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Logo of the label
Logo of the label
Parent company Universal Music Group (since 2013)
Active years since December 1925
founder Gramophone Company
Seat Cologne
Website www.universal-music.de/company/umg/electrola
Label code LC 00193
Sub-label COOK Universal Music
Genre (s) Schlager , pop music , rock music

Electrola is one of the leading German music labels , which had its headquarters in Cologne for decades and which received its license in December 1925.

Company history

Shellac record one of the record company's greatest successes: Lili Marleen (1939)
Single (1959) in the then typical, neutral perforated company cover

On May 8, 1925, the British Gramophone Company founded Electrola GmbH in Nowawes near Berlin and received its record license in December 1925. In March 1931, Electrola merged through its parent company and the Lindström parent company Columbia Gramophone Company to form EMI and thus becomes a subsidiary of EMI. Around 300 publications per month allowed Electrola's general catalog to grow to 11,000 titles by 1934. At the end of 1939 Electrola - like the other German record labels - came under National Socialist administration. As a result, the most typical US jazz song In The Mood was no longer released . Recorded on August 1, 1939, it was released in the United States in September 1939. During the Second World War , 80 percent of the facilities of the German subsidiaries were destroyed, so that it was impossible to restart production immediately after the war. Electrola decided - not least because of the uncertain situation in Berlin - to move completely to Cologne.

On the site of the former "Atlantic Gummi-Werke Aloys Weyers KG" in Cologne-Braunsfeld, Maarweg 149, an area that could be expanded was found. The company was founded here in Cologne by being entered in the commercial register on February 13, 1952; the official relocation to Cologne took place on September 8, 1953. A modern recording studio was opened in 1956 on Maarweg in Cologne - where the records were also made - with all the associated technical rooms. All hits from Fred Bertelmann to Conny Froboess and Gitte Haennig, but also the last recordings with Marlene Dietrich up to the era of Herbert Grönemeyer, were produced in these studios. When the compact cassette came onto the market as a new sound carrier in 1965, an in-house MC production was established in 1966. This was the last investment by the Carl Lindström-Gesellschaft, which was merged into EMI Electrola GmbH on November 30, 1972 .

After a merger of EMI Ltd. with the British company Thorn Electrical Industries to Thorn EMI Ltd. on March 3, 1980, the large corporation, represented in over 40 countries, was split up in August 1996 into the two independently operating companies Thorn and EMI Group and listed on the stock exchange. In June 1992, Thorn EMI bought the previously independent recording company Virgin Records for a purchase price of 957 million US dollars, thereby ending an intense competition for the company, with which many of the best-selling artists were under contract.

In January 1994 the also independent German company Intercord Tonträger was added, with which EMI was able to further expand its artist base, in 2000 the Intercord location in Stuttgart was closed, and the repertoire was largely transferred to EMI Electrola GmbH & Co KG . In August 2000 the company moved from Maarweg to Cologne's media center - the Mediapark ; the data center followed in December 2002. In spring 2002 EMI Electrola was renamed EMI Music Germany GmbH & Co. KG . After the Munich location was closed in April 2004, the Virgin label was merged with the Berlin-based labels “Mute” and “Labels”. Since then, the company has been operating in two locations in Cologne and Berlin. Initially, EMI Music Germany was based at three locations in Munich (Virgin), Cologne (Capitol Music with Pop and EMI Classics and Blue Note for jazz) and Berlin (Labels Germany and Mute Tonträger); Virgin records went into labels and mute in 2004. The center of the record industry, however, was Hamburg with the record companies Polydor Records , Teldec (Telefunken / Decca), Philips and Metronome.

Technical aspects

Electrola trademark on a record changer around 1925

The company name "Electrola" is derived from the electrical recording process that was used for records from 1925 and is named after an electric record player from RCA Victor. Electrical recording meant turning away from the funnel to the microphone, to electrical needle recording and the corresponding playback. The advantages of “electrical recording” were higher volume, lower noise, no “funnel sound” on the recording side, extended frequency response, less bass and excessively center-stressed (“squeaky”), so overall more natural. Whereas before a recording frequency range of only 600 to 2000 Hz was possible, it was now between 100 and 5000 Hz. The number of revolutions was set consistently at 78 / min. Today those recordings that were made with the funnel are called "acoustic" recordings, everything later as "electrical" recordings. The shellac records used were fragile, had a speed of 78 rpm and a maximum playing time of approx. 3 minutes per side at a diameter of 25 cm and 4 minutes at 30 cm. There were about 4 grooves with a minimum width of 0.15 mm for every 1 mm. There was a regular spiral from the outside in.

In the early days, Electrola recordings were often made at the Singakademie Berlin. In 1927 the first electrical reproduction was possible in Germany; Electrola was already producing electrically recorded records in England from 1925, and in Germany from spring 1926.


The energetic reconstruction in Cologne is thanks to Ladislaus Veder, who acted as managing director until 1969. Jazz and classical music fan Max Ittenbach was appointed Artistic Director in 1956. From 1953 Nils Nobach worked for Electrola as a producer and composer (often under the pseudonym Peter Ström), who became one of the most prominent hit producers of the time. He produced Bibi Johns , Wolfgang Sauer , Fred Bertelmann , Conny (1957), the Nilsen Brothers (1958), Angèle Durand , Gitte Hænning , Rex Gildo (March 1959), Adamo (1964). In November 1961 Nobach left Electrola and Heinz Gietz took over the position of Pop Production Manager.

Its debut was in November 1961 with the Hämmerchen-Polka , sung by Chris Howland . Under his direction, the super hits Two Little Italians and Lady Sunshine and Mister Moon with Conny Froboess , Speedy Gonzales with Rex Gildo , Motorbiene with Benny Quick , and another of his own compositions , Mimi never goes to bed with Bill Ramsey , are created under his direction in 1962 the top seller of the year. Gietz leaves Electrola in 1965, but continues to produce Electrola interpreters as a freelance producer (including the Lords ). In 1968 the Cornet label , owned by Gietz, released the first record with the title “Mer schenken dä Ahl e couple Blömcher” by the Kölsch dialect group De Bläck Fööss . In 1969/70 followed the second song Ne Visit em Zoo , sung by Horst Muys , which had sold over a hundred thousand times in three months. From 1971 onwards, Heinz Gietz became the producer of the first Electrola hits Drink a met , In our Veedel and Mer losse d'r Dom en Kölle . In 1970, the collaboration with Freddy Breck and Cindy & Bert began , who in the years to come also released hits that were not composed by Gietz on his Cornet label (including Sundays and Bianca ) (Freddy Breck).

Günter Ilgner briefly became head of production at Electrola in 1962. Here he suggested that the Beatles, who were on tour in Paris, record German versions of She Loves You and I Want To Hold Your Hand . The German texts were written by Heinz Hellmer and Camillo Felgen (as "Nicolas"), rehearsed with Otto Demler and placed over the original music tracks on January 29, 1964 in the Paris recording studio Pathé Marconi . Already on February 4, 1964, the recordings appeared as Come, give me your hand / She loves you (Odeon # 22671) and reached fifth and seventh place on the German charts. In 1965, however, Ilgner switched to Polydor, only to return to Electrola in 1969 as program director.


One of Electrola's first releases was catalog #EG 111, the a cappella quartet Revelers , which was released on January 13, 1926 with the title Dinah / I'm Gonna Charleston Back To Charleston in their American homeland on the Victor label , with which Electrola had concluded a distribution agreement. Her Dinah / I'm gonna Charleston back to Charleston , recorded on September 4, 1925 and published in the United States in October 1925 , is interesting in that the Electrola label reads "Negergesang" even though the Revelers were white. The group, which had just made their debut in the USA with this song, became the musical role model for the German Comedian Harmonists .

The first records of the Comedian Harmonists were released for Electrola on August 22, 1928, but it was not until October 31, 1929 that Electrola signed the Comedian Harmonists, who had previously been unsuccessful at Odeon and left 24 recordings there. At Electrola, the Harmonists recorded over 150 tracks between 1928 and 1935. The exclusive contract with Electrola, which was very favorable for the group, guaranteed them 30 titles per year. The first appearance of the final formation took place in the Cologne Varieté " Groß-Köln " between May 16 and 31, 1929. On November 11, 1929 Electrola released the first record ( Puppenhochzeit / Musketeer March ). On August 22, 1930, the hits Veronika were created, spring is here and weekend and sunshine . On March 1, 1935, they made the very last (illegal) record for Electrola (Brahms' Ungar. Tanz Nr. 5 / Offenbach's Barcarole ), after they made the telling morning on February 13, 1935 in the Electrola studio in Berlin had recorded their last (legal) joint record production here. After intensive efforts, the group was granted permission by the Reichsmusikkammer on November 21, 1935 to temporarily call themselves “Master sextet, formerly Comedian Harmonists”. On August 20, 1935, the first recordings took place at Electrola, which had signed a new contract with the master sextet. However, there were difficulties with the repertoire, as a large part of the previous successful titles came from Jewish composers (including Heymann, Spoliansky, Jurmann, Hollaender) and lyricists (Gilbert, Rotter) and could no longer be used. The first public concert followed in October.

On December 17, 1937, a decree ordered that “ degenerate art ” on records could no longer be sold. The decline of the sextet was unstoppable. After a last tour through Italy, Electrola rejected recordings of the songs Bel ami and Penny-Serenade in May 1939 on the grounds: "These recordings lack liveliness and lecture-like differentiation and balance". On May 9, 1942, the plates by Jewish artists were confiscated. The Comedian Harmonists were the most successful interpreters of Electrola in their time, although they could not achieve million-seller status.

In 1934 the Electrola catalog had a volume of 6,000 titles, the DGG had 5000, Odeon had 4000, Columbia 1000 and Telefunken 900 records in the catalog. This made Electrola the largest German record label at the time.

In August 1936 Electrola brought out some special editions of dance music that also included American swing bands such as Benny Goodman ( Goody Goody / Stardust , EG # 3695) or Duke Ellington ( Jungle Nights In Harlem / Swanee Shuffle , EG # 3696). Electrola thus joined a trend that began in Germany from 1935. As part of this swing boom, German record companies increasingly offered English and American records in their catalogs, also to circumvent the ban on jazz on the radio.

The first big sales success was the mood song Rosamunde , recorded on May 11, 1938 by accordion player Will Glahé , which sold over a million times (EG # 6398). Electrola became world famous in November 1939 when the soldier's song Lili Marleen (Song of a Young Guard) / Three Red Roses (Commemoration) with Lale Andersen (EG # 6993) was released. With over two million copies sold, the song became the best-selling of the label and on the German record market at all. It was not until July 1941, after many political complications, that Andersen's next record, once after Bombay (O Johnnie) , a rather rough sailor's song, appeared.

In just 15 minutes, the trained architect Hans Bradtke , who worked as a caricaturist for the magazine Hörzu , wrote the text Pack 'the swimming trunks . The composer Gerhard Froboess wrote a melody, and Froboess' seven-year-old daughter Cornelia was found to perform. Together with the Schöneberg Boys' Choir , Conny Froboess, Germany's first real child star, recorded the song on June 26, 1951 in a West Berlin church.

The strategy of German record companies in the 1950s and 1960s was often to bring out the German cover version of successful foreign hits, especially US originals. This concept also worked at Electrola. Electrola also used mood songs. The Cologne Steingass Trio came out in 1951 with The most beautiful place is always at the bar , Fred Rauch & Münchner Musikanten appeared in 1953 with the Schützenliesl , Paul Kuhn had the greatest success in 1954 with 250,000 records sold ( The Man at the Piano ). In 1955, the Mainz court singers sang for the first time at the Cologne prince proclamation So a day, as beautiful as it is today , which after publication in August 1959 sold a total of 300,000 copies and is still sung as a carnival song outside of the carnival at sporting events.

Million seller

After Lale Andersen's success, the label had to wait almost 20 years until 1958 for the next million seller to be announced. Producer Nils Nobach, who had recently rejected Fred Bertelmann , brought him to the first hit parade listing with Tina Marie . In 1957, composer Peter Moesser heard the country song Gamblers Guitar while on vacation . This then became The Laughing Vagabond , in which the hearty laugh of Fred Bertelmann became a trademark. One million records of this were sold in record time from November 1957, and he received the coveted "Golden Record" and the "Golden Dog" from Electrola, which today is comparable to the "Grammy". A total of 3.5 million records went over the counter within a short period of time, over 300,000 of them in the USA alone. Nobach's pupils, the Nilsen Brothers, brought the German version of Tom Dooley onto the market in December 1958 and sold 1.3 million copies of it. In April 1961, the babysitter boogie with Ralf Bendix came onto the market. The baby laugh on this recording came from the daughter of his producer Hans Bertram and his wife Elisabeth, known as Lilibert . In addition to the gold record, Bendix also received the in-house “Golden Dog”. Lale Andersen, now 55 years old, brought Electrola with him in October 1960. A ship is coming, the next million seller. Conny (Froboess) achieved record sales of 500,000 with Zwei kleine Italiener within 9 months of its release in March 1962, and by June 1965 their only German number one hit had sold 1.225 million records across Europe . Gitte Hænning immediately sold 500,000 copies of Ich will 'nen Cowboy als Mann after its publication in June 1963, a defiant parody with admonishing parental dissenting voices; by June 1965, 1.05 million copies had gone over the counter.

Electrola benefited in the mid-1960s from the wave of success of the emerging so-called beat music . Manfred Mann's Do Wah Diddy Diddy alone sold over a million copies in Germany, and the Beatles' I Feel Fine had a total of 500,000 pre-orders.

Heino was discovered by Ralf Bendix and invited to Electrola in Cologne to record records. His first big hit was Jenseits des Tales in 1965 , of which over 100,000 records were sold straight away. In 1970 Heino received the "Golden Electrola Dog" for 1 million singles sold in one year. In 1975 he received a "platinum record" for 1.5 million sold LPs / MCs of the Heino series - his great successes . Even Christian Anders brings success for Electrola, as in July 1969 his single go past / Sylvia not be published. By December 1969 it became a million-dollar hit, received the “Golden Dog” from Electrola, the “Silver Lion” from Radio Luxembourg and other prizes.

Howard Carpendale starts small, because in November 1966 his first single Lebenslnahm only sold 60,000 copies. He received the first gold for the LP Mein Weg zu dir , which has already been sold 250,000 times in the first 14 days since it was published in 1979. In 1981 the LP Such mich in my songs got gold. After a creative break, the German superstar celebrated a successful comeback in February 1984 with Hello again . In 1975 Franz Lambert changed the record company - from then on his records were released by Electrola. In the same year Lambert received the first two "golds" for 500,000 copies of two long-playing records sold. The third "Golden" followed in 1979 for the LP Pop-Orgel Hitparade - 40 super hits .

Otto Waalkes and his friend, a pharmacy student and small concert organizer, Hans Otto Mertens, who becomes Waalkes' manager, have Otto recorded an appearance based primarily on modeled numbers, jokes and song parodies by American and British comedians at their own expense. The result is the long-playing record "Otto", which Mertens and Waalkes released in December 1972 on their label "Rüssl Räckords", which they founded for the purpose. In Hamburg record stores 4,000 copies will be sold within the next three months. In March 1973 EMI Electrola took over the distribution of this and the following Otto LPs, for which Waalkes received numerous gold records.

The success story of the pop band Pur begins in 1993 . Her LPs Seiltänzertraum (1.5 Mill), PUR Live Die Second (1996; over 2 Mill), become national sales successes.

Herbert Grönemeyers Mensch became the best-selling German-language album of all time in October 2002 and, with more than 1.5 million copies within a month of its release, also the fastest-selling million seller in the German recording industry.

Anniversary plate

In March 1993, under the title Highlights: From 40 years of vinyl record production at EMI Electrola in Cologne, a 3-part vinyl record, limited to 5,000 copies, with the historically important recordings from the Cologne press plant, partly recorded in the Cologne studios. It contains 39 pop songs and 17 pieces of classical music.

Change of group of Electrola

For a long time, the fate of Cologne-based Electrola was closely linked to that of the parent company EMI Group . Now that the EMI Group in a structural and later also economic since at least 2001 corporate crisis was the major bank-financed Citigroup in September 2007, the company takeover by Terra Firma Capital Partners (owner Guy Hands), which turned out to be a bad investment. After Terra Firma could no longer raise the loan interest for the purchase price financing, Citigroup took over the EMI shares from Terra Firma in February 2011. As a result of loan write-offs, Citigroup lost £ 2.2 billion (originally £ 3.4 billion loans) and Terra Firma lost its equity share of £ 1.7 billion. The takeover of EMI by Terra Firma turned out to be one of the biggest failures of leveraged buyouts in financial history. Finally, the Universal Music Group acquired the share package, which was approved by the EU Commission in September 2012. As a result, the German parts of the EMI labels Capitol Records , Blue Note Records and Virgin Records were centralized to Berlin in May 2013, and the headquarters of Electrola GmbH was relocated to Munich in May 2013. The hit and pop label Electrola was relocated to Universal Music Deutschland GmbH in Munich, where it has been running the folk music label Koch Universal Music as a sub-label since May 1, 2013 . Only the Rhingtön label remains - because of the exclusively Cologne repertoire - like the EMI Recorded Music GmbH holding company in Cologne. The first Electrola release from Munich was Reinhard Mey on May 3, 2013 with his LP Dann mach's gut , which rose directly from 0 to 1 in the LP charts. After the spectacular merger , the music market consists of just three major labels : Universal Music Group, Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group .

Discography (selection with date of recording or publication)

The following selection includes records of musicological importance and lists mainly German productions by Electrola. With the beginning of the “Beat era” from 1963, Electrola also increasingly took over English and American productions from the parent label EMI (with the subsidiary labels Parlophone, Columbia and HMV), which are not listed here.

Advertisement for an Electrola record changer from 1928
Record changer for 20 records from Electrola from 1928
  • Revelers, I'm gonna Charleston back to Charleston / Dinah (EG 111), January 1926
  • Savoy Orpheans, Araby / Normandy (EG 113), January 1926
  • Jack Hylton ’s Kit-Cat Band - Ask Her / Bam Bam Bammy Shore (EG 163), January 1, 1926
  • Savoy Orpheans - I am thinking of you / I'm a little bit fonder of you (EG 234/232), 1926
  • Salon Orchestra Josef Pasternack - Abendlied / Träumereien (EG 185), April 2, 1926
  • Trude Hesterberg - Mein Berlin (EG 217), August 25, 1926
  • Ferrdy Kauffmann and his orchestra - Potpourri from Die Csardasfürstin (EG 219), 1926
  • Blandine Ebinger (piano Friedrich Hollaender ) - Das Currendemgirl / O Mond (EG 220), July 10, 1926
  • Lulu Belle (Myers) & Julian Fuhs and his orchestra - I'm Flirting With You (EG 249), October 1926
  • Marek Weber - Stories from the Vienna Woods (EG 263), 1926
  • Marek Weber - Roses from the South (EG 264), 1926
  • Savoy Orpheans - Buy Bananas / Who (Jack Hylton & his Orchestra) (EG 285), 1926
  • Hans Heinz Bollmann - Mattinata (EG 389), August 1926
  • L. v. Beethoven - Violin Concerto in D major, Fritz Kreisler , conductor Leo Blech (DB 990-995), December 14-16, 1926
  • Julian Fuhs and his orchestra - Susie's Feller (EG 396), December 1926
  • Julian Fuhs and his orchestra - Thinking Of You (EG 457), February 1927
  • Marek Weber - Hallelujah! (EG 641), August 29, 1927
  • Blandine Ebinger - The hysterical goat / The shooting dog (EG 754), December 12, 1927
  • The Revelers - Among My Souvenirs / Nola (EG 765), March 1928
  • Marlene Dietrich - When the best friend / The whispering baritone (Oskar Karlweis) (EG 892), July 1928
  • Mischa Spoliansky - I stand well with Ruth (EG 940), September 1928
  • Austin Egen - I kiss your hand, Madame (EG 946), August 1928
  • Siegfried Arno & Trude Lieske - This morning I haven't thought of anything / You can still learn from me (EG 947), August 18, 1928
  • Franz Wachsmann (piano) - Little things (EG 1127), November 13, 1928
  • Siegfried Arno with Trude Lieske - Duets from the operetta Der liebe Augustin (EG 1216), February 28, 1929
  • Marek Weber and his orchestra - dance potpourri from Die Dreigroschenoper (EG 1281), 1929
  • Marek Weber and his orchestra - Three Musketeers: March Song (EG 1523), October 3, 1929
  • Comedian Harmonists - Puppenhochzeit / Musketeer March (EG 1647), November 1929
  • Marlene Dietrich - I'm set to love from head to toe / Be careful with blond women (EG 1770), photo: February 6, 1930, published: March 1930
  • Marlene Dietrich - I'm the dashing Lola / children, tonight I'll choose something (EG 1802), photo: February 6, 1930, published: April 1930
  • Marek Weber and his orchestra - Tonight, possibly / You lovely women, you were crazy about me (EG 1829), February 28, 1930
  • Comedian Harmonists - A friend, a good friend / darling, greetings from my heart (EG 2032), September 1930
  • Comedian Harmonists - Veronika, spring is here! / Weekend and Sunshine (EG 2033), September 1930
  • Marek Weber and his orchestra - What can Sigismund do for this / And as der Herrgott Mai made (EG 2124), October 30, 1930
  • Jack Hylton and his orchestra - Das verliebte Orchester / I'm so keen on Erika (EG 2259), March 11, 1931
  • Marek Weber - I want nothing but your love / For you Rio Rita (EG 2670), November 1932
  • Robert Gaden - Orient Express (EG 2859), September 18, 1933
  • Comedian Harmonists - My little green cactus / Farewell, good trip (EG 3204), December 1934
  • Barnabás von Géczy with his orchestra - Puszta Fox (EG 3458), September 19, 1935
  • Robert Gaden - I feel in me / A melody sounds softly (EG 3511), November 19, 1935
  • Robert Gaden - Tangos 1st and 2nd part (EG 3630), April 22, 1936
  • Master sextet (Comedian Harmonists for the first time under a different name) - In Mexico / I wanted 'I was a chicken (EG 3723), September 1936
  • Robert Gaden - Oh Primadonna (EG 6467), January 19, 1938
  • Lale Andersen - port is left (Schiffsjungenlied) / Heinemann (Der kleine Seemann) (EG 6823), June 1939
  • Lale Andersen - Song of a Young Guard (Lili Marleen) / Three red roses (commemoration) (EG 6993), August 1939
  • Hans Carste with his orchestra - One should be able to play the piano (EG 7197), 1941
  • Glenn Miller - In The Mood (EG 7485), 1950
  • Connie Froboess - Pack your swimming trunks / I wish a new dress (EG 7610), June 26, 1951
  • Hans Arno Simon - name day / Anneliese (EG 7972), March 1954
  • Paul Kuhn - The Man at the Piano (EG 8639), August 1955
  • Wolfgang Sauer - Tears in your eyes (Crying in the Chapel) / Believe me (Answer Me) (EG 8055), October 1955
  • Ralf Bendix - Her name was Mary-Anne / Minnehaha (EG 8603), January 1956
  • Wolfgang Sauer - Cindy, Oh Cindy / Just because you're with me (8667), January 1957
  • Fred Bertelmann - The laughing vagabond / Cantabamberra (EG 8732), February 1957
  • The Nilsen Brothers - Tom Dooley / Wenn (E 21 053), June 1958
  • Conny Froboess - Jolly Joker / Hey Boys - How Do You Do? (E 21 047), February 1959
  • Rex Gildo - Rexy, count on me! / ... but the one in the middle (E 21 159), May 1959
  • Lale Andersen - A ship will come / Sometimes I dream of the cornfield (E 21 615), September 1960
  • Conny Froboess - Two Little Italians / Lady Sunshine and Mister Moon (1C 006-45 533), recorded on November 28th, 1961, published in March 1962
  • Rex Gildo - Speedy Gonzales / You call all men Darling (E 22 231), August 1962
  • Gitte - I want a cowboy for a man / The old house on Huckleberry Street (C 22 417), June 1963
  • Gitte and Rex Gildo - From the city park the lanterns (C 22 418), July 1963
  • Heino - 13 men and a captain / Beyond the valley (C 23 201), 1965
  • Howard Carpendale - Life Sentence, November 21, 1966
  • Howard Carpendale - Ti Amo / Every Color is Beautiful, October 1977
  • Freddy Breck - The Stars Stand Well (1C006-32027) 1977


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Martin Fischer: Faszination Schellack , 2006, p. 74.
  2. The first electrical recording was made by Art Gillham, whose May Be Lonesome (Columbia 328-D) was made on February 25, 1925. On November 2, 1925, the record was first played publicly on an electric gramophone.
  3. Bella Bimba , March 1954, was hit of the year
  4. Believe me , June 1954, his greatest success, which sold 500,000 times (still in the shellac era)
  5. His wife from August 18, 1958, Electrola from 1954. Nobach produced his wife for the last time in November 1960, then Hans Bertram
  6. For a week it was number one in the Kölner Stadtanzeiger in the "International Hit Parade" category, ahead of the Rolling Stones
  7. Ilgner bought Gerig Musikverlage in 1978, which with over 30,000 titles is one of the few large independent music publishers
  8. As a result, Electrola brought a large number of US interpreters to the German record market under license from Victor and thus had no production costs
  9. Martin Fischer, Faszination Schellack , 2006, p. 84
  10. Martin Fischer, Faszination Schellack , 2006, p. 86.
  11. Horst H. Lange: Comedian Harmonists . In: The German "78er" Discography of Hot Dance and Jazz Music 1903–1958 , 1992, pp. 215–223.
  12. Marko Paysan: Electrola: New Releases August – December 1936
  13. Martin Lücke: Jazz im Totalitarismus , 2004, p. 107.
  14. ^ A b Joseph Murrells: Million Selling Records . 1985, p. 28.
  15. Der Musikmarkt, 30 Years of Singles Hit Parade , 1989, p. 11.
  16. Joseph Murrells, Million Selling Records . 1985, p. 163.
  17. Joseph Murrells, Million Selling Records . 1985, p. 176.
  18. ^ Music Capitals of the World - Cologne , p. 19 Billboard Magazine , January 30, 1965.
  19. 1967 followed the second single When the colorful flags waving , which sold 200,000 times, the third single We love the storms sold 250,000 copies
  20. ^ Press release from EMI Music Germany GmbH & Co. KG dated October 9, 2002
  21. BBC News of February 1, 2011, EMI Taken Over By Citigroup in Deal To Write Off Debts
  22. Universal Music Group of December 5, 2012, Universal Music secures the future of EMI in Germany .