Tram Graz

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tram Graz
Geographical data
continent Europe
country Austria
state Styria
Operating data
Network map of the Graz tram
Network map of the Graz tram
Route length: 67.2 km
Gauge : 1435 mm ( standard gauge )
Power system : 600 V  =
Maximum slope : 4.2 
Minimum radius : 17.5 m
opening July 8, 1878
operator Graz Lines
Line vehicles 66
Work vehicles 8th
Nostalgic vehicles 15 (Graz Tramway Museum)
Since 2010, the older tram cars in Graz have been gradually replaced by the new Variobahn type. All 45 ordered Variobahn sets have been delivered and in use since December 2015.
Eight-axle articulated railcar 507 on Conrad-von-Hötzendorf-Strasse (2007)

The Graz tram was opened in 1878 as a standard-gauge horse - drawn tram . The tram , which was operated electrically from 1898 , now has a route network totaling 67.2 kilometers in length. The tram is operated by Graz Linien (formerly Graz AG Verkehrsbetriebe , GVB), a division of Holding Graz (formerly Grazer Stadtwerke Aktiengesellschaft ), which is owned by the City of Graz . Together with the also operated by the Graz Lines inner-city bus network is the tram Graz in the Styrian Transport Association incorporated.

Around 52 million passengers are transported annually on the tram network, which consists of eight lines. All lines lead from the central Jakominiplatz in a star shape to nine suburban destinations , whereby there are several intersections with regional and supra-regional transport of the ÖBB as well as the touristically important Graz Schloßbergbahn .


Beginnings (1865–1878)

The population of the city of Graz rose rapidly during the 19th century. Between 1844 and 1846, the opening of the Austrian Southern Railway as a north-south connection and the construction of the Südbahnhof (now the main train station ) contributed to this. In 1859 the Graz-Köflacher Railway was connected to the Southern Railway. The city had nearly 100,000 inhabitants at that time.

At the beginning of 1865, Schaeck-Jaquet & Comp was motivated by the prospect of a lucrative business by transporting rail passengers from the Südbahnhof, which was then still outside the city, to the center below the Schlossberg . to seek a concession to build a horse-drawn tram . The Graz city administration rejected the application of the company, which was also involved in a similar horse-drawn tram project in Vienna, for reasons that were not known.

In 1868, four consortia applied simultaneously for the project. The consortium around the director of the Graz-Köflacher Railway and Mining Company received the concession to build a horse-drawn tram in November of the same year. However, the company was not able to implement this project in the following six years, so that the concession expired in 1874.

Since another important long-distance rail link, the Styrian Eastern Railway , had been running to the Graz Südbahnhof since the previous year and the number of people being transported to the city center was constantly increasing, four years later the Graz city administration signed a contract to build a horse-drawn tramway with Bernhard Kollmann , the Director of Tramway Prague . On April 15, 1878, the specially founded company Grazer Tramway (GT) received a concession to "build and operate a standard-gauge horse-drawn tram from the Südbahnhof to Geidorfplatz ".

Development of the route network

Horse tram (1878–1895)

Horse carriage 22 (1898)

After a commission had inspected the planned route on May 6, 1878, construction work could begin immediately. On June 7th, the police checked the route and 31 days later the double-track, 2.2 km long tramway from the Südbahnhof to Jakominiplatz was officially opened. On the first day of operation, the Graz Tramway carried 1765 passengers. At that time, the tram company employed a total of 44 people.

The extension to Geidorfplatz specified in the concession was opened on June 28, 1879. A year later, the construction of a branch line to the Jakomini belt, near today's exhibition hall, which was put into operation on July 12, 1880, was completed. The GT had a fleet of five open (numbers 1–5) and 24 closed (numbers 10–33) horse-drawn carriages for the operation of its now 6.1 km long route network. The vehicles and horses were housed in a building near the Südbahnhof.

Since the founder of GT died on January 26th, 1885 and his heirs and the municipality could not agree on a sale to the city administration, the company went to a German consortium, which founded a new operating company, the Grazer Tramway Gesellschaft (GTG) . GTG had to commit to further network expansion and took over operations on August 6, 1887. Shortly after taking over the company, GTG acquired four more summer cars, which were added to the inventory as numbers 6–9. A year later, in addition to the first loop , other double-track sections went into operation.

The city architect Andrea Franz received a concession in 1894 to build a steam tram to Mariatrost . On October 31, 1895, the Jakominiplatz – Schillerplatz line was the last horse-drawn tram to go into operation. At that time the GTG had an 11-kilometer route network as well as 40 closed and nine open, green-painted horse-drawn carriages, which were pulled by one or two horses depending on the route profile. Each of the five lines was marked with its own colored symbol.

Electrification and new labeling (1897–1911)

Railcar 1 of the Graz-Mariatrost Electric Small Railroad (1899)
Wall rosette made of cast iron for 3 guy wires to the overhead line
Tram set in Herrengasse (1902)

In 1897, contrary to the concession granted in 1894 for a steam-powered small train, Andrea Franz began building an electric , meter-gauge tram. After the test drives with the locomotives on December 15 and 16, 1897, the necessary police test drives could be completed on January 25 and 26, 1898; On January 29, 1898, the Graz – Mariatrost small electric railway was officially opened.

The 5.247 km long ropeway ran from the corner of Zinzendorfgasse and Glacisstraße in Graz city center to Mariatrost. A direct voltage of 500  volts was chosen as the operating voltage . At the end of the railway there was a shed with a turntable , transfer table and workshop as well as a power plant . At the final stop in Glacisstraße there was a possibility to change to the GTG. The Kleinbahn had a fleet of eight two-axle railcars and eight trailer cars from the Grazer Waggonfabrik . Because of the red color scheme of the vehicle park, the electric train was referred to by the citizens of Graz as Die Rote . Andrea Franz sold the railway to the Dutschka & Comp bank at the end of 1898 . from Vienna .

GTG began electrification work on the entire route network in July 1898 . The work was carried out by Siemens & Halske ; The GTG chose 550 volts direct voltage as the operating voltage. The superstructure was also reinforced during the electrification work . In addition to catenary masts , wall rosettes were attached to the house walls in areas with houses on both sides to anchor the catenary . Work on the Jakominiplatz – Staatsbahnhof (later Ostbahnhof, since December 12, 2010 Graz Ostbahnhof-Messe ) and Schillerplatz – Annenstrasse lines was completed by June 15, 1899. From June 24th, all lines were operated electrically. The day before, the last horse-drawn tram was in Graz.

The supply of the overhead line network with direct current ensured a newly built steam power plant in the Steyrergasse. Another remise and a company building were also built there. The GTG procured 40 new railcars for electrical operation. In order to avoid the purchase of new sidecars, 23 of the 49 existing horse-drawn trams were adapted to run on electricity.

Towards the end of 1899, the Graz Tramway Company employed a total of 191 people. Through a massive network expansion between 1899 and 1906, the GTG linked some suburbs to the tram network. During this period, the network grew by 21 kilometers. The expansion also resulted in a sharp increase in the frequency of use, which resulted in the acquisition of new vehicles. Another shed was built in Alte Poststrasse for the new vehicles. In 1902 the GTG had 70 railcars, 40 sidecars and seven salt cars for winter operation. The new owner of the small railway to Mariatrost became on July 1, 1900 the Aktiengesellschaft Elektro Kleinbahn Graz-Mariatrost .

On May 12, 1903, following a resolution by the general assembly of the Grazer Tramway Gesellschaft, GTG acquired a large part of the shares in the electric small railway. In 1906, the GTG procured six new railcars, which were added to the inventory as numbers 71-76. Two years later, new vehicles were purchased again. There were eight sidecars (70B-77B) and nine railcars (80-88). Since there were no more parking spaces available in the two existing depots for the newly acquired vehicles, GTG decided to build another depot near the Südbahnhof, which has now been declared a central station.

Line numbering (1911)
number Lines
1 Central station - Hilnteich
2 Hauptbahnhof - main train station
3 Gösting - Schillerplatz
4th Andritz - Ostbahnhof
5 St. Leonhard - Hartenaugasse
6th Puntigam - St. Peter
7th Eggenberg - St. Peter
8th Wetzelsdorf - Annenstrasse

In 1911 the Grazer Tramway Gesellschaft replaced the colored line symbols with numbers (see table). All vehicles received illuminated signal discs for line marking.

First World War (1914-1918)

With the arrival of private automobiles and carriage horses for war purposes and the need to procure everyday goods, the number of passengers skyrocketed during the First World War . At the same time, the previously predominantly male staff became scarce. Both the Grazer Tramway Gesellschaft and the Elektro Kleinbahn Graz-Mariatrost hired more women in 1914, who were mainly employed as conductors . In 1914, the small electric train acquired two new sidecars, which were henceforth designated as 7B and 8B. These vehicles were designed identically to cars 5B and 6B. In the same year the GTG also acquired new vehicles. There were twelve sidecars, which were added to the inventory as 101B-112B. At this point in time, the GTG had 149 vehicles, while the Small Electric Railway had a manageable fleet of vehicles consisting of eight railcars and eight sidecars.

Since the city of Graz could not be adequately supplied with coal from horse-drawn vehicles due to a lack of horses , the GTG agreed to transport coal by tram in 1915. 16  coal trucks (K1 – K16) were procured and their own coal tracks were laid. From 1916 onwards, the Graz Tramway Company increasingly built reversing loops at the terminal stops in order to avoid having to reconnect the sidecars. Lines 5 (Sankt Leonhard – Hartenaugasse) and 8 (Wetzelsdorf – Annenstrasse) were merged in 1917 to form line 5 (Sankt Leonhard – Annenstrasse). In addition to the purchase of new vehicles in the same year, we acquired used sidecar from Vienna . In addition to transporting coal and the wounded, the tram was also used to transport military vehicles, as the railcars pulled the military trucks through the city. Line operation was only possible to a limited extent during this time, as a lack of spare parts forced damaged vehicles into the depots.

Interwar period (1918–1939)

Historical station Hilnteich

After the end of the war, all damaged vehicles were repaired and operations could be continued without restrictions. As the transport numbers rose sharply again in 1919, GTG decided to build new sidecars in Remise III. Eight of these cars were built between 1919 and 1920, and were henceforth designated as 51B-59B. The Grazer Tramway Gesellschaft also continued to expand the tram network. With the opening of numerous new route sections by 1926, the route network reached 42.6 km, its largest expansion in the history of GTG.

On December 10, 1924, GTG took over further tram vehicles from Vienna. With the exception of vehicle 1662, which could no longer be used because it was in poor condition, all vehicles were adapted for use in Graz. In 1925 and 1926, the Remise III workshop again produced three vehicles (170B – 172B) in-house. In 1927 line 8 (Wetzelsdorf – Annenstraße) was re-launched, but only as a reinforcement line for lines 3 (Gösting – Schillerplatz) and 4 (Andritz – Ostbahnhof). In the 1930s there were only single-track sections on the outer lines, otherwise the entire line network was expanded to double-track. With the purchase of a 4800 m² area, the grounds of Remise III could be expanded and new sidings built.

Because of the high costs of procuring new vehicles, GTG decided to convert sidecars into railcars. This task was carried out by the main workshop. In addition to converting vehicles, the workshop also built freight cars and wagons as work cars for the maintenance of the route network. Between 1929 and 1933 numerous used vehicles were bought by the Viennese tram. The further decline in passenger numbers, which was due to the onset of the global economic crisis , forced GTG to take cost-saving measures: all early and late trains were operated by one person until 1937.

Railcar 19 at the Südbahnhof (1901)

After Austria was annexed to the German Reich in 1938, the right- hand driving rules were introduced (until now people usually drove on the left) and the vehicles were equipped with direction indicators. This changeover was unproblematic because the entry platforms of all vehicles used could be climbed from both sides. The massive threefold increase in the number of passengers made it necessary to purchase new vehicles.

By purchasing all of the remaining shares, the Grazer Tramway Gesellschaft came fully into the possession of the Graz-Mariatrost Small Electric Railway for the first time in 1939 . The Kleinbahn ceased to exist as an independent company.

Second World War (1939–1945)

After taking over the small electric railway, GTG stopped its uneconomical parallel operation on the route between the terminus Glacisstraße and Hilnteich on October 16, 1939. As the outdated fleet of Red mostly was in poor condition, all other vehicles except for a Kohlenlore Łódź sold ( "Litzmannstadt"). In the same year, eleven two-axle railcars were taken over from Düsseldorf and one year later the GTG began to switch the meter- gauge small railroad to standard gauge in stages . October 23, 1941 was the Red's last day of operation . From November 18, line 1 (Hauptbahnhof – Mariatrost) ran on the track of the small train.

The Grazer Tramway Gesellschaft took over twelve two-axle traction vehicles from Nuremberg in 1941 . In the same year the GTG changed its name to Grazer Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (GVG) . In 1943, 20 used sidecars were bought by Wiener Linien . In addition, the former small train depot in Mariatrost was rebuilt and continued as Remise IV. A year later, five type D1 railcars from Vienna joined the fleet. Of the 20 type s, s1 and s2 sidecars that were procured, not all of them were adapted for operation on the Graz lines due to the poor condition of the cars. Five vehicles were therefore never used, the other 15 sidecars were withdrawn as early as 1946. During the Second World War , there were air raids on more than 150 days , which repeatedly led to the temporary cessation of operations. Both the vehicles and the tracks were often badly damaged by bomb hits . Despite these restrictions, the GVG was able to maintain tram operations until the Red Army invaded .

Post-war period (1945–1950)

Network until 1951
number Walkway
1 Central station - Mariatrost
2 Ring line
3 Gösting - Krenngasse (via Griesplatz)
4th Andritz - Liebenau
5 Eggenberg - Central Cemetery
6th Puntigam - St. Peter (via Griesplatz)
7th Wetzelsdorf - St. Leonhard
8th Andritz - Krenngasse (weekdays)
[lt. 1948 timetable]
Railcar 68 was in use until 1956
SGP two-axle 222 on insertion line "E" (1977)

In the post-war period , the reconstruction of the destroyed infrastructure began. In 1945 the GVG had 69 multiple units and 63 sidecars. By May 11, 1946, all track damage had been repaired and the entire network was passable. Due to a lack of vehicles, Jakominiplatz could only be approached every 10 minutes, while pre-war timetables showed around 5 minutes during rush hour, and in 2007 this central interface will be approached every 2 minutes. The two partially destroyed Remisen I and III were restored by 1948. Since the contract signed with the German consortium in 1885 expired in 1948, the Graz tram again became the property of the city of Graz. The operation became part of the Grazer Stadtwerke (today Graz Linien ) and henceforth by the specially founded Graz AG Verkehrsbetriebe (GVB). After taking over the tram, GVB introduced the green / ivory paint scheme, which was applied to all vehicles used in passenger transport.

In 1949 the GVB rebuilt the completely destroyed Remise II and created its own paint shop. Between 1949 and 1952, the Simmering-Graz-Pauker (SGP) company delivered 50 two-axis sets, the order of which was still made by GVG. The vehicles were added to the inventory as the 201–250 and 401B – 450B. With 158 locomotives and 145 trailer cars, the number of cars reached the all-time high in the history of the Graz tram. The new vehicles made the old vehicles superfluous, which is why from 1950 the railcars 1–70 and all sidecars with open platforms were decommissioned.

Set sections of the route
line Route section Shutdown date
5 Eggenberg - Georgistraße 01/27/1951
3 Gösting - Ibererstrasse December 11, 1955
3 Ibererstrasse - Calvary Belt March 31, 1957
3 Calvary belt - Griesplatz 04/23/1957
2 Central station - Keplerbrücke 06/05/1962
2 Keplerbrücke - Wormgasse 11/14/1963
6th St. Peter - School Center (= St. Peter toll) 11/30/1969
2 Wormgasse - Maiffredygasse January 16, 1971
6th Jakominiplatz - Karlauer belt January 16, 1971

Line settings and demand lines

From the 1950s onwards, increasing individual traffic led to so-called "car-friendly traffic solutions ". In the city center, track structures were increasingly incorporated into the street by paving in order to gain additional lanes for vehicle traffic. Soon the drivers preferred at the time found the tram increasingly a hindrance. This and the steadily decreasing number of passengers served Graz AG Verkehrsbetriebe as an argument to cease operations on nine route sections by 1971.

From 1948 rush hour amplifiers, evening and excursion lines as well as an on-demand line to the exhibition center were gradually introduced, which only ran in April, May, September and November. The special lines differ from the regular lines in that they have two-digit line numbers, which consist of a combination of the lines used. All amplifier lines that only traveled part of a line received the line signal E (insertion line) in combination with the line being traveled.

Lohner articulated railcar on the overland route of Line 1 between St. Johann and Kroisbach (1977)

Modernization and network expansion

In 1961, 13 six-axle articulated wagons were ordered from SGP and Lohner . At the request of the Ministry of Transport, Graz AG Verkehrsbetriebe had to withdraw all vehicles built before the First World War and vehicles 141–144 by 1963. Since the old vehicles made up the largest part of the fleet, the GVB had two railcars built on reserve chassis of the 201 series in 1962. From 1967, 35 two-axle sets were adapted for operation without a conductor.

Railcar 601 at Jakominiplatz (2007)
Railcar 655 in Krenngasse (2007)
Jakominiplatz, eastern part (2007)

From 1978 Graz AG Verkehrsbetriebe began to replace the two-axle sets with eight-axle articulated trolleys with stepless, fully electronic chopper control (series 501–510, SGP Graz, license Duewag). In addition, a number of eight-axle vehicles were procured from Wuppertal in 1984 to replace the railcars with wooden boxes. Four double articulated trolleys, also from this purchase, were in such bad condition that they could not be refurbished. These cars were therefore initially parked and scrapped in 1990. The other Wuppertal cars were used from September 1988 as the 551-560 and 562-571. In 1987 Simmering-Graz-Pauker (SGP) delivered new six-axle series 601–612. On September 9, 1990, the 500-meter-long extension of line 1 to the Eggenberg accident hospital was put into operation. It was the first new line in 64 years. Furthermore, the section in Georgigasse was expanded to two lanes. On November 2, 1989, the last railcar with a wooden box ran on the Graz tram network.

In 1990 two-axle railcars (251 and 252) were still in use; they were the last two scheduled two-axle vehicles in Austria. Up to 1991, 17 articulated cars were procured from Duisburg , which were used from June 1994. The vehicles from Wuppertal were gradually withdrawn from 1993. Using middle parts and bogies from the “Wuppertal”, the company's own workshops converted four vehicles into eight-axle vehicles, which were designated as 581-584.

In 1995 and 1996 the track systems of Jakominiplatz were rebuilt. The creation of new track connections and reversing loops should enable all lines to define Jakominiplatz as a common stop. The construction work was completed in September 1996. Since then, it has been possible for all vehicles on all lines and from all directions to turn around there or to get onto another line. Since then, the entire tram operation no longer has to be stopped at major events with the Herrengasse closed (city festivals, Corpus Christi procession , carnival parade). For the routes to Andritz and the train station, however, a replacement rail service must still be set up.

The vehicles 601-612 were converted to eight-axle vehicles in 1999, which for the first time had a low-floor section . In 2001 the first Cityrunner went into operation. A total of 18 such vehicles were procured and added to the inventory as 651–668.

In 2005, further expansion of the tram network began. The extension of line 5 coming from Andritz to the local traffic center Puntigam could already be realized one year later. This new line was released on December 1, 2006. On May 21, 2007, another new line - the extension of line 4, also coming from Andritz - beyond the previous end point Liebenau to the Murpark shopping center - was opened to traffic. In the same year, the extension of line 6 (Hauptbahnhof - St. Peter) to the Peterstal began.

In order to eliminate the vehicle bottleneck that occurred after the opening of the route extensions, the GVB took over three vehicles of the Viennese type E 1 in 2007 as a transitional measure until the procurement of new vehicles and adapted them for operation in Graz. On November 9, 2007, the extension of line 6 was opened. Thus five new stops were added from the St. Peter school center, the new terminus is St. Peter.

In September 2016 there were further changes to the Graz tram network. The long-planned extension of line 7 by one stop at the LKH Graz was opened. Instead of the previous loop St. Leonhard / LKH, which has been closed, the tram now ends in the new double-track terminal LKH MED UNI / Klinikum Nord. Also in September 2016 there was the long-planned relocation of line 1 in the Alte Poststraße area. The section between Laudongasse and Eggenberger Strasse was abandoned. Line 1 now runs via Asperngasse / Laudongasse. The track structure was completely rebuilt from the Laudongasse loop.

Currently (December 2018) a complete restructuring of the network in 2 stages is planned from 2021. With the completion of the routes to the urban development areas Reininghaus and Smart City Waagner-Biro, line 3 is planned to run between Andritz and Krenngasse instead of the Laudongasse - Krenngasse route as before. Line 4 is to take over part of the previous route of line 3 between Hauptplatz / Congress and Waagner-Biro-Straße / PVA and in future between Liebenau / Murpark and from Hauptplatz / Congress along the current route of lines 3 and 7 to the Alte Poststraße stop and from there via a new line to Reininghaus. From this point on, line 6 will be extended from Laudongasse to Smart City and lines 13 and 26 will be discontinued. In a second step, the construction of a city center relief through Neutorgasse is planned by 2023. This route is to be used by lines 16 and 17, newly introduced from 2023, which will strengthen lines 6 and 7 between St. Peter and Smart City and LKH Med Uni and Wetzelsdorf. Lines 1, 4, 6 and 7 will continue to run between Jakominiplatz and Roseggerhaus on the existing line via Hauptplatz, while lines 16 and 17 will run on the new line through Neutorgasse. With the commissioning of line 16, it is planned that line 6 will in future only run from the St. Peter school center and that the St. Peter terminus will only be connected by line 16.

Four major expansion projects are planned for the period after 2023: construction of the north-west line from Roseggerhaus via Lendplatz, Fröbelpark, Wiener Straße to the new S-Bahn station to be built at the Gösting residential complex in Exerzierplatzstraße, construction of the inner south-west line either from Roseggerhaus via Elisabethinergasse, Carinthia Straße or from Jakominiplatz via Radetzkystraße, Griesplatz, Citypark to the S-Bahn station "Don Bosco", construction of the outer south-west line from the S-Bahn station "Don Bosco" to Straßgang and construction of a new line from the main station (including a new above-ground turning loop) via Lendplatz, Geidorfplatz, Uni ReSoWi to Leonhardstraße. Together with other smaller expansion projects, this would result in the following new lines (or extensions / relocations of existing lines):

  • Line 1: Relocation of the route from Leonhardstraße to ReSoWi University
  • Line 2: Hauptbahnhof - Lendplatz / tim - Geidorfplatz - Uni ReSoWi - LKH Med Uni
  • Line 4: Extension from Reininghaus via Don Bosco to Straßgang
  • Line 7: Extension from Wetzelsdorf to Belgiergasse
  • Line 8: Jakominiplatz - square & Roseggerhaus or Griesplatz & City Park - Don Bosco - Straßgang
  • Line 9: Jakominiplatz - Hauptplatz-Congress - Roseggerhaus - Lendplatz / tim - Fröbelpark - Gösting residential park
  • Line 19: Jakominiplatz - Andreas-Hofer-Platz - Roseggerhaus - Lendplatz / tim - Fröbelpark - Gösting residential park

Track entanglement, single-track lines

At least since the Jakominiplatz renovation (1995/1996), there has been an optional looping track in the Jakoministraße adjoining it to the south, in order to create a temporary loading zone for vehicles on the east side of the road in a central section of the approximately 120-meter-long street next to a sidewalk that has been made slightly narrower here to organize. On weekdays from Monday to Saturday, 8:30 am to 11:30 am and 2:30 pm to 3:30 pm, the trains travel northwards onto a track deviated to the left. In addition, a tram driver comes from Jakominiplatz and uses a switch pole to switch the entrance switch to the southern quarter of the street and a key switch to switch the route security to single mode (EGS). The exit in the north is via a drag switch. (As of October 2017) A time before the loading zone was set up on the west side, at that time a possible (tram replacement) bus northwards (the street is one-way in this direction, excl. Tram) was prohibited from encountering a tram.

A business switch of this kind - however, the vehicle loading zone may have been on the other side of the lane - has existed for at least an estimated 100 years.

There are real single-track routes on the periphery of the network: in the northeast between Hilnteich and Mariatrost (line 1) (5 of 9 inland stops are designed as siding) and between the central cemetery and the Puntigam brewery (line 5) (1 of 2 stops form one Evasion). (As of October 2017)

Connection to the main train station

The new underground tram station Hauptbahnhof

In the area of ​​the main train station , a new stop, open at the top, was built on Europaplatz , which was connected to the existing track network by short underpasses. With this design, an expensive conversion of the safety systems to tunnel operation could be avoided. In the past, only tram lines 3 and 6 went directly to the main station, lines 1 and 7 passed it about 200 meters south of the station. Since the opening of the new route and station at the main train station on November 26, 2012, lines 1, 3, 6 and 7 have served it.

Development of passenger numbers 1899–2006

Development of the number of passengers

In the first year after the electrification of the horse-drawn tram routes, the expansion of the network by one line and the takeover of the small railway to Mariatrost, the tram carried more than 2.3 million passengers in 1899 and over 5.8 million a year later extensive network expansions continuously to 42.2 million, only to drop again to 16.2 million in just three years. A brief upswing ended in 1929 with the start of the global economic crisis . The number of people transported each year fell to 16.0 million by 1936.

The slight recovery in passenger numbers by 1939 (29.8 million) was followed by a sustained, rapid increase beyond the end of the Second World War . In 1946, the number of people carried reached almost 83.6 million, the highest level in the history of the Graz tramway, both past and future. Due to the to increasingly heavy individual traffic the economic miracle , the annual transportation capacity fell slowly at first, then more rapidly to a post-war low of 34.5 million in 1972. Only then began a slow, 30 years continuous rise until from 2002 Passenger numbers leveled off at around 52 million a year.

Railcar 603 at the local traffic center Puntigam (2007)

Operation in the present

The current operation of the Graz tram is characterized by efforts to win new passengers by continuously improving the range of services. The Graz Linien formulate their tasks and goals as follows:

... The aim of our efforts is to continuously improve the quality of our services. Furthermore, our activities are based on the task of offering a sensible alternative to private cars. [...] We have set ourselves the goal -autobussen our passengers time and safely in low-floor trams and - possibly on their own rail routes and bus lanes - to transport. In addition, we strive to improve and expand passenger information and stop areas. We are modernizing our workshops and workplaces in order to create improved working conditions for our employees.

This includes the constant modernization of the technical infrastructure ( overhead line , safety, track construction, vehicle fleet, accessibility ) as well as the financially feasible, moderate expansion of the route network.


Daytime traffic

Evening and Sunday traffic

Electrical equipment

The overhead line network is divided into different sectors. Each sector is supplied by up to two substations . Graz Linien has 25 substations, each delivering a maximum of around 2  kA at 600  V DC. Different overhead contact line systems are used on the line network: in the inner part the single overhead contact line dominates (mostly fixed, but partly also with post-tensioning), while a post-tensioned high-chain overhead contact line is used in particular on newly constructed sections at the edges of the network, which allows larger mast spacings and ( due to the larger cable cross-section), larger substructure distances are also permitted. A contact wire with a cross section of 100 mm² (80 mm² in the remises) is used as the overhead line . Graz Linien uses 74 vehicles for the maintenance and operation of the overhead line network.

Route network

The tram network of Graz Linien is made up of six regular lines, which come together in a star shape from the outskirts of Graz in the city ​​center at Jakominiplatz. In the evenings and on weekends, some lines are shortened or combined. In addition, there are special lines on certain holidays (e.g. for All Saints' Day / All Souls' Day a special All Saints' Day line that connects the two largest cemeteries).

In 2008, the network had a total length of around 66.4 kilometers and served 165 stops with an average distance of 361 meters. At the main train station , Ostbahnhof-Messe, Liebenau-Murpark and Puntigam train station, you can transfer to the Styrian S-Bahn or the regional and long-distance trains of the Austrian Federal Railways .

At the stop Schlossbergbahn the lines 4 and 5 in the switch is also available from Graz lines operated funicular to Castle Hill possible. There is a Remise near the main train station and one in Steyrergasse .

Catenary separation in front of single-track lines
Meeting at Jakominiplatz (2007)

Route safety

A head-on collision of motor coaches 266 and 270 between Rettenbach and St. Johann in December 1995 and a head-on collision between motor coaches 272 and 534 on the single-track line to Puntigam gave the reason to renew the signaling systems of the single-track sections and to equip them with an automatic power cut-off so that Head-on collisions are hardly possible today.

A signal regulates the entry into a single-track section, whereby the visible red bar represents the basic position "Stop". When a train approaches, either if the single-track section is free, it switches to "free" (green dot, middle lamp) or, if the preceding section is occupied, a registration signal (an upside-down "V") in the bottom lamp displayed, which informs the driver that the signal system has registered his move.

Driving over a signal indicating "Halt" causes an immediate shutdown of the traction current for both vehicles in the single-track section. For this reason, there are visible separating points in the overhead line at entrances to single-track sections , which are also marked with the panels for section separators , switching points and power feed .

Vehicle fleet

Stadler Variobahn at Kaiser-Josef-Platz

In 2019, the Graz tram fleet consists of a total of 85 railcars from various manufacturers and series. 75 vehicles are fully or partially accessible accessible. All trams are equipped with an optical and acoustic passenger information system. The destination is indicated by means of matrix displays on the bow, stern and sides of the vehicle. Inside the vehicle, the next stop is displayed on LCD panels or monitors . The name of the stopped stop is announced over the interior loudspeaker.

Lowerable wheelchair and stroller ramp

The oldest vehicles are the ten eight-axle articulated wagons of the 500 series from 1978. The high-floor vehicles ran regularly until the end of 2015, since then they have served as a reserve.

The second oldest generation of cars are the twelve originally six-axle articulated railcars of the 600 series, which were acquired in 1986 and were given a low-floor center section in 1999 , making them eight-axle vehicles. A fold-out ramp can be used to lower the entry height for wheelchairs and prams to street level.

In 2001, 18 Cityrunner articulated multiple units of the 650 series with an extendable lift completed the fleet. On February 25, 2016, the municipal council decided to extend all 18 Cityrunner sets to 37 m. This project was dropped in September 2018.

In August 2007 Stadtwerke Graz AG decided to purchase 45 new low-floor wagons from Stadler Rail . The multiple units called Variobahn were delivered in several tranches from 2009 to 2015 . The total costs of 97.2 million euros represented the largest single investment in the field of local public transport in Graz to date. The first were delivered in early 2010. Since the last delivery in 2015, only trams with barrier-free access have been used in regular traffic. There were initially complaints from residents about the development of noise and vibrations about the new Variobahn. At 2.3 meters, the Variobahns are ten centimeters wider than the previous wagons, so that from 2007 to 2015, 25 percent of the route network had to be adapted to this width.

For the maintenance and repair of the track network, Graz Linien has seven work vehicles, including two railcars with the numbers 251 and 252. All work cars are painted with an orange warning paint. In addition, four rail transport carriages (Sch1–4) and a drum carriage (DT1) are used.

No. image Manufacturer Year of construction (s) Length (mm) axes Wheel base (mm) Sitting / standing room Remarks
501-510 Tram Graz 507 7 Esperantoplatz.jpg SGP Graz 1978 25,343 8th 6,000 36/96 Mannheim type
601-612 Tramway graz21.jpg SGP Graz 1986-1987 27,000 8th 6,000 38/128 1999 Low-floor middle parts installed
651-668 Tramway graz30.jpg Bombardier 2000-2001 27,000 6th 6,000 47/94 Cityrunner , 100% low-floor
201-245 Tram Graz 205 4 Dr Lister-Gasse.jpg Stadler Rail 2009-2015 27,000 6th 6,000 47/98 Stadler Rail Variobahn , 100% low-floor
Remise III (2007)


Graz Linien maintains two of the original four Remisen . Remise I is located in Steyrergasse, right next to the Graz Linien headquarters , while Remise III (Alte Poststrasse), built in 1909 on an area of 1,880  square meters , in Eggenberger Strasse. This shed, which was designed for the storage of up to 48 vehicles, also had its own workshop space and was put into operation on May 1, 1909. A three-sided clock mounted on a light pole is striking.

In Remise I, in contrast to Remise III, all kinds of repairs and maintenance can be carried out. As a result, the vehicles in the fleet cannot be assigned to a fixed location, but use both depots depending on the maintenance requirements.

Remise II (old), which was given up in 1992 and which dates back to the horse tram era, was located opposite the entrance to the main train station at the beginning of Eggenberger Straße. The Tramway Museum Graz has been housed in the former Remise IV at the Mariatrost terminus since 1983 .

Across from Remise I north of Steyrergasse there is a new Remise II (Zentralremise) from around 2007 south of Steyrergasse for sets with a length of 40 instead of the previous 27 m.

Rail maintenance

At points of heavy wear on the grooved rails , welds are carried out on a campaign basis and with a focus on the evening, especially on the top of the driving shoulder and on the inside of the driving profile. At night, special sanding and suction vehicles drive, level the waves on the driving shoulder and clean the groove. Broken rails, which occurred increasingly after the use of the approximately 10% heavier Variobahn wagons, are repaired by thermite welding after the rails have been exposed .

Special trips

In addition to scheduled tours and special trips are with historic vehicles carried out by the Graz Tramway Museum. There is a close cooperation between the museum and Graz Linien. Between June and September there are free sightseeing trips known as culture line 2 . On the opening days of the Tramway Museum, nostalgia trips are carried out between Mariatrost and Hilnteich.

In addition, since 2015 there have been trips with the Adventbim every year between mid-November and 24 December on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. The ride on the Jakominiplatz - Laudongasse circuit is free. The 267 car is used as an Advent bim and is decorated for Christmas every year (outside with fairy lights, inside Advent decorations and Christmas music).

Expansion of the network 2018–2023

On February 5, 2018, the co-financing of a comprehensive expansion program between the city and - for the first time: - the state of Styria was signed. By 2023, 117 million euros are to be spent on the construction or expansion of 6 routes. Third-party funding from the federal government is sought.


  • Reininghaus. 1.8 km new, with footpath and bike path, 44.1 million euros, 2019-2021
  • Separation of Herrengasse. via Belgiergasse, Vorbeckgasse to Annenstraße, about 1 km new, 27 million euros, 2021–2023
  • Smart City connection to Waagner-Biro-Strasse; from Asperngasse (Ri N) to Peter-Tunner-Gasse, 1.1 km new, 22.4 million euros, 2020/2021
  • Second track, Line 5. Zentralfriedhof to Brauquartier Puntigam, x km, 15.3 million euros, 2022/2023
  • Second track, line 1. Hilnteich to Mariagrün, y km, 6.3 million euros, until 2023
  • Second track, line 1. Mariagrün to Mariatrost, partially, z km, 2.3 million euros, until 2021

The project of running a new line to Don Bosco (local transport hub) is still open and in development.

On January 30, 2019, the new routes for the tram lines associated with the Reininghaus, Smart City and Herrengasse unbundling projects were announced:

  • Line 3: Krenngasse - Andritz (since July 11, 2020)
  • Line 4: Liebenau - Reininghaus (from the end of 2021)
  • Line 6/16: St. Peter - Smart-City (from the end of 2021); Every second tram as line 6 via Hauptplatz and as line 16 via Andreas-Hofer-Platz (from 2023)
  • Line 7/17: Every second tram as line 7 via Hauptplatz and as line 17 via Andreas-Hofer-Platz (from 2023)


  • Hans Sternhart: Tram in Graz . Slezak publishing house, Vienna 1979, ISBN 3-900134-54-5 .
  • Peter Wegenstein: The tram from Graz . In: Bahn im Bild 94, Pospischil-Verlag, 1994.
  • Wolfgang Kaiser: Trams in Austria . GeraMond-Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7654-7198-4 .
  • Karl A. Kubinzky (text), Rudolf Watzinger: 130 years of trams in Graz, 1878–2008 . Grazer Stadtwerke AG Verkehrsbetriebe, Graz 2008, OBV.

Web links

Commons : Tram Graz  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c All data: Graz Linien - Secretariat Technical Services Tram.
  2. ^ Graz AG Verkehrsbetriebe - Secretariat Technical Services Tram.
  3. ^ Statistics Austria: Population development Graz (PDF file; 34 kB).
  4. ^ Hans Sternhart: Tram in Graz , 1979, p. 7.
  5. Commissioning of the Jakominiplatz – Schillerplatz line of the horse tram. In:  Grazer Tagblatt , evening edition, No. 300/1895 (5th year), October 30, 1895, p. 3, top left (online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / gtb.
  6. Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, pp. 104-106.
  7. ^ Opening ceremony of the Graz – Mariatrost electric railway. In:  Grazer Tagblatt. Organ of the People's Party for the Alpine countries , morning edition, no. 30/1898 (VIII. Year), January 30, 1898, page 7, bottom left (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / gtb.
  8. Hans Sternhart: Tram in Graz , 1979, p. 17.
  9. ^ Peter Wegenstein: The tram from Graz . In: Bahn im Bild 94, Pospischil-Verlag, 1994, p. 3.
  10. ^ Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, pp. 107/108.
  11. ^ Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, pp. 108–110.
  12. ^ Hans Sternhart: Tram in Graz , 1979, pp. 25-27.
  13. Hans Sternhart: Tram in Graz , 1979, pp. 28–31.
  14. ^ Peter Wegenstein: The tram from Graz . In: Bahn im Bild 94, Pospischil-Verlag, 1994, p. 6.
  15. ^ Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, p. 111/112.
  16. ^ Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, pp. 113/114.
  17. Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, p. 115.
  18. Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, p. 114.
  19. ^ Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, pp. 115/116.
  20. Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, p. 124.
  21. ^ Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, pp. 116/117.
  22. Wolfgang Kaiser: Tramways in Austria , 2003, pp. 118–121.
  23. a b Future project - expansion of the tram in Graz. Austrian Association of Cities, accessed on July 6, 2018 .
  24. Graz route network from September 2016
  25. ^ City of Graz
  26. Kronen Zeitung
  27. tel. Info Holding Graz Tram, October 12, 2017.
  28. Reconstruction of Graz main train station: opening of the underground tram stop ( Memento from November 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  29. ^ Mission statement of the Graz Linien ( Memento from October 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  30. BIG - Citizen Information Graz City of Graz, March 2016, p. 32.
  31. ^ Graz: Million project: Graz buys new trams . In: . ( [accessed on November 21, 2018]).
  32. Korso magazine from September 11, 2007.
  33. ^ [1] Kronen-Zeitung
  34. Kleine Zeitung of August 14, 2007.
  35. All technical data: Wolfgang Kaiser: Straßenbahnen in Österreich , 2003, p. 126/127.
  36. Other information: Graz Linien - Secretariat Technical Services Tram.
  37. Expansion of Remise Steyrergasse, November 19, 2006, accessed February 5, 2018.
  38. Graz: 117 million for new tram projects, February 5, 2018, accessed February 5, 2018.
  39. ↑ 8:59 a.m., 30 January 2019: Line 4 goes to Reininghaus: Holding Graz creates new routes for tram lines. January 30, 2019, accessed February 2, 2019 .

This article was added to the list of excellent articles on February 27, 2008 in this version .