Bayernwerk (energy supplier)
|resolution||July 13, 2000|
|Reason for dissolution||Merger with PreussenElektra to form E.ON Energie|
The Bayernwerk AG was a power company owned by the Free State of Bavaria , which was established in 1921. In 1994 VIAG bought the majority of the company. With the merger of VIAG and VEBA , the mother of PreussenElektra , in 2000 , the energy suppliers operate jointly as E.ON Energie .
The name Bayernwerk first appeared in 1915 in a memorandum by Oskar von Miller . As a role model names for this purpose to serve the 1912 founded and co-initiated by Miller Pfalzwerke , the first German power plant in what was then the Kingdom of Bavaria belonging Palatinate operated a nationwide network for power supply. So far, this has usually been guaranteed by local electricity companies and mostly only in larger cities. In his writing, von Miller drafted a similar concept for the state-wide supply of Bavaria, with the exception of the Palatinate. The centerpiece of this planned transmission network was to be a pumped storage plant on Lake Walchensee in the Bavarian Prealps , around 75 km south of the state capital Munich .
Around the turn of the year 1918/1919, the Bavarian state government commissioned von Miller with the execution of his projects, which were essentially designed by him between 1915 and 1917 and which included the construction and operation of a 110 kV transmission system in addition to the generation of electricity using hydropower. Both the Aktiengesellschaft Sächsische Werke, with the world's first line of this voltage level between Lauchhammer and Riesa, and RWE, with a regional network starting from the Golden Mine near Cologne , had experience with lines at this voltage level .
Due to the First World War , the start of construction on the Walchensee power plant was delayed , so that construction could not begin until 1918 under the direction of Millers. On January 5, 1921, the Walchenseewerk AG and the Mittlere Isar AG were founded, the latter to build and operate hydropower plants on the newly built Mittlere-Isar Canal .
After the members of the Bavarian State Parliament approved the establishment of Bayernwerk AG on March 18, 1921, after intensive negotiations, the state-owned company was actually founded (the Free State of Bavaria held almost 100% of the share capital) on April 5, 1921. Unlike originally However, other energy suppliers that were operating in Bavaria at the time, such as the large Franken power station or the Lech electricity company , were not taken over. This meant that Bayernwerk was only able to cover additional electricity needs.
On January 24, 1924, the Walchensee power plant went into operation as the world's largest storage power plant at the time and produced electricity for the first time, which was fed into the company's own transmission network.
Miller's plans were based on distributing the energy generated in the Walchensee power plant and the power plants on the middle Isar across the country, mainly in the urban centers with their increased power consumption. The centerpiece of this was a ring-shaped double line that connects all the important Bavarian consumption centers with one another, as well as branch lines to the more remote parts of the country. In the first expansion stage, a total of 12 substations for 110 kV were built in Karlsfeld, Landshut, Regensburg, Arzberg, Hof, Amberg, Nuremberg, Bamberg, Schweinfurt, Würzburg, Aschaffenburg and Meitingen by 1924.
The plants in Karlsfeld, Landshut, Regensburg, Amberg, Nuremberg and Meitingen were connected to one another by a two-circuit ring line. Both a double and a single line were built from the Walchensee power plant to the Karlsfeld substation. Another double line ran from Amberg via Arzberg to Hof. A single line ran from Nuremberg via Bamberg and Schweinfurt to Würzburg and formed a mesh with the Nuremberg – Würzburg – Aschaffenburg double line, which was continued to the Dettingen power plant , where there was a connection to the PreussenElektra and RWE networks via Kelsterbach . Finally, there was a two-way connection to the Württembergische Landes-Elektrizitäts-AG from Meitingen to Niederstotzingen .
A 60 kV line with connections in Karlsfeld and Landshut was built along the hydropower plants on the middle Isar. A total of almost 1000 km of overhead lines were built. With the exception of the double lines Kochel – Karlsfeld and Karlsfeld – Landshut (60 kV), all of the connections mentioned were initially operated on a single circuit and later partially switched to operation with two circuits.
As overhead line masts, masts with three staggered cross members with heights of 19.5 to 21.5 m were used for single-circuit lines, and for two-circuit Christmas tree masts with heights of 22.5 to 28 m. Copper cables with a cross-section of 120 mm² and iron with a Cross section of 50 mm².
In addition to the three-phase current for the public network, the hydropower plants also produced electricity for the network of the Deutsche Reichsbahn , which was converted to electrical operation as part of the electrification program in the greater Munich area. Thus, together with the Bayernwerk network, the first network of 110 kV / 16.7 Hz traction power lines in Germany was created.
In the second expansion stage, several connections were made to other energy providers, for example to Innwerk AG via the Landshut – Töging line, Thüringenwerk AG via the Bamberg– Kulmbach - Neuhaus-Schierschnitz - Remptendorf line and Tiroler Wasserkraft-AG via the Kochel line - Zirl . In addition, lines were built from the Kachletwerk near Passau to Regensburg and from the Au power plant near Illertissen to Niederstotzingen. These lines were built on Danube masts that were used on a larger scale for the first time . This mast shape got its name from the course of the Kachletwerk – Regensburg line along the Danube.
In 1930 the Schwandorf power plant was put into operation and the energy fed into the 110 kV line ring between Amberg and Regensburg.
Conflict with the RWE
Since the supply areas of the individual electricity and overland plants had not yet been determined in the 1920s, there were regular disputes between the individual companies. Unlike RWE, which expanded in southwest Germany (Baden-Württemberg) to the Swiss border and thereby cooperated with Badenwerk , Bayernwerk worked with the Prussian energy supplier PreußenElektra and the Reich's own Elektrowerke AG (Ewag). After the construction of the north-south line between RWE and PreußenElektra in the 1920s, disputes over delivery areas west of Frankfurt am Main , which were settled in the so-called electrical peace in 1927 , failed in 1929 to found a comprehensive energy supply company in Germany at RWE, that did not want to secure its previous property through demarcation agreements.
time of the nationalsocialism
When the National Socialists came to power in 1933 and the Energy Industry Act passed by them in 1935 , there were initially no changes in the relationship between the individual energy suppliers. However, National Socialists had a significant impact on the management of the company, with numerous members of the NSDAP's supervisory board. Under this impression, the Bayernwerk began to align with VIAG in 1939 , which finally took over Elektrowerke AG in 1943.
A connection between the networks of the Bayernwerk and the Elektrowerke AG existed from 1940 via the transformer station Ludersheim near Nuremberg , which tied the 110 kV line ring to the newly built Reich busbar.
In 1942 and 1943, Bayernwerk finally took over Walchenseewerk AG and Mittlere Isar AG.
Reconstruction and expansion after 1945
In the course of the reorganization of the German electricity industry after the Second World War , investments were made in conventional thermal power plants in addition to water power (Rißbach transition). In 1951, for example, the Aschaffenburg am Main power plant went into operation. Since there was no longer a 220-kV connection to the rest of the German high-voltage network in the course of the division of Germany , a contract between Bayernwerk and PreußenElektra in 1949 agreed to connect both 220-kV networks with a long-distance line via Aschaffenburg to the Borken power plant . A year later, Bayernwerk and RWE signed a contract to set up another 220 kV connection, this time from Aschaffenburg to the Kelsterbach substation.
The pipeline network also grew steadily until 1950. In addition to the introduction of 220 kV and the construction of numerous new substations, a connection to the Partenstein power plant in Upper Austria was established.
From the mid-1960s, the Bayernwerk increasingly relied on nuclear energy, especially since there were no rich coal fields within reach. The Gundremmingen nuclear power plant went into operation in 1966 . In the same year construction began on the Niederaichbach nuclear power plant , which was implemented as a test facility with non-enriched uranium (so-called natural uranium ) and, due to technical problems, was taken off the grid after only one year of operation. The Isar nuclear power plant was then built at the same location . When the third Bavarian nuclear power plant in Grafenrheinfeld went into operation in 1982 , the share of nuclear energy in electricity generation in Bavaria rose to 55% (1996).
Due to the ever-increasing amount of energy generated, the extra-high voltage network was continuously expanded, initially with 220 kV, and since the 1970s mainly with 380 kV. An important line is the Ostbayernring , which connects the rather weakly industrialized area in Upper Franconia , Upper Palatinate and Lower Bavaria to the high-voltage network.
In the 1980s, a line designed for 380 kV was built from Oberbachern via Oberbrunn and Krün to Silz in Tyrol , which was controversial due to the route in the alpine region. The construction of a 380 kV line was also contractually agreed with the Czechoslovakian network operator CEZ, which was to connect the West German with the Czech power grid via an HVDC close coupling in Etzenricht . After the fall of the Iron Curtain , this project was implemented and the line went into operation in 1992. At the same time, a 380 kV line from Redwitz to Remptendorf was built in the route of the old Reich busbar.
At the end of the 1980s, Bayernwerk bought 25% of VIAG , which in turn held 38.8% of Bayernwerk shares. From 1989 to 2000 the company was involved with 70% in the solar-hydrogen project Neunburg vorm Wald .
Takeover by VIAG
In 1994 the Bavarian state gave up its 58.3% stake in Bayernwerk. VIAG took over this and thus increased it to 97.1%. In return, the Free State of Bavaria received a 25.1% stake in VIAG and DM 2.3 billion in cash. In addition to the establishment of new funds and companies, the funds were used for the so-called “ Offensive Future Bavaria ” (OZB) and its follow-up project “ High-Tech-Offensive Bavaria ”.
Merger with PreussenElektra
On September 27, 1999 the groups VIAG AG and VEBA AG , whose subsidiary was PreussenElektra , announced that they would merge. This took place in July 2000, since then this new company has been trading as E.ON Energie .
The former company archive is stored in the Bavarian Economic Archive.
Since July 2013, the Bavarian distribution network operator E.ON Bayern AG has been trading again under the name Bayernwerk .
- Siegfried Kurzmann: 30 years of Bayernwerk AG: 1921 - 1951. Bavarian state electricity supply . Munich 1951.
- August crowd: The Bayernwerk and its sources of power . Berlin: Springer 1925.
- Manfred Pohl: The Bayernwerk: 1921 to 1996 . Munich: Piper 1996.
- 25 years of Bayernwerk . Munich: reproduced as a manuscript, ca.1946.
- Manfred Pohl: Bayernwerk AG . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: eon-wird-bayernwerk ( memento from July 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) accessed on June 17, 2013 (error page!)
- Early documents and newspaper articles on Bayernwerk in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Manfred Pohl: Das Bayernwerk 1921 to 1996. Retrieved on January 18, 2017 .
- A. Quantity: The Bayernwerk and its sources of power. Retrieved January 19, 2017 .
- Manfred Pohl, in: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns: Bayernwerk AG. June 12, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2017 .
- Everything is in order , Spiegel dated July 31, 1989
- COMMISSION APPROVES MERGER OF VIAG AND BAYERNWERK ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , May 6, 1994
- Heinz-Günter Kemmer: Money makes you powerful . The time of January 20, 1995