decorated with tracery . The building is accessed via two double portals under vestibules with rib vaults, which lie to the northwest and southwest of the nave; the latter with a late Gothic chapel room on the upper floor. The 70.6 m high, unusually slim tower is arranged on the second nave axis from the east on the east side. The lower six floors apparently date from the 13th century, are decorated with round arch friezes and bear the oldest belfry in Bavaria from 1417. The baroque upper part with onion dome was built in 1699 by Michael II Beer. The sacristy, added to the south of the choir and completed in 1464, is built in the shape of an octagon stretching in an east-west direction and closed with a graceful star vault.
The interior of the choir was vaulted according to a year 1488. In the nave, a baroque wooden vault with stitch caps and a semicircular cross-section from 1702 completes the room. Late Gothic cross-ribbed vaults have been drawn into the side aisles, and transverse barrel vaults in the side chapels. Both parts of the room are opened to the central nave by pointed arch arcades, between which there are slender Corinthian pilasters in the central nave . A west gallery built around 1790 was demolished in 1979.
Stucco and ceiling paintings
The Wessobrunn stucco from 1702–1707 was made by Matthias Stiller from Ettringen. The vault decorations consist of spiral acanthus tendrils, fruit pendants and rosettes, the stitch cap ridges and picture frames are made from strong oak and laurel sticks. The ceiling paintings in the choir were executed in 1705 by Johann Jakob Pottmayer (Potma), painted over by Waldemar Kolmsperger the Elder in 1902 and revised again in 1968. The oblong oval central picture with the representation of the Assumption of the Virgin was exposed again in 1980, to the east the empty tomb of Christ and to the west God the Father is shown.
In the central nave there are also three large picture fields that are attributed to Joseph Bernhard. In the middle, elongated oval field, the dove of the Holy Spirit and angels playing music are depicted, to the east there is a quatrefoil field with St. Sebastian (the city's patron) and to the west, St. Vitus, the church's namesake The economical vaulting of the side aisles only emphasizes the cross ribs. The cycle of Mary on the nave pillars was created by Pottmayr.
The late Gothic glass paintings in the choir are among the most important examples of their kind in Bavaria and were created between the 15th century and 1513.
The northern Passion Window (n II according to the CVMA designation system ) with a representation of the crowning of thorns, flagellation and carrying the cross was made shortly after 1500 and is attributed to Hans Holbein the Elder and his workshop. In the north wall the Marienfenster n III shows standing figures of Mary with the baby Jesus, accompanied by the martyrs Barbara and Katharina from an Augsburg workshop, which was originally installed in the middle window of the altar house. Among them is the death of the Virgin from the period after 1510.
The Dreikönigsfenster (n IV) shows the adoration of the three wise men from around 1510 with numerous additions from the beginning of the 20th century. A representation of the thorn-crowned head of Christ from 1490/1500 was originally inserted in the quatrefoil of the middle window above the late Gothic high altar.
On the northern wall of the choir (n V) there is also the Christophorus window from around 1510 and in the successor of the master of the speculum window from Munich, which is considered to be unique in stained glass in southern Germany in terms of the quality of the stained glass as well as its state of preservation .
To the right of the high altar, in window s II, the heavily supplemented southern passion window shows the crucifixion and lamentation of Christ from around 1500 and around 1510.
In the southern choir wall is the Herzog Albrecht window (see III), the design of which is attributed to Hans Muelich and Wolfgang Priedelmayer. The window is a ducal foundation in the style of an epitaph and represents Albrecht V and his relatives in prayer, recommended by Saints Peter and Andrew.
The mighty, magnificent high altar in the high baroque style was created by Jörg Pfeiffer in 1680. The richly gilded three-part altar structure with four twisted columns and with acanthus foliage and fruit hangings shows on the altar sheet made by the court painter Antonio Triva the veneration of the Mother of God by the four continents and the Bavarian duke . The painting is flanked by the larger-than-life assistant figures, Saint Joseph and Saint Joachim . The picture in the excerpt, flanked by two large angels, shows Saint Vitus in glory . Archangel Michael crowns the altar in battle with Lucifer . The sculptures are made by the important local sculptor Lorenz Luidl . Between the front choir stalls there is a Mannerist-Early Baroque crucifixion group (1610/20), made by Bartholomäus Steinle . The rosary altar on the north wall of the choir from 1721 is the work of Dominikus Zimmermann , on it stands the Madonna from 1440, attributed to Hans Multscher, in a niche. The choir stalls in the front choir area and to the side of the high altar were made by Franz Rehm the Elder in 1710/11 created.
Two large high baroque side altars are set up on the eastern end walls of the aisles. To the north is the Eligius Altar (1681), the brotherhood altar for all metalworking professions, which Jörg Pfeiffer created. The main picture (by Johann Georg Knappich) shows St. Eligius turns to those seeking help , the excerpt shows the resurrection of Christ . In the cafeteria there is a protective coat Madonna from the 17th century, behind which the predella shows Das Haus Nazereth . To the south is the Sebastian Altar (1690), which Martin Schaller created. It is the altar of the Sebastian Brotherhood, with a wider structure than the Eligius altar. The main picture (by Johann C. Loth) shows The Care of Saint Sebastian , on the side outside the double columns stand the assistant figures of Saints Wolfgang and Rochus (by Lorenz Luidl) on canopy-crowned consoles . A half-length of the altar patron can be seen in the excerpt.
On the side of the choir arch, leaning against columns, are the two rococo altars made by Georg Nieberle in 1761. To the north is the baker's altar with a depiction of the Mount of Olives scene on the altar sheet, and a shrine with the remains of the martyr Clemens on the cafeteria. To the south is the Peasant Brotherhood Altar with a depiction of Christ's Descent from the Cross, influenced by Peter Paul Rubens , on the altar panel , and a shrine with the Holy Five Wounds (1723) on the cafeteria.
The elegant and simple pulpit was built in 1708 by Franz Rehm the Elder. The sound cover, carried by two angels, is crowned by a life-size trumpet angel. The basket figures were created by Carl Port in 1902/03 .
The statues of saints Joseph, Aloysius , Johannes Nepomuk , Wendelin , Count Rasso , Florian , Benedikt , Franz Xaver , Modestus and Kreszentia stand on consoles on the central nave pillars . They were created around 1732 by Johann Luidl (the son of Lorenz Luidl) and are among his main works. On the high walls of the nave, in niches framed by dainty, rich stucco work, there are ten figures of the apostles from 1694, which were again made by Lorenz Luidl. A cycle of Mary consisting of eight paintings adorns the inside of the pillars, which depict , among other things, The Annunciation , the Visitation of Mary and the Assumption of Mary . It was painted by Johann Jakob Pottmayr at the beginning of the 18th century.
The church stalls in the nave and in the chapels with carved rocaille work on the cheeks come from the workshop of Franz Rehm the Elder and were installed in 1707.
South side chapels
Note: The chapels are described in the direction from west to east.
The Sacred Heart Chapel was donated by the butchers' guild. On the altar from 1680/90 the painting shows a depiction of the Sacred Heart and the predella the fourteen helpers in need . The assistant figures (1695), the saints Pope Silvester and Antonius Abbas , are attributed to Lorenz Luidl. An early Baroque painting epitaph for Mayor Haldenberger hangs on the west wall.
The Barbarakapelle was donated by the merchants. On the altar from 1695 the painting The Torture and Apothesis of St. Barbara , painted by Johann Georg Knappich. The assistant figures (1695) hll. Ursula and Appolonia are attributed to Lorenz Luidl. A painting epitaph (1670) for Johann Jesenwanger hangs on the west wall.
The chapel of the Brotherhood of John Nepomuk has an altar from 1796 dedicated to St. Margarethe (altarpiece Martyrdom of St. Margaret , 1671) and St. Johannes Nepomuk (oval painting in the cafeteria, 1753) was consecrated.
The Katharinenkapelle was donated by the brewers. On the altar from 1759, the painting The Beheading of St. Katharina , painted by Johann Georg Knappich. The award of the scapular to St. Simon can be seen in the extract . The assistant figures (1695), the saints Agatha and Agnes , are attributed to Johann Luidl. On the west wall is a late Gothic fresco from 1500 with Jesus being deposed from the cross.
The Martinskapelle was donated by the wine owners. On the altar from 1755/60 shows the painting The Cloak Division of St. Martin , painted by Johann Georg Knappich. In the excerpt the half figure of St. To see Joseph. The assistant figures (1760), Saints Francis of Assisi and Antonius of Padua , were made by Johann Luidl. A painting epitaph (1600) with St. George hangs on the west wall .
The confessionals in the chapels date from the 18th century. The windows of the chapels have glass paintings created by the Mayer'schen Hofkunstanstalt, which complement the theme of the respective altar.
North side chapels
Note: The chapels are described in the direction from west to east.
The Epiphany Chapel was donated by the cobblers and leather workers. On the altar from 1730, the painting (1700) shows the Adoration of the Magi and the predella half-length portraits of the secondary patron. The assistant figures (1st third of the 17th century), Saints Bartholomäus and Magdalena , are attributed to Johann Luidl. The former side altarpiece of Jesus appears to the apostles Peter and Paul (1590) by Alessandro Paduano hangs on the west wall .
The Kreuzkapelle was donated by the furriers and tailors. On the altar from 1760 the painting (late 17th century) shows the crucifixion of Christ with Mary and John . The assistant figures (1st third of the 17th century), Saints Helena and Constantine , are attributed to Bartholomäus Steinle. The former side altarpiece of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1593) by Peter Candid hangs on the west wall .
The Chapel of Our Lady of Sorrows was donated by the dyers and weavers. On the altar (18th century, reworked several times) is an early Baroque Pietà from 1625 in the large central niche, which is attributed to the important Weilheim sculptor Hans Degler . The picture of the predella shows a depiction of the poor souls (1700). A painting epitaph (1606) with the Assumption of Mary into Heaven hangs on the west wall .
On the inner south wall of the church tower is a monumental red marble memorial for the fallen of the First World War; in this a white marble Pietà (1921) by Franz Cleve is inserted in a niche. A former altarpiece (1733) with the death of St. Benedict.
The Anna Chapel from 1467 is the largest chapel room in the church. On the altar (1753) there is a painting with the holy clan created by the great Swabian painter Johann Georg Bergmüller . The assistant figures at the same time, the saints Afra and Hilaria, are attributed to the circle of Johann Baptist Straub . A unique nativity scene of the cross is kept in a display cabinet that occupies the entire west wall, the 75 figures of which were made and preciously set by Johann Luidl.
Gallery and west wall
The entire equipment program in this area of the church interior is dedicated to St. Vitus, the second church patron. The Vitus altar, created in 1696, stands in the middle of the west wall . Vitus is accompanied on the outside by the martyrs Stephen and Laurentius. The sculptures and the ornamental equipment come from Lorenz Luidl. On the underside and on the parapet of the gallery are framed by rich stucco frescoes with scenes from the legend of Vitus. The paintings are supplemented with the pillar statues of St. Modestus, the tutor of Vitus, and St. Kreszentia, his wet nurse. Opposite them are the statues of the Archangel Michael weighing souls and an unidentifiable angel.
Next to the Kreszentia figure, there is a formerly much venerated Pietà from 1410/20 in a shrine. On the north west wall hang two baroque painting epitaphs, including the Assumption of Mary from 1682.
The city parish church has a varied organ history . The first instrument was built by the organ builder David Jacob Weidtner (Augsburg) in the years 1686–1689. The baroque organ prospect of this instrument from 1688 with figures by Lorenz Luidl is still available today.
Today's organ work in the historical prospectus goes back to an instrument that was built in the years 1979–1983 by the organ builder Gerhard Schmid from Kaufbeuren. This instrument had 82 stops on 5 manuals and a pedal . The windchests made of mahogany wood are a special feature .
In 2003 the instrument was rebuilt by the organ builder Siegfried Schmid from Knottenried near Immenstadt in the Allgäu . A large part of the existing pipe material was reused, but the overall disposition was significantly reduced. The two side works (positive) experienced significant changes in their disposition. The entire action and the console were rebuilt. The slider chests -instrument has since more than 60 registers, four manuals and pedal. The key actions are mechanical, the stop actions are electrical. The choir organ, which has six manual stops and two pedal stops, can also be played from the main organ.
- Normal coupling: II / I, III / I, III / II, IV / I, IV / II, I / P, II / P, III / P, IV / P
- Sub-octave coupling: III / I
- Bombards: at I, at II, at III, at IV, at P
- Secondary register: bell cymbals, bell cymbals, glockenspiel
- Playing aids : 4000 electronic typesetting system, sequencer, crescendo roller
The choir organ has 8 registers on a manual and pedal
The numerous grave monuments give a lively picture of urban society from the 14th to 19th centuries. Century. Only the most important can be listed here individually. A grave monument in the most important parish church indicated a socially important position. This included the clergy, doctors, the landed gentry and officials of the duke or elector, the mayors, innkeepers and their families as well as wealthy citizens.
As an example, the tomb of the priest Conrad Frech from around 1510 by the master with the angle iron, which is attached to the west wall to the north, can be seen above the painting epitaphs for the mayor Wolfgang Probst the Younger with a representation of the Assumption of Mary into heaven, as well as for the guild of carpenters and bricklayers with a depiction of the conversion of Paul from 1682.
On the west wall to the south there is a tomb of a doctor, on which the lamentation of Christ in the presence of a doctor is shown in the upper field and the doctor with a urine glass below, also by the master with the angle iron from 1510. The tomb of a priest with a representation des Erbärmde-Christ dates from the second third of the 14th century.
In addition to the Eligius altar, at the eastern choir entrance of the north aisle, there is the grave slab of Margarethe, wife of Conrad von Freyberg from 1439, which is ascribed to the master of the Schwangau Tumba. It shows the alliance coat of arms of the von Freyberg Stadium and Wildeople on capitals under canopies and keel arches .
The parish church of the Assumption of Mary in Landsberg testifies to the pride of the city through its dimensions and the architectural design, which was particularly challenged by its exposed location. Matthäus Ensinger from Ulm was appointed for the construction, who with his successors built a uniform brick building in a relatively short time, which mediates between the western and the old Bavarian region. The unusually rich furnishings with colored glass windows from the construction period and shortly thereafter are among the most precious works of art in the church. The baroque design of the church by Wessobrunn masters and painters from Munich and Augsburg, together with the numerous altars, gives a vivid impression of the changes in interior design over a century. Thanks to the large order, the Luidl workshop has been able to develop an activity that has an impact far across the region in two generations. In the 19th century, the high quality glass painting cycle of the Munich glassworks and the Landsberg citizens could once again build on the previous artistic achievements. The 20th / 21st The 18th century once again documents the high level of appreciation for the church by the people of the city and the surrounding area with the extensive conservation measures.
- Heide Weißhaar-Kiem: City parish church Mariae Himmelfahrt Landsberg am Lech . 19th provisional edition. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2017, ISBN 978-3-7954-4011-4 , ( Small art guide 88).
- Karl Gattinger, Grietje Suhr: Landsberg am Lech, city and district. (= Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation [Hrsg.]: Monuments in Bavaria. Volume I.14 ). Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-7917-2449-2 (2nd half volume, pp. 387-403)
- Landsberger Geschichtsblätter - Lorenz Luidl on the 300th anniversary of his death , 117th year 2019. Self-published by the Historisches Verein Landsberg am Lech e. V. (20-page artist's monograph).
- Church description on the website of the parish community Landsberg
- Glass paintings in the cath. Landsberg am Lech parish church. (PDF; 1.9 MB) Bayerische Staatszeitung, November 6, 2009
- Description of the inventory and the glass restoration work from 2008 to 2009
- Glass paintings in the cath. Landsberg am Lech parish church. (PDF; 1.9 MB) Bayerische Staatszeitung, November 6, 2009, p. 17
- Heide Weißhaar-Kiem: City parish church Mariae Himmelfahrt Landsberg am Lech (= Schnell Art Guide No. 88). 20th edition, Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-7954-4011-4 .
- Georg Dehio : Handbook of German Art Monuments. Bayern IV: Munich and Upper Bavaria. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich, Berlin 2006, ISBN 978-3-422-03115-9 , pp. 623-624.
- detail on the history of the organs of the parish church
- detail on the reorganization of the organ
- To the disposition of the organ