Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia

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Biblia Hebraica series
BHK Biblia Hebraica Kittel (1st – 3rd)
BHS Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (4th)
BHQ Biblia Hebraica Quinta (5th)
Ed. Karl Elliger , Wilhelm Rudolph , Hans Peter Rüger , Joseph Ziegler
Ed. Masora Gérard E. Weil
Ed. Fascicle H. Bardtke, W. Baumgartner, PAH de Boor, O. Eißfeldt, J. Fichtner, G. Gerleman, J. Hempel, F. Horst, A. Jepsen, F. Maass, R. Meyer, G. Quell, Th. H. Robinson, DW Thomas
language Biblical Hebrew , Biblical Aramaic
Years of first publication Fascicle: 1968–1976
one-volume edition: 1977
corrected editions: 1983 2 , 1987 3 , 1990 4 , 1997 5

The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) is a diplomatic edition of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible on the basis of the Codex Leningradensis (manuscript L) with Masoretic marginal notes and text-critical apparatus . It is published by the German Bible Society in Stuttgart .

Publications history

As can be seen on the title page, the BHS is in the tradition of the Biblia Hebraica (Kittel) . Although some of the books in BHK 3 and BHS were edited by the same scholars, the text-critical apparatus has been completely revised. The BHS was published from 1968 to 1976, initially in single deliveries, and in 1977 for the first time in one volume. The fifth and last improved edition of the BHS appeared in 1997 and has been reprinted unchanged since then. Since 2004, the continuation as Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ) has been appearing next to it, again initially in individual deliveries .

The basis for the text and Masora of the BHS is, as in BHK 3 and BHQ, the Codex Leningradensis (L) . In the main text there are therefore only minimal differences between the three editions. For the treatment of the masora of the manuscript, on the other hand, different principles apply in the BHS, its predecessor and its successor edition, which results in considerable differences in this area.


The BHS text is a diplomatic version of the Masoretic text as found in the Codex Leningradensis. However, in one case the arrangement of the biblical books was changed in favor of the traditional arrangement in the older printed editions: in the Codex Leningradensis the chronicle is at the beginning of the Ketuvim , before the Psalms , in the BHS but at the end of the Ketuvim and thus at the end of the Tanakh .

The BBB includes all the books of the Tanach : Torah (instruction, teaching; תורה), Nevi'im (prophet; נבאים) and Ketuvim (scriptures; כתבים) and is therefore identical in scope to the Christian Old Testament in most of the evangelical Bibles (ie , without Deuterocanonical writings).

At the edge of the actual Hebrew Bible text is the Masora Parva . These are marginal notes, as they were also common on the margins and between columns of the manuscripts of the Masoretic Text and the purpose of which was to mark rarer spellings, forms and word combinations in order to protect them from accidental transcription errors. The BHS Masora Parva is based on the Codex Leningradensis, but was revised by Gérard E. Weil to make it easier to understand and to create consistency. There are publications that specifically analyze and explain the Masoretic Notes. This applies to both the Masora Parva, which is printed on the outer margins of the BHS, and the lists of the Masora Magna , which are distributed in the Codex Leningradensis on the upper and lower margins. These were published by Gérard Weil in a separate volume and given numbers, to which reference is made via a separate Masora apparatus immediately below the text.

When Weil edited the Masorah of the Codex Leningradensis for the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS), he marked certain notations of the Masora Parva with “Sub Loco”. Since then, the relevant Masoretic notations have also been called Sub Loco Notes . Weil wanted to examine and publish these quotations, but that never happened. A study is now available from Mynatt, 1994.

The actual text-critical apparatus of the work shows variants within and outside of the Masoretic text transmission and suggests improvements to the text. Among other things, readings of the Samaritan Pentateuch , the Qumran manuscripts and early Bible translations , especially the Septuagint , the Vulgate , the Peschitta and the Targumim , are included.

A supplement to the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia is the Tabula accentuum .

BHS single issues (fascicle) and processor

The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible were published from 1968 to 1976 in 15 fascicles, which you can read on the Latin imprint page (II) of the book:

Fascicle editor publication
01 Liber Geneseos Otto Eißfeldt 1969 (fascicle 1)
02f Liber Exodi et Levitici Gottfried Quell 1973 (fascicle 2)
04 Liber Numerorum Wilhelm Rudolph 1972 (fascicle 3a)
05 Liber Deuteronomii Johannes Hempel 1972 (fascicle 3b)
06f Libri Josuae et Judicum Rudolf Meyer 1972 (fascicle 4)
08 Liber Samuelis Pieter Arie Hendrik de Boer 1976 (fascicle 5)
09 Liber Regum Alfred Jepsen 1974 (fascicle 6)
10 Liber Jesaiae David Winton Thomas 1968 (fascicle 7)
11 Liber Jeremiah Wilhelm Rudolph 1970 (fascicle 8)
12 Liber Ezekielis Karl Elliger 1971 (fascicle 9)
13 Liber XII Prophetarum Karl Elliger 1970 (fascicle 10)
14th Liber Psalmorum Hans Bardtke 1969 (fascicle 11)
15th Liber Iob Gillis Gerleman 1974 (fascicle 12a)
16 Liber Proverbiorum Johannes Fichtner 1974 (fascicle 12b)
17th Liber Ruth Theodore Henry Robinson 1975 (fascicle 13a)
18f Libri Cantici Canticorum et Ecclesiastes Friedrich Horst 1975 (fascicle 13b)
20th Liber Threnorum Theodore Henry Robinson 1975 (fascicle 13c)
21st Liber Esther Fritz Maass 1975 (fascicle 13d)
22nd Liber Danielis Walter Baumgartner 1976 (fascicle 14a)
23 Libri Esrae et Nehemiae Wilhelm Rudolph 1976 (fascicle 14b)
24 Libri Chronicorum Wilhelm Rudolph 1975 (fascicle 15)

Some fascicles did not appear in print until after those who worked on them had long since passed away. The processing of the Masoretic marginal notes within the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia was the prerogative of Gérard E. Weil , who, at the latest in 1971 with his Massorah Gedolah iuxta codicem Leningradensem B 19 a , at the Pontificio Istituto Biblico , had a unique reputation for his expertise in Regarding the Masora made.

Arrangement of books

The order of the biblical books generally follows the handwriting L, also for the Ketuvim (scriptures; כתבים). This order differs in several ways from most older Bible prints. So the book of Job is found in the manuscript L after the Psalms, but before the Proverbs. In addition, the books of the Megillot are in the "historical" order given below, with Ruth at the beginning, against the "liturgical" order in which the Song of Songs starts. On one point, however, the editors of the BHS decided in favor of the order of the older Bible prints and against the handwriting: In the Codex Leningradensis, as in the Codex of Aleppo , the chronicle is at the beginning of the Ketuvim, before the Psalms, in the BHS, however, at the end , according to Ezra (-Nehemiah).

The Torah :

1. Genesis [בראשית / B e reschit] ("In the beginning")
2. Exodus [שמות / Sch e mot] ("names")
3. Leviticus [ויקרא / Vayyikra] ("He called")
4. Numeri [במדבר / Bamidbar] ("In the desert")
5. Deuteronomy [דברים / D e varim] ("words")

The Nevi'im :

6. Joshua [יהושע / Y e hoschua ‛]
7. Judge [שופטים / Schof e tim]
8. Samuel (I & II) [שמואל / Sch e muel]
9. 1st Kings & 2nd Kings [מלכים / M e lakhim]
10. Isaiah [ישעיהו / Y e scha‛yahu]
11. Jeremiah [ירמיהו / Yirm e yahu]
12. Ezekiel [יחזקאל / Y e khezq'el]
13. Book of the Twelve Prophets [תרי עשר / T e re ‛asar]
a. Hosea [הושע / Hoschea ‛]
b. Joel [יואל / Yo'el]
c. Amos [עמוס / ‛Amos]
d. Obadja [עבדיה / ‛Ovadya]
e. Jonah [יונה / Yona]
f. Micha [מיכה / Mikha]
G. Nahum [נחום / Nakhum]
H. Habakkuk [חבקוק / Khavaquq]
i. Zefanja [צפניה / Ts e phanya]
j. Haggai [חגי / Khaggai]
k. Zechariah [זכריה / Z e kharya]
l. Malachi [מלאכי / Mal'akhi]

The ketuvim

The poetic books / Sifrei Emet :
14. Psalms [תהלים / T e hillim]
15. Job [איוב / 'Iyov]
16. Proverbs [משלי / Mischle]
The five megillots or "five scrolls":
17. Ruth [רות / Ruth]
18. Song [שיר השירים / Shir HaShirim]
19. Preacher [קהלת / Qoheleth]
20. Lamentations [איכה / Ekhah]
21. Esther [אסתר / Esther]
The remaining books or scrolls:
22. Daniel [דניאל / Dani'el]
23. Ezra - Nehemiah [עזרא ונחמיה / ‛Ezra 'v e Nekhemiah]
24. 1. Chronicle & 2. Chronicle [דברי הימים / Div e rei Hayamim]


BHS issues:

About the BHS :

  • Christopher Dost, The sub-loco notes in the former prophets of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia . Piscataway 2016
  • Alexander Achilles Fischer: The text of the Old Testament. A revision of the introduction to the Biblia Hebraica by Ernst Würthwein ; Stuttgart 2009
  • Page H. Kelley, Daniel S. Mynatt and Timothy G. Crawford: The Masora of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Introduction and annotated glossary ; Stuttgart 2003
  • Daniel S. Mynatt: The Sub Loco Notes in the Torah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia; Ann Arbor, 1994
  • Reinhard Wonneberger: Guide to Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia , Göttingen 1984
  • Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament. An introduction to the Biblia Hebraica, 5th, revised edition, Stuttgart 1988

Individual evidence

  1. In the Latin book title Biblia is interpreted as neuter plural, hence Stuttgartensia , not Stuttgartensis ; Literal translation: "Stuttgart Hebrew [holy] books".
  2. This applies to the books Exodus – Deuteronomy, Jeremiah, Ruth – Threni and Daniel, see the list of editors .
  3. ↑ In the BHS foreword formulated in 1967/77, the manuscript is called “handwriting L”, as previously in BHK 3 , the siglum used in the apparatus is “L”, as an abbreviation for Leningrad , like the city in which the manuscript is located , then called. In the preface to the fifth edition published in 1997, Adrian Schenker describes it as "Firkowitsch manuscript, Petersburg, Saltikow-Shtschedrin library B 19 A (L)".
  4. Gérard E. Weil, Massorah Gedolah iuxta codicem Leningradensem B 19 a , Rome 1971.
  5. Mynatt, Daniel S: The 'Sub Loco' Notes in the Torah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia , Ann Arbor, Bell & Howell, 1994, Bibal Press
  6. ^ So ("Gerleman") the correct spelling of the name in the list of editors on the title page of the BHS and on the cover of Fasz.12 . "G. Gerlemann" is incorrectly stated on the BHS imprint page.
  7. Those who have already died at the time of printing are marked in the imprint by † after their name. Friedrich Horst, for example, whose adaptation (Fasz. 13b) first appeared in print in 1975, had died in 1962. Cf. also in the foreword of the BHS, p. V, the editor's thanks to the editors, "some of whom are no longer among the living".