St. Martin Abbey
The St. Martin Abbey was a monastery complex in Trier that was probably built in the 6th century . It is said to go back to a church built by Martin von Tours in the 4th century. In the 10th century at the latest, the abbey was occupied by monks of the Benedictine order , it was once one of the largest abbeys in the city and was abolished in 1802 under Napoleonic rule. The abbey was in the immediate vicinity of the banks of the Moselle, in the northwest of the city center of Trier; the street that runs along the still preserved building is now called Martinsufer .
The preserved west wing of the abbey building and a modern new building are used today under the name "Martinskloster" as one of the six student residences in Trier .
According to tradition, Bishop Martin von Tours (* 316/317; † 397 - the "Saint Martin" who shared his coat with a beggar) came to Trier several times, for the first time in 371 shortly after his episcopal ordination. He is said to have healed the devil-possessed servant of the Trier proconsul Tetradius, whereupon Tetradius converted to the Christian faith and in 385 made his house at the gates of the city available, “so that Martin could found a church there in honor of the Holy Cross could". On the site on the Moselle, which was supposed to be outside the city walls for centuries, Martin is said to have founded a chapel himself, where Christian burials also took place.
In fact, in connection with the dispute over the indictment and execution of the heretical bishop Priscillian , Martin visited the Roman Emperor Maximus in Trier several times , including in 386. In addition, during emergency excavations for an air raid shelter on the grounds of the Martinskloster, floors and walls of a large one were found Roman residential building from the 4th century. Around 400 a wall was built to separate a room for religious purposes. Inside were graves with grave goods from the 4th to 7th centuries. The tradition with its legendary details cannot be proven by this, but the finds speak with a certain probability for the foundation of the original church by Martin himself.
This church, consecrated to the Holy Cross , was devastated during the migration period in the 5th century . Around 587, the Trier Bishop Magnerich (also Magnericus, 573-596) built the Martinskirche, which later became an abbey. Reliable information about whether Magnerich already called Benedictines there are not available. Magnerich was buried in the Martinskirche.
St. Martin Abbey
In April 882 the abbey was at least partially destroyed during the Norman raids on Trier. In 899, Archbishop Radbod von Trier (883–915) appointed Abbot Regino (* around 840; † 915), who had been released from Prüm Abbey, as Abbot of St. Martin and commissioned him to reestablish the monastery. After Radbod's death, St. Martin and other monasteries in the Trier area came into the possession of Duke Giselbert of Lorraine (928–939). Archbishop Theodoric I (965–977) succeeded in regaining the rights of the Trier church.
In 975 Theodoric gave the monastery back to its intended use and the old possessions were given back. The convention was allowed to freely elect abbot. From the same year comes a certificate from Emperor Otto II , according to which he confirmed the restored Abbey of St. Martin and took it under his protection. Theodoric's predecessor, Archbishop Heinrich I (956–964), had withdrawn eighty Mansus land from the abbey and installed canons after the expulsion of the monks . One of the abbey's properties mentioned in 975 was the church of St. Viktor (destroyed in 1443) with all its accessories: Sivenich ( Siuinic ), Kimmlingen ( Cumelanch ) and Beßlich ( Bessilich ); the church of St. Symphorian (fell into disrepair after 1393) with accessories: Lorich ( Lorchen ) and Sirzenich ( Sarceni ); the manor districts of Irsch ( Erche ), Hockweiler ( Hocuuilre ), Korlingen ( Corlanch ) and Ockfen ( Occava ). Archbishop Hillin donated lands near Wehlen , Graach and Zeltingen to the abbey in 1168 and confirmed all rights. In addition to the possessions already mentioned in 975, the following were named: the village Pallien , three Mansus Land in Pfalzel , one Mansus in Wiltingen , one in Lonebach, one in Dudeldorf and various smaller possessions.
In the 10th century the Strahov Gospel, written in Tours in the 9th century, was in the possession of the abbey, where it was revised and decorated by the master of the Registrum Gregorii .
The new construction of the monastery church at the end of the 11th century was followed by the economic heyday of the monastery until the 13th century. The medieval Trier city wall was built up to the monastery, and the Martinstor was built in its immediate vicinity.
In the following centuries the monastery was continuously expanded; a dormitory (1506) and the west wing of the abbey building, which still exists today, with the late Renaissance facade on the Moselle side (1626, extension 1735) were built.
Secularization, porcelain manufacture
As a result of the French Revolution , Trier was occupied by French revolutionary troops on August 9, 1794. In 1797/1801 the Left Bank of the Rhine became part of the French Republic . On March 15, 1802 was carried out by the prefect of the Saarland Department of the abolition of the Abbey and the confiscation of all property. The remaining six clergy were retired . In 1804 the monastery was auctioned, the church and various buildings including the dormitory were demolished. In the remaining west wing, Christian Deuster set up a porcelain factory in 1807 , and the crypt was where the kiln was located . In 1813 this factory was given up and, after Trier came to Prussia in 1815 , it was put back into operation by Peter Marx in 1816. The factory closed around 1824.
|995-1040||Eberwin||also wrote various writings|
|?||Siegfried||only name handed down|
|Middle of the 11th century||Ernestus|
|? -1094||Winner||completed the construction of the monastery in 1090|
|1094-?||Theodericus||as a monk wrote a pamphlet against Gregory VII ; completed the church|
|around 1138||Rainald||appears as a witness in the deed of foundation of the Cistercian Abbey of Himmerod|
|around 1156||Godefried I.||appears as a witness in the deed of foundation of the Premonstratensian Abbey of Arnstein|
|before 1181||Godefried II.|
|1181–?||Purer||from the Abbey of St. Maximin elected|
|around 1197||Wilhelm I.|
|1250-1297||John I.||was also Trier auxiliary bishop 1361-1376|
|1297-1339||John II of Lieser|
|1339-1366||Werner von Zandt zu Merl|
|1366-1388||Wilhelm II of Zandt zu Merl|
|1388-1415||Hugo von Ellenz|
|1415-1427||John IV of Schwarzenburg|
|1427-1429||Herbrand of Güls|
|1430||Heinrich von Gmünd (de Gemunda)|
|1434-1440||William III. from Helmstadt|
|1440-1465||Matthias Rutger||(died 1482, resigned)|
|1483-1499||Johannes V. Blankart|
|1499-1523||Konrad von Rat (t) ingen|
|1523-1539||Nikolaus von Reil (Ryle)|
|1539-1562||Rupert (Ropert) from Echternach|
|1563-1577||Gregor von Virneburg|
|1577-1604||Johann (es) VI. by Malmedy|
|1621-1652||Franz Holz (erus)|
|1652-1668||Martin (us) Mering (ius)|
|1672-1680||Nikolaus Lyser (Liser, Lieser)|
|1687-1700||Jacob de Belva (de Bellevaux)|
|1778-1790||Karl von Sachs|
Today only the west wing of the abbey building in the late Renaissance style is preserved. Next to it is a copy of a late Gothic crucifixion group (1498), the original of which is in the Church of St. Paul . The courtyard house of the abbey in Pallien - directly opposite on the other side of the Moselle - and the courtyard house of the abbey in Ockfen have also been preserved .
In 1972 the west wing of the 17th century abbey building was completely refurbished after a long period of vacancy and converted into a student residence with a new building built in the same year . The new building was attached to the straight old building in the shape of a horseshoe, so that an inner courtyard is created between the buildings, which houses a mighty red beech (natural monument).
- Friedhelm Jürgensmeier in connection with Regina Elisabeth Schwerdtfeger: The male and female monasteries of the Benedictines in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland. (= Germania Benedictina IX: Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, published by the Bavarian Benedictine Academy in Munich in conjunction with the Abbot Herwegen Institute Maria Laach), St. Ottilien 1999.
- ↑ Matthäus Merian's engraving from 1646 is very similar to the woodcut of Trier from 1548 in Sebastian Münster's Cosmographiae Universalis (title: Situs & figura antiquissimae & praecipuae Medioniatricum ciuitatis Treuirensis), which is considered to be the first authentic cityscape of Trier. Although Merian's view is more detailed than the woodcut, it does not depict structural changes that were made between 1548 and 1646 (e.g. at the Basilica of Constantine ). Comparison of the woodcut in the Latin edition of Cosmographiae Universalis from 1550 on Historic Cities
- ↑ a b cms.bistum-trier.de ( Memento from February 6, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) Hans-Georg Reuter (1997). Martin of Tours († November 8, 397). Martin donates a church in Trier on the website of the Diocese of Trier (accessed February 16, 2012)
- ↑ a b c d e f Jakob Marx : History of the Archbishopric Trier , Volume 1, Section II, Trier: F. Lintz, 1860, p. 252 ff ( History of the St. Martin Abbey )
- ↑ a b Jakob Marx, Nikolaus Thielen, Heinrich Volk: History of the parishes of the deaneries Trier, Konz and Engers , part 2, Trier: Verlag der Paulinus-Druckerei, 1932, p. 51 ff ( online at dilibri.de )
- ^ Heinrich Beyer : Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch , Volume I, Coblenz: Hölscher, 1860, p. 715 ( certificate )
- ^ A b c Georg Dehio : Handbook of German Art Monuments : Rhineland-Palatinate / Saarland; Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1984; ISBN 3-422-00382-7 ; P. 1057
- ↑ Gottfried Kentenich : On the history of the Trier porcelain manufactory. In: Trierische Chronik. Trier 12/1911, p. 64 ( online at dilibri.de )
- ↑ Engelbert Giesen: Peter Marx, a benefactor of the St. Paulinuskirche in Trier. In: Trierische Chronik. 1920, p. 137 ( online at dilibri.de )
Coordinates: 49 ° 45 ′ 45 ″ N , 6 ° 38 ′ 0 ″ E